Browsing by Subject "DENSITY FUNCTIONALS"

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  • Duarte, Luis; Khriachtchev, Leonid (2017)
    We report on the aromatic noble-gas hydride, C6H5CCXeH, identified in a xenon matrix using infrared spectroscopy and extensive quantum chemical calculations. This molecule is prepared by 250-nm photolysis of phenylacetylene (C6H5CCH) isolated in a xenon matrix and subsequent thermal mobilization of hydrogen atoms at about 40 K. The characteristic H-Xe stretching mode of C6H5CCXeH is observed at about 1500 cm(-1), and a number of other fundamentals also appear in the experimental spectra. The assignment is supported by deuteration experiments providing predictable shifts of the vibrational frequencies. The experimental and calculated spectra are in a good agreement. C6H5CCXeH is computationally lower in energy than the C6H5CC + Xe + H fragments by about 0.60 eV at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ-PP level of theory, which allows its formation at low temperatures. C6H5CCXeH is the first aromatic noble-gas hydride and the first halogen-free aromatic noble-gas compound.
  • Baryshnikov, Glib; Valiev, Rashid R.; Nasibullin, Rinat T.; Sundholm, Dage; Kurten, Theo; Ågren, Hans (2020)
    The recently synthesized cyclo[18]carbon molecule has been characterized in a number of studies by calculating electronic, spectroscopic, and mechanical properties. However, cyclo[18] carbon is only one member of the class of cyclo[n]carbons-standalone carbon allotrope representatives. Many of the larger members of this class of molecules have not been thoroughly investigated. In this work, we calculate the magnetically induced current density of cyclo[n]carbons in order to elucidate how electron delocalization and aromatic properties change with the size of the molecular ring (n), where n is an even number between 6 and 100. We find that the Hiickel rules for aromaticity (4k + 2) and antiaromaticity (4k) become degenerate for large C-n rings (n > 50), which can be understood as a transition from a delocalized electronic structure to a nonaromatic structure with localized current density fluxes in the triple bonds. Actually, the calculations suggest that cyclo[n]carbons with n > 50 are nonaromatic cyclic polyalkynes. The influence of the amount of nonlocal exchange and the asymptotic behavior of the exchange-correlation potential of the employed density functionals on the strength of the magnetically induced ring current and the aromatic character of the large cyclo[n]carbons is also discussed.
  • Iyer, Siddharth; Reiman, Heidi; Moller, Kristian H.; Rissanen, Matti P.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Kurten, Theo (2018)
    The oxidation of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOC) plays an important role in the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. Peroxy radicals (RO2) are central intermediates in the BVOC oxidation process. Under clean (low-NOx) conditions, the main bimolecular sink reactions for RO2 are with the hydroperoxy radical (HO2) and with other RO2 radicals. Especially for small RO2, the RO2 + HO2 reaction mainly leads to closed-shell hydroperoxide products. However, there exist other known RO2 + HO2 and RO2 + RO2 reaction channels that can recycle radicals and oxidants in the atmosphere, potentially leading to lower-volatility products and enhancing SOA formation. In this work, we present a thermodynamic overview of two such reactions: (a) RO2 + HO2 -> RO + OH + O-2 and (b) R'O-2 + RO2 -> R'O + RO + O-2 for selected monoterpene + oxidant derived peroxy radicals. The monoterpenes considered are alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, trans-beta-ocimene, and Delta(3)-carene. The oxidants considered are the hydroxyl radical (OH), the nitrate radical (NO3), and ozone (O-3). The reaction Gibbs energies were calculated at the DLPNO-CCSD(T)/def2-QZVPP//omega B97X-D/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. All reactions studied here were found to be exergonic in terms of Gibbs energy. On the basis of a comparison with previous mechanistic studies, we predict that reaction a and reaction b are likely to be most important for first-generation peroxy radicals from O-3 oxidation (especially for beta-pinene), while being less so for most first-generation peroxy radicals from OH and NO3 oxidation. This is because both reactions are comparatively more exergonic for the O-3 oxidized systems than their OH and NO3 oxidized counterparts. Our results indicate that bimolecular reactions of certain complex RO, may contribute to an increase in radical and oxidant recycling under high HO2 conditions in the atmosphere, which can potentially enhance SOA formation.
  • Myllys, Nanna; Ponkkonen, Tuomo; Passananti, Monica; Elm, Jonas; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Olenius, Tinja (2018)
    The role of a strong organobase, guanidine, in sulfuric acid-driven new-particle formation is studied using state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods and molecular cluster formation simulations. Cluster formation mechanisms at the molecular level are resolved, and theoretical results on cluster stability are confirmed with mass spectrometer measurements. New-particle formation from guanidine and sulfuric acid molecules occurs without thermodynamic barriers under studied conditions, and clusters are growing close to a 1:1 composition of acid and base. Evaporation rates of the most stable clusters are extremely low, which can be explained by the proton transfers and symmetrical cluster structures. We compare the ability of guanidine and dimethylamine to enhance sulfuric acid-driven particle formation and show that more than 2000-fold concentration of dimethylamine is needed to yield as efficient particle formation as in the case of guanidine. At similar conditions, guanidine yields 8 orders of magnitude higher particle formation rates compared to dimethylamine. Highly basic compounds such as guanidine may explain experimentally observed particle formation events at low precursor vapor concentrations, whereas less basic and more abundant bases such as ammonia and amines are likely to explain measurements at high concentrations.
  • Duarte, Luis; Khriachtchev, Leonid (2017)
    We report on the identification of the complexes of two noble-gas hydrides, HXeCCXeH and HXeCC, with acetylene. These complexes were prepared by photolysis (250 nm) and annealing (55-65 K) of HCCH/Xe matrices. The experimentally observed monomer-to-complex shifts of the H-Xe stretching modes of the HXeCCXeH center dot center dot center dot HCCH (about +17 cm(-1)) and HXeCC center dot center dot center dot HCCH complexes (from +20 to +46 cm(-1)) indicate the stabilization of the H-Xe bond relatively to the monomers. The CCSD/cc-pVTZ calculations predict two structures for each complex. The HXeCCXeH center dot center dot center dot HCCH complex has quasi T-shaped and linear structures, with the H-Xe stretching modes blue-shifted and red-shifted by about +27 and -9 cm(-1), respectively. The HXeCC center dot center dot center dot HCCH complex has bent and T-shaped structures, with the H-Xe stretching modes blue-shifted by about +46 and +42 cm(-1), respectively. Based on the calculations, the experimental bands of the HXeCCXeH center dot center dot center dot HCCH and HXeCC center dot center dot center dot HCCH complexes are assigned to the quasi T-shaped and bent structures, respectively. Complexes of an open-shell noble-gas hydride and of a molecule with two noble-gas atoms are reported for the first time.
  • Blum, M.; Puntigam, O.; Plebst, S.; Ehret, F.; Bender, J.; Nieger, M.; Gudat, D. (2016)
    The homolytic P-P bond fission in a series of sterically congested tetraaminodiphosphanes (R2N)(2)P-P-(NR2)(2) ({4}(2)-{9}(2), two of which were newly synthesized and fully characterized) into diaminophosphanyl radicals (R2N)(2)P-center dot (4-9) was monitored by VT EPR spectroscopy. Determination of the radical concentration from the EPR spectra permitted to calculate free dissociation energies Delta G(Diss)(295) as well as dissociation enthalpies Delta H-Diss and entropies Delta S-Diss, respectively. Large positive values of Delta G(Diss)(295) indicate that the degree of dissociation is in most cases low, and the concentration of persistent radicals - even if they are spectroscopically observable at ambient temperature - remains small. Appreciable dissociation was established only for the sterically highly congested acyclic derivative {9}(2). Analysis of the trends in experimental data in connection with DFT studies indicate that radical formation is favoured by large entropy contributions and the energetic effect of structural relaxation (geometrical distortions and conformational changes in acyclic derivatives) in the radicals, and disfavoured by attractive dispersion forces. Comparison of the energetics of formation for CC-saturated N-heterocyclic diphosphanes and the 7 pi-radical 3c indicates that the effect of energetic stabilization by pi-electron delocalization in the latter is visible, but stands back behind those of steric and entropic contributions. Evaluation of spectroscopic and computational data indicates that diaminophosphanyl radicals exhibit, in contrast to aminophosphenium cations, no strong energetic preference for a planar arrangement of the (R2N)(2)P unit.
  • Fathi-Rasekh, Mahtab; Rohde, Gregory T.; Hart, Mason D.; Nakakita, Toshinori; Zatsikha, Yuriy V.; Valiev, Rashid R.; Barybin, Mikhail V.; Nemykin, Victor N. (2019)
    Two isomeric ruthenium(II)/5,10,15,20-tetraphe-nylporphyrin complexes featuring axially coordinated redox-active, low-optical gap 2- or 6-isocyanoazulene ligands have been isolated and characterized by NMR, UV-vis, and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopic methods, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The UV-vis and MCD spectra support the presence of the low-energy, azulene-centered transitions in the Q band region of the porphyrin chromophore. The first coordination sphere in new L2RuTPP complexes reflects compressed tetragonal geometry. The redox properties of the new compounds were assessed by electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical means and correlated with the electronic structures predicted by density functional theory and CASSCF calculations. Both experimental and theoretical data are consistent with the first two reduction processes involving the axial azulenic ligands, whereas the oxidation profile (in the direction of increasing potential) is exerted by the ruthenium ion, the porphyrin core, and the axial azulenic moieties.