Browsing by Subject "DENSITY"

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  • Novakovic, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios; Granvik, Mikael; Todovic, Ana (2017)
    We report the discovery of a new asteroid family among the dark asteroids residing in the Phocaea region the Tamara family. We make use of available physical data to separate asteroids in the region according to their surface reflectance properties, and establish the membership of the family. We determine the slope of the cumulative magnitude distribution of the family, and find it to be significantly steeper than the corresponding slope of all the asteroids in the Phocaea region. This implies that subkilometer dark Phocaeas are comparable in number to bright S-type objects, shedding light on an entirely new aspect of the composition of small Phocaea asteroids. We then use the Yarkovsky V-shape based method and estimate the age of the family to be 264 +/- 43Myr. Finally, we carry out numerical simulations of the dynamical evolution of the Tamara family. The results suggest that up to 50 Tamara members with absolute magnitude H <19.4 may currently be found in the near-Earth region. Despite their relatively small number in the near-Earth space, the rate of Earth impacts by small, dark Phocaeas is non-negligible.
  • Krieger, Ulrich K.; Siegrist, Franziska; Marcolli, Claudia; Emanuelsson, Eva U.; Gobel, Freya M.; Bilde, Merete; Marsh, Aleksandra; Reid, Jonathan P.; Huisman, Andrew J.; Riipinen, Ilona; Hyttinen, Noora; Myllys, Nanna; Kurten, Theo; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl J.; Topping, David (2018)
    To predict atmospheric partitioning of organic compounds between gas and aerosol particle phase based on explicit models for gas phase chemistry, saturation vapor pressures of the compounds need to be estimated. Estimation methods based on functional group contributions require training sets of compounds with well-established saturation vapor pressures. However, vapor pressures of semivolatile and low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. At present, there is no general reference technique for measuring saturation vapor pressures of atmospherically relevant compounds with low vapor pressures at atmospheric temperatures. To address this problem, we measured vapor pressures with different techniques over a wide temperature range for intercomparison and to establish a reliable training set. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (H-(O-CH2-CH2)(n)-OH) for n = 3 to n = 8 ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-2) Pa and compare them with quantum chemistry calculations. Such a homologous series provides a reference set that covers several orders of magnitude in saturation vapor pressure, allowing a critical assessment of the lower limits of detection of vapor pressures for the different techniques as well as permitting the identification of potential sources of systematic error. Also, internal consistency within the series allows outlying data to be rejected more easily. Most of the measured vapor pressures agreed within the stated uncertainty range. Deviations mostly occurred for vapor pressure values approaching the lower detection limit of a technique. The good agreement between the measurement techniques (some of which are sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient and some not) suggests that the mass accommodation coefficients of the studied compounds are close to unity. The quantum chemistry calculations were about 1 order of magnitude higher than the measurements. We find that extrapolation of vapor pressures from elevated to atmospheric temperatures is permissible over a range of about 100 K for these compounds, suggesting that measurements should be performed best at temperatures yielding the highest-accuracy data, allowing subsequent extrapolation to atmospheric temperatures.
  • Sievänen, Risto; Raumonen, Pasi; Perttunen, Jari; Nikinmaa, Eero Heikki; Kaitaniemi, Pekka Juhani (2018)
    Background and Aims: Functional-structural plant models (FSPMs) allow simulation of tree crown development as the sum of modular (e.g. shoot-level) responses triggered by the local environmental conditions. The actual process of space filling by the crowns can be studied. Although the FSPM simulations are at organ scale, the data for their validation have usually been at more aggregated levels (whole-crown or whole-tree). Measurements made by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) that have been segmented into elementary units (internodes) offer a phenotyping tool to validate the FSPM predictions at levels comparable with their detail. We demonstrate the testing of different formulations of crown development of Scots pine trees in the LIGNUM model using segmented TLS data. Methods: We made TLS measurements from four sample trees growing in a forest on a relatively poor soil from sapling size to mature stage. The TLS data were segmented into intenodes. The segmentation also produced information on whether needles were present in the internode. We applied different formulations of crown development (flushing of buds and length of growth of new internodes) in LIGNUM. We optimized the parameter values of each formulation using genetic algorithms to observe the best fit of LIGNUM simulations to the measured trees. The fitness function in the estimation combined both tree-level characteristics (e.g. tree height and crown length) and measures of crown shape (e.g. spatial distribution of needle area). Key Results: Comparison of different formulations against the data indicates that the Extended Borchert- Honda model for shoot elongation works best within LIGNUM. Control of growth by local density in the crown was important for all shoot elongation formulations. Modifying the number of lateral buds as a function of local density in the crown was the best way to accomplish density control. Conclusions: It was demonstrated how segmented TLS data can be used in the context of a shoot-based model to select model components.
  • Daub, Christopher D.; Hänninen, Vesa; Halonen, Lauri (2019)
    We present the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the solution-air interface of aqueous lithium bromide (LiBr). We find that, in agreement with the experimental data and previous simulation results with empirical polarizable force field models, Br- anions prefer to accumulate just below the first molecular water layer near the interface, whereas Li+ cations remain deeply buried several molecular layers from the interface, even at very high concentration. The separation of ions has a profound effect on the average orientation of water molecules in the vicinity of the interface. We also find that the hydration number of Li+ cations in the center of the slab Na-c,Na-Li+-H2O approximate to 4.7 +/- 0.3, regardless of the salt concentration. This estimate is consistent with the recent experimental neutron scattering data, confirming that results from nonpolarizable empirical models, which consistently predict tetrahedral coordination of Li+ to four solvent molecules, are incorrect. Consequently, disruption of the hydrogen bond network caused by Li+ may be overestimated in nonpolarizable empirical models. Overall, our results suggest that empirical models, in particular nonpolarizable models, may not capture all of the properties of the solution-air interface necessary to fully understand the interfacial chemistry.
  • Jbara, Doha; Achiron, Asaf; Antman, Gal; Buhbut, Ortal; Hecht, Idan; Tuuminen, Raimo; Bahar, Irit; Elbaz, Uri (2021)
    Purpose: To compare corneal endothelium parameters taken by two common noncontact specular microscopes in healthy subjects. Methods: Healthy participants visiting the outpatient eye clinic at the Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel, were recruited prospectively. All participants underwent three consecutive corneal endothelial cell photographs with both the Konan-Noncon Robo SP-6000 and the Tomey EM-3000 specular microscopes. Endothelial cell density (ECD) was evaluated using the manual center technique in both machines. Bland-Altman graphs were used to assess the agreement between the devices, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) served to assess intraobserver variability for each device. Results: Recruited were 49 healthy subjects with a mean age of 48.9 +/- 15.6 years, 49 right eyes were included. The mean ECD was comparable between the Tomey EM-3000 and the Konan-Noncon Robo SP-6000 (2,713.2 +/- 242.4 vs. 2,700.8 +/- 300.5 cells/mm(2), respectively, P=0.47) with a mean difference of 12.4 cells/mm(2) (0.67%), a mean ECD absolute difference of 93.3 cells/mm(2), and low 95% limits of agreement of -222.0 to +246.9 cells/mm(2). A folded empirical distribution function curve showed that all differences fell within 525.4 cells/mm(2), centered around a median of 13.3 cells/mm(2). Intraclass correlation coefficient was high for both the Konan-Noncon Robo SP-6000 (0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-0.95) and the Tomey EM-3000 (0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.93). Conclusions: The difference in endothelial cell measurements between the Konan SP-6000 and the Tomey EM-3000 specular microscopes through the center and the L-count analyzing techniques, respectively, is clinically small and not statistically significant. Nevertheless, caution should be taken when used interchangeably because ECD difference between the two machines can be as high as 525.4 cells/mm(2).
  • Seppä, Laila Elisabet; Tahvonen, Risto; Tuorila, Hely Margareetta (2016)
  • Salo, Raimo A.; Belevich, Ilya; Jokitalo, Eija; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra (2021)
    Validation and interpretation of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) requires detailed understanding of the actual microstructure restricting the diffusion of water molecules. In this study, we used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM), a three-dimensional electron microscopy (3D-EM) technique, to image seven white and grey matter volumes in the rat brain. SBEM shows excellent contrast of cellular membranes, which are the major components restricting the diffusion of water in tissue. Additionally, we performed 3D structure tensor (3D-ST) analysis on the SBEM volumes and parameterised the resulting orientation distributions using Watson and angular central Gaussian (ACG) probability distributions as well as spherical harmonic (SH) decomposition. We analysed how these parameterisations described the underlying orientation distributions and compared their orientation and dispersion with corresponding parameters from two dMRI methods, neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) and constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD). Watson and ACG parameterisations and SH decomposition captured well the 3D-ST orientation distributions, but ACG and SH better represented the distributions due to its ability to model asymmetric dispersion. The dMRI parameters corresponded well with the 3D-ST parameters in the white matter volumes, but the correspondence was less evident in the more complex grey matter. SBEM imaging and 3D-ST analysis also revealed that the orientation distributions were often not axially symmetric, a property neatly captured by the ACG distribution. Overall, the ability of SBEM to image diffusion barriers in intricate detail, combined with 3D-ST analysis and parameterisation, provides a step forward toward interpreting and validating the dMRI signals in complex brain tissue microstructure.
  • Siltala, L.; Granvik, M. (2020)
    Context. The bulk density of an asteroid informs us about its interior structure and composition. To constrain the bulk density, one needs an estimated mass of the asteroid. The mass is estimated by analyzing an asteroid's gravitational interaction with another object, such as another asteroid during a close encounter. An estimate for the mass has typically been obtained with linearized least-squares methods, despite the fact that this family of methods is not able to properly describe non-Gaussian parameter distributions. In addition, the uncertainties reported for asteroid masses in the literature are sometimes inconsistent with each other and are suspected to be unrealistically low.Aims. We aim to present a Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for the asteroid mass estimation problem based on asteroid-asteroid close encounters. We verify that our algorithm works correctly by applying it to synthetic data sets. We use astrometry available through the Minor Planet Center to estimate masses for a select few example cases and compare our results with results reported in the literature.Methods. Our mass-estimation method is based on the robust adaptive Metropolis algorithm that has been implemented into the OpenOrb asteroid orbit computation software. Our method has the built-in capability to analyze multiple perturbing asteroids and test asteroids simultaneously.Results. We find that our mass estimates for the synthetic data sets are fully consistent with the ground truth. The nominal masses for real example cases typically agree with the literature but tend to have greater uncertainties than what is reported in recent literature. Possible reasons for this include different astrometric data sets and weights, different test asteroids, different force models or different algorithms. For (16) Psyche, the target of NASA's Psyche mission, our maximum likelihood mass is approximately 55% of what is reported in the literature. Such a low mass would imply that the bulk density is significantly lower than previously expected and thus disagrees with the theory of (16) Psyche being the metallic core of a protoplanet. We do, however, note that masses reported in recent literature remain within our 3-sigma limits.Results. The new MCMC mass-estimation algorithm performs as expected, but a rigorous comparison with results from a least-squares algorithm with the exact same data set remains to be done. The matters of uncertainties in comparison with other algorithms and correlations of observations also warrant further investigation.
  • Mera-Adasme, Raul; Xu, Wen-hua; Sundholm, Dage; Mendizabal, Fernando (2016)
    Solar power is a strong alternative to the currently used fossil fuels in order to satisfy the world's energy needs. Among them, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) represent a low-cost option. Efficient and cheap dyes are currently needed to make DSSCs competitive. Computational chemistry can be used to guide the design of new light-absorbing chromophores. Here, we have computationally studied the lowest excited states of ZnPBAT, which is a recently synthesized porphyrinoid chromophore with high light-absorption efficiency. The calculations have been performed at ab initio correlated levels of theory employing second-order coupled clusters (CC2) and algebraic diagrammatic construction using second order (ADC(2)) methods and by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) approach for excitation energies. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum calculated at the ADC(2) and CC2 levels agrees well with the experimental one. The calculations show that ZnPBAT has six electronic transitions in the visible range of the absorption spectrum. The ab initio correlated calculations and previously reported experimental data have been used to assess the performance of several well-known density functionals that have been employed in the present TDDFT study. Solvent effects have been estimated by using the conductor-like screening model (COSMO). The influence of the addition of a TiO2 cluster to the chromophore systems has also been investigated. The results indicate that both CAM-B3LYP and Becke's "half-and-half'' (BHLYP) density functionals are appropriate for the studies of excitation energies in the blue range of the visible spectrum for these kinds of porphyrinoid chromophores, whereas the excitation energies of the Q band calculated at the ab initio correlated level are more accurate than those obtained in the present TDDFT calculations. The inclusion of solvent effects has a modest influence on the spectrum of the protonated form of the studied chromophores, whereas solvent models are crucial when studying the absorption spectrum of the anionic chromophore. The calculated UV-vis spectrum for the chromophore anion is not significantly affected by attaching a TiO2 cluster to it.
  • Yrjölä, Rauno A.; Tanskanen, Antti; Sarvanne, Hannu; Vickholm, Jorma; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2018)
    Urbanization and other human activities can lead to decreasing animal populations in nearby areas. The impact of human activitiesmay vary depending on the characteristics of the areas and region or on the strength of the disturbance. We investigated forest bird population changes in an EU Natura 2000 area during the construction of the new Helsinki Vuosaari Harbour in southern Finland in 2002-2011 as part of an environmental impact assessment. We evaluated whether the changes observed were linked with the harbour construction work by comparing the populations at sites near the development with those corresponding values obtained from national common bird monitoring in southern Finland. Themean population changes of 23 boreal forest bird species that inhabited the Natura 2000 area and southern Finland were significantly and positively correlated, but the population inside the Natura 2000 study area also showed lower mean numbers (a mean decline of 9% occurred over the study period). Our case study emphasizes the importance of intensive monitoring before, during and after work at the construction site and in the surrounding areas to detect actual changes in the populations.
  • Lindholm, V.; Finoguenov, A.; Comparat, J.; Kirkpatrick, C. C.; Rykoff, E.; Clerc, N.; Collins, C.; Damsted, S.; Chitham, J. Ider; Padilla, N. (2021)
    Context. The clustering of galaxy clusters links the spatial nonuniformity of dark matter halos to the growth of the primordial spectrum of perturbations. The amplitude of the clustering signal is widely used to estimate the halo mass of astrophysical objects. The advent of cluster mass calibrations enables using clustering in cosmological studies.Aims. We analyze the autocorrelation function of a large contiguous sample of galaxy clusters, the Constrain Dark Energy with X-ray (CODEX) sample, in which we take particular care of cluster definition. These clusters were X-ray selected using the ROentgen SATellite All-Sky Survey and then identified as galaxy clusters using the code redMaPPer run on the photometry of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We develop methods for precisely accounting for the sample selection effects on the clustering and demonstrate their robustness using numerical simulations.Methods. Using the clean CODEX sample, which was obtained by applying a redshift-dependent richness selection, we computed the two-point autocorrelation function of galaxy clusters in the 0.1 Omega m0 = 0.22-0.03+0.04 Omega m 0 = 0 . 22 - 0.03 + 0.04 and S8 = sigma 8(Omega m0/0.3)0.5 = 0.85-0.08+0.10 S 8 = sigma 8 ( Omega m 0 / 0.3 ) 0.5 = 0 . 85 - 0.08 + 0.10 with estimated additional systematic errors of sigma Omega m0=0.02 and sigma S8=0.20. We illustrate the complementarity of clustering constraints by combining them with CODEX cosmological constraints based on the X-ray luminosity function, deriving Omega m0=0.25 +/- 0.01 and sigma (8) = 0.81(-0.02)(+0.01) sigma 8 = 0 . 81 - 0.02 + 0.01 with an estimated additional systematic error of sigma Omega m0=0.07 and sigma sigma 8=0.04. The mass calibration and statistical quality of the mass tracers are the dominant source of uncertainty.
  • Gerber, Nina; Kokko, Hanna; Ebert, Dieter; Booksmythe, Isobel (2018)
    The timing of sex in facultatively sexual organisms is critical to fitness, due to the differing demographic consequences of sexual versus asexual reproduction. In addition to the costs of sex itself, an association of sex with the production of dormant life stages also influences the optimal use of sex, especially in environments where resting eggs are essential to survive unfavourable conditions. Here we document population dynamics and the occurrence of sexual reproduction in natural populations of Daphnia magna across their growing season. The frequency of sexually reproducing females and males increased with population density and with decreasing asexual clutch sizes. The frequency of sexually reproducing females additionally increased as population growth rates decreased. Consistent with population dynamic models showing that the opportunity cost of sexual reproduction (foregoing contribution to current population growth) diminishes as populations approach carrying capacity, we found that investment in sexual reproduction was highest when asexual population growth was low or negative. Our results support the idea that the timing of sex is linked with periods when the relative cost of sex is reduced due to low potential asexual growth at high population densities. Thus, a combination of ecological and demographic factors affect the optimal timing of sexual reproduction, allowing D. magna to balance the necessity of sex against its costs.
  • Kohout, Tomas; Havrila, Karol; Toth, Juraj; Husarik, Marek; Gritsevich, Maria; Britt, Daniel; Borovicka, Jiri; Spurny, Pavel; Igaz, Antal; Svoren, Jan; Kornos, Leonard; Veres, Peter; Koza, Julius; Zigo, Pavol; Gajdos, Stefan; Vilagi, Jozef; Capek, David; Krisandova, Zuzana; Tomko, Dusan; Silha, Jiri; Schunova, Eva; Bodnarova, Marcela; Buzova, Diana; Krejcova, Tereza (2014)
    Bulk and grain density, porosity, and magnetic susceptibility of 67 individuals of Košice H chondrite fall were measured. The mean bulk and grain densities were determined to be 3.43 g/cm3 with standard deviation (s.d.) of 0.11 g/cm3 and 3.79 g/cm3 with s.d. 0.07 g/cm3, respectively. Porosity is in the range from 4.2 to 16.1%. The logarithm of the apparent magnetic susceptibility (in 10−9 m3/kg) shows narrow distribution from 5.17 to 5.49 with mean value at 5.35 with s.d. 0.08. These results indicate that all studied Košice meteorites are of the same composition down to ∼g scale without presence of foreign (non-H) clasts and are similar to other H chondrites. Košice is thus a homogeneous meteorite fall derived from a homogenous meteoroid.
  • Fleischer, Thomas; Klajic, Jovana; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Louhimo, Riku; Pladsen, Arne V.; Ottestad, Lars; Touleimat, Nizar; Laakso, Marko; Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Alnaes, Grethe I. Grenaker; Riis, Margit L. H.; Helland, Aslaug; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Lonning, Per Eystein; Naume, Bjorn; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Tost, Joerg; Kristensen, Vessela N. (2017)
    Breast cancer patients with Luminal A disease generally have a good prognosis, but among this patient group are patients with good prognosis that are currently overtreated with adjuvant chemotherapy, and also patients that have a bad prognosis and should be given more aggressive treatment. There is no available method for subclassification of this patient group. Here we present a DNA methylation signature (SAM40) that segregates Luminal A patients based on prognosis, and identify one good prognosis group and one bad prognosis group. The prognostic impact of SAM40 was validated in four independent patient cohorts. Being able to subdivide the Luminal A patients may give the two-sided benefit of identifying one subgroup that may benefit from a more aggressive treatment than what is given today, and importantly, identifying a subgroup that may benefit from less treatment.
  • Sundell, Janne; Ylonen, Hannu; Haapakoski, Marko (2019)
    Phenotype and life history traits of an individual are a product of environmental conditions and the genome. Environment can be current or past, which complicates the distinction between environmental and heritable effects on the phenotype in wild animals. We studied genome-environment interactions on phenotype and life history traits by transplanting bank voles (Myodes glareolus) from northern and southern populations, originating from low or high population cycle phases, to common garden conditions in large outdoor enclosures. The first experiment focused on the persistence of body traits in autumn-captured overwintering populations. The second experiment focused on population growth and body traits in spring-captured founder voles and F1 generation. This experiment lasted the breeding season and subsequent winter. We verified phase-dependent differences in body size at capture. In the common environment, adult voles kept their original body size differences both over winter and during the breeding season. In addition, the first generation born in the common environment kept the size distribution of their parent population. The increase phase population maintained a more rapid growth potential, while populations from the decline phase of the cycle grew slower. After winter, the F1 generation of the increasing northern population matured later than the F1 of the southern declining ones. Our results suggest a strong role of heredity or early life conditions, greater than that of current juvenile and adult environmental conditions. Environmental conditions experienced by the parents in their early life can have inter-generational effects that manifest in offspring performance.
  • Luoma, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Eyvindson, Kyle; Kankare, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017)
    Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography
    Currently the forest sector in Finland is looking towards the next generation's forest resource information systems. Information used in forest planning is currently collected by using an area-based approach (ABA) where airborne laser scanning (ALS) data are used to generalize field-measured inventory attributes over an entire inventory area. Inventories are typically updated at 10-year interval. Thus, one of the key challenges is the age of the inventory information and the cost-benefit trade-off between using the old data and obtaining new data. Prediction of future forest resource information is possible through growth modelling. In this paper, the error sources related to ALS-based forest inventory and the growth models applied in forest planning to update the forest resource information were examined. The error sources included (i) forest inventory, (ii) generation of theoretical stem distribution, and (iii) growth modelling. Error sources (ii) and (iii) stem from the calculations used for forest planning, and were combined in the investigations. Our research area, Evo, is located in southern Finland. In all, 34 forest sample plots (300 m(2)) have been measured twice tree-by-tree. First measurements have been carried out in 2007 and the second measurements in 2014 which leads to 7 year updating period. Respectively, ALS-based forest inventory data were available for 2007. The results showed that prediction of theoretical stem distribution and forest growth modelling affected only slightly to the quality of the predicted stem volume in short-term information update when compared to forest inventory error.
  • Annala, Eemeli; Ecker, Christian; Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodriguez Fernandez, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi (2018)
    We investigate a simple holographic model for cold and dense deconfined QCD matter consisting of three quark flavors. Varying the single free parameter of the model and utilizing a Chiral Effective Theory equation of state (EoS) for nuclear matter, we find four different compact star solutions: traditional neutron stars, strange quark stars, as well as two non-standard solutions we refer to as hybrid stars of the second and third kind (HS2 and HS3). The HS2s are composed of a nuclear matter core and a crust made of stable strange quark matter, while the HS3s have both a quark mantle and a nuclear crust on top of a nuclear matter core. For all types of stars constructed, we determine not only their mass-radius relations, but also tidal deformabilities, Love numbers, as well as moments of inertia and the mass distribution. We find that there exists a range of parameter values in our model, for which the novel hybrid stars have properties in very good agreement with all existing bounds on the stationary properties of compact stars. In particular, the tidal deformabilities of these solutions are smaller than those of ordinary neutron stars of the same mass, implying that they provide an excellent fit to the recent gravitational wave data GW170817 of LIGO and Virgo. The assumptions underlying the viability of the different star types, in particular those corresponding to absolutely stable quark matter, are finally discussed at some length.
  • Dingilian, Kayane K.; Halonen, Roope; Tikkanen, Valtteri; Reischl, Bernhard; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Wyslouzil, Barbara E. (2020)
    We studied the homogeneous nucleation of carbon dioxide in the carrier gas argon for concentrations of CO(2)ranging from 2 to 39 mole percent using three experimental methods. Position-resolved pressure trace measurements (PTM) determined that the onset of nucleation occurred at temperatures between 75 and 92 K with corresponding CO(2)partial pressures of 39 to 793 Pa. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements provided particle size distributions and aerosol number densities. Number densities of approximately 10(12)cm(-3), and characteristic times ranging from 6 to 13 mu s, resulted in measured nucleation rates on the order of 5 x 10(17)cm(-3)s(-1), values that are consistent with other nucleation rate measurements in supersonic nozzles. Finally, we used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to identify that the condensed CO(2)particles were crystalline cubic solids with either sharp or rounded corners. Molecular dynamics simulations, however, suggest that CO(2)forms liquid-like critical clusters before transitioning to the solid phase. Furthermore, the critical clusters are not in thermal equilibrium with the carrier gas. Comparisons with nucleation theories were therefore made assuming liquid-like critical clusters and incorporating non-isothermal correction factors.
  • Laurila, Kirsti; Autio, Reija; Kong, Lingjia; Narva, Elisa; Hussein, Samer; Otonkoski, Timo; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lahdesmaki, Harri (2014)
  • Prozheeva, Vera; Makkonen, Ilja; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Tuomisto, Filip (2020)
    We show that N-polar GaN/(Al, Ga)N/GaN heterostructures exhibit significant N deficiency at the bottom (Al, Ga)N/GaN interface, and that these N vacancies are responsible for the trapping of holes observed in unoptimized N-polar GaN/(Al, Ga)N/GaN high electron mobility transistors. We arrive at this conclusion by performing positron annihilation experiments on GaN/(Al, Ga)N/GaN heterostructures of both N and Ga polarity, as well as state-of-the-art theoretical calculations of the positron states and positron-electron annihilation signals. We suggest that the occurrence of high interfacial N vacancy concentrations is a universal property of nitride semiconductor heterostructures at net negative polarization interfaces.