Browsing by Subject "DENSE GAS"

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  • Liu, Hong-Li; Tej, Anandmayee; Liu, Tie; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Stutz, Amelia; Juvela, Mika; Qin, Sheng-Li; Xu, Feng-Wei; Bronfman, Leonardo; Evans, Neal J.; Saha, Anindya; Issac, Namitha; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Li, Shanghuo; Zhang, Siju; Baug, Tapas; Dewangan, Lokesh; Wu, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Chang Won; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Zhou, Jianwen; Soam, Archana (2022)
    We present a comprehensive study of the gas kinematics associated with density structures at different spatial scales in the filamentary infrared dark cloud, G034.43+00.24 (G34). This study makes use of the (HCO+)-C-13 (1-0) molecular line data from the ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions (ATOMS) survey, which has spatial and velocity resolution of similar to 0.04 pc and 0.2 km s(-1), respectively. Several tens of dendrogram structures have been extracted in the position-position-velocity space of (HCO+)-C-13, which include 21 small-scale leaves and 20 larger-scale branches. Overall, their gas motions are supersonic but they exhibit the interesting behaviour where leaves tend to be less dynamically supersonic than the branches. For the larger scale, branch structures, the observed velocity-size relation (i.e. velocity variation/dispersion versus size) are seen to follow the Larson scaling exponent while the smaller-scale, leaf structures show a systematic deviation and display a steeper slope. We argue that the origin of the observed kinematics of the branch structures is likely to be a combination of turbulence and gravity-driven ordered gas flows. In comparison, gravity-driven chaotic gas motion is likely at the level of small-scale leaf structures. The results presented in our previous paper and this current follow-up study suggest that the main driving mechanism for mass accretion/inflow observed in G34 varies at different spatial scales. We therefore conclude that a scale-dependent combined effect of turbulence and gravity is essential to explain the star-formation processes in G34.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, Mika; Wang, Ke; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Di Francesco, James; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Wu, Yuefang; Thompson, Mark; Fuller, Gary; Eden, David; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Lin, Yuxin; Johnstone, D.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Q.; Hirano, N.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Evans, Neal J.; White, Glenn J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, Steve; Yi, H. -W.; Tang, Mengyao; Soam, Archana; Peretto, N.; Samal, Manash R.; Fich, Michel; Parsons, Harriet; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Malinen, Johanna; Bendo, George J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, Hong-Li; Wouterloot, Jan; Li, Pak Shing; Qian, Lei; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Feng, Siyi; Aikawa, Yuri; Akhter, S.; Alina, Dana; Bell, Graham; Bernard, J. -P.; Blain, Andrew; Bogner, Rebeka; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D. -Y.; Chapman, Scott; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, M.; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Cosentino, Giuliana; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Doi, Yasuo; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, Edith; Feher, O.; Fraser, Helen; Friberg, Per; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, Jane; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hatchell, J.; He, Yuxin; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, Tae-Geun; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kang, Miju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Shinyoung; Koo, B. -C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J. -E.; Lee, Y. -U.; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-Bai; Lo, N.; Lopez, John A. P.; Lu, Xing; Lyo, A-Ran; Mardones, D.; Marston, A.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, Julien; Moore, T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, Soojong; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pattle, Kate M.; Pech, Gerardo; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Richer, John; Saito, M.; Sakai, Takeshi; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Tang, Y. -W.; Traficante, Alessio; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, S.; Walsh, Andrew; Wang, Bingru; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Junzhi; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, Anthony; Xu, Ye; Yang, J.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Yuan, Lixia; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, H. -W.; Zhou, Chenlin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; Zuo, Pei; Zhang, Chao (2018)
    The low dust temperatures (<14 K) of Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) make them ideal targets to probe the initial conditions and very early phase of star formation. "TOP-SCOPE" is a joint survey program targeting similar to 2000 PGCCs in J = 1-0 transitions of CO isotopologues and similar to 1000 PGCCs in 850 mu m continuum emission. The objective of the "TOP-SCOPE" survey and the joint surveys (SMT 10 m, KVN 21 m, and NRO 45 m) is to statistically study the initial conditions occurring during star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds, across a wide range of environments. The observations, data analysis, and example science cases for these surveys are introduced with an exemplar source, PGCC G26.53+0.17 (G26), which is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC). The total mass, length, and mean line mass (M/L) of the G26 filament are similar to 6200 M-circle dot, similar to 12 pc, and similar to 500 M-circle dot pc(-1), respectively. Ten massive clumps, including eight starless ones, are found along the filament. The most massive clump as a whole may still be in global collapse, while its denser part seems to be undergoing expansion owing to outflow feedback. The fragmentation in the G26 filament from cloud scale to clump scale is in agreement with gravitational fragmentation of an isothermal, nonmagnetized, and turbulent supported cylinder. A bimodal behavior in dust emissivity spectral index (beta) distribution is found in G26, suggesting grain growth along the filament. The G26 filament may be formed owing to large-scale compression flows evidenced by the temperature and velocity gradients across its natal cloud.