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  • Catapano, Alberico L.; Graham, Ian; De Backer, Guy; Wiklund, Olov; Chapman, M. John; Drexel, Heinz; Hoes, Arno W.; Jennings, Catriona S.; Landmesser, Ulf; Pedersen, Terje R.; Reiner, Zeljko; Riccardi, Gabriele; Taskinen, Marja-Riita; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Wood, David A.; Luis Zamorano, Jose (2016)
  • Task Force Members; ESC Comm Practice Guidelines CPG; ESC Natl Cardiac Societies; Mach, Francois; Baigent, Colin; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta (2019)
  • Surakka, Ida; Isaacs, Aaron; Karssen, Lennart C.; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka P.; Middelberg, Rita P. S.; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ried, Janina S.; Lamina, Claudia; Mangino, Massimo; Igl, Wilmar; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Lagou, Vasiliki; van der Harst, Pim; Leach, Irene Mateo; Esko, Tonu; Kutalik, Zoltan; Wainwright, Nicholas W.; Struchalin, Maksim V.; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Viikari, Jorma S.; Perola, Markus; Rantanen, Taina; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Soininen, Pasi; Johansson, Asa; Soranzo, Nicole; Heath, Andrew C.; Papamarkou, Theodore; Prokopenko, Inga; Toenjes, Anke; Kronenberg, Florian; Doering, Angela; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Montgomery, Grant W.; Whitfield, John B.; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Freimer, Nelson B.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Palotie, Aarno; Sandhu, Manj S.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Metspalu, Andres; Stumvoll, Michael; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Jula, Antti; Navis, Gerjan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Campbell, Harry; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Spector, Tim D.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Salomaa, Veikko; Oostra, Ben A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Gieger, Christian; Jaervelin, Marjo-Riitta; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hofman, Albert; McCarthy, Mark I.; Palotie, Leena; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Ripatti, Samuli (2011)
  • Lindbohm, Joni; Korja, Miikka; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko (2018)
    Background and aims: Studies report that both high and low total cholesterol (TC) elevates SAH risk. There are few prospective studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), and apparently none concerns apolipoproteins A and B. We aimed to clarify the association between lipid profile and SAH risk. Methods: The National FINRISK study provided risk-factor data recorded at enrolment between 1972 and 2007. During 1.52 million person-years of follow-up until 2014, 543 individuals suffered from incident hospitalized SAH or outside-hospital-fatal SAH. Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate the hazard ratios and multiple imputation predicted ApoA1, ApoB, and LDL-C values for cohorts from a time before apolipoprotein-measurement methods were available. Results: One SD elevation (1.28 mmol/l) in TC elevated SAH risk in men (hazard ratio (HR) 1.15 (95% CIs 1.00-1.32)). Low HDL-C levels increased SAH risk, as each SD decrease (0.37 mmol/l) in HDL-C raised the risk in women (HR 1.29 (95% CIs 1.07-1.55)) and men (HR 1.20 (95% CIs 1.14-1.27)). Each SD increase (0.29 g/l) in ApoA1 decreased SAH risk in women (HR 0.85 (95% CIs 0.74-0.97)) and men (HR 0.88 (95% CIs 0.76-1.02)). LDL-C (SD 1.07 mmol/l) and ApoB (SD 0.28 g/l) elevated SAH risk in men with HR 1.15 (95% CIs 1.01-1.31) and HR 1.26 (95% CIs 1.10-1.44) per one SD increase. Age did not change these findings. Conclusions: An adverse lipid profile seems to elevate SAH risk similar to its effect in other cardiovascular diseases, especially in men. Whether SAH incidence diminishes with increasing statin use remains to be studied. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Koskinen, Juhani S.; Kytö, Ville; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Laitinen, Tomi; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Magnussen, Costan G.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    Background and aims: Carotid plaque is a specific sign of atherosclerosis and adults with carotid plaque are at increased risk for cardiovascular outcomes. Atherosclerosis has roots in childhood and pediatric guidelines provide cut-off values for cardiovascular risk factors. However, it is unknown whether these cut-offs predict adulthood advanced atherosclerosis. Methods: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is a follow-up of children that begun in 1980 when 2653 participants with data for the present analyses were aged 3-18 years. In 2001 and 2007 follow-ups, in addition to adulthood cardiovascular risk factors, carotid ultrasound data was collected. Long-term burden, as the area under the curve, was evaluated for childhood (6-18 years) risk factors. To study the associations of guideline-based cut-offs with carotid plaque, both childhood and adult risk factors were classified according to clinical practice guidelines. Results: Carotid plaque, defined as a focal structure of the arterial wall protruding into lumen > 50% compared to adjacent intima-media thickness, was present in 88 (3.3%) participants. Relative risk for carotid plaque, when adjusted for age and sex, was 3.03 (95% CI, 1.76-5.21) for childhood dyslipidemia, 1.51 (95% CI, 0.99-2.32) for childhood elevated systolic blood pressure, and 1.93 (95% CI, 1.26-2.94) for childhood smoking. Childhood dyslipidemia and smoking remained independent predictors of carotid plaque in models additionally adjusted for adult risk factors and family history of coronary heart disease. Carotid plaque was present in less than 1% of adults with no childhood risk factors. Conclusions: Findings reinforce childhood prevention efforts and demonstrate the utility of guideline-based cutoffs in identifying children at increased risk for adulthood atherosclerosis.
  • Kuusisto, Sanna; Holmes, Michael; Ohukainen, Pauli; Kangas, Antti J.; Karsikas, Mari; Tiainen, Mika; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Kettunen, Johannes; Ala-Korpela, Mika (2019)
    BACKGROUND: HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (HDL-CEC) is a functional attribute that may have a protective role in atherogenesis. However, the estimation of HDL-CEC is based on in vitro cell assays that are laborious and hamper large-scale phenotyping. METHODS: Here, we present a cost-effective high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method to estimate HDL-CEC directly from serum. We applied the new method in a population-based study of 7603 individuals including 574 who developed incident coronary heart disease (CHD) during 15 years of follow-up, making this the largest quantitative study for HDL-CEC. RESULTS: As estimated by NMR-spectroscopy, a 1-SD higher HDL-CEC was associated with a lower risk of incident CHD (hazards ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.79-0.93, adjusted for traditional risk factors and HDL-C). These findings are consistent with published associations based on in vitro cell assays. CONCLUSIONS: These corroborative large-scale findings provide further support for a potential protective role of HDL-CEC in CHD and substantiate this new method and its future applications. (C) 2019 American Association for Clinical Chemistry
  • Costabile, Adele; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Rasinkangas, Pia; Korpela, Katri; de Vos, Willem M.; Gibson, Glenn R. (2017)
    Background: The aging process leads to a potential decline in immune function and adversely affects the gut microbiota. To date, many in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the application of synbiotics (prebiotics combined with probiotics) as a promising dietary approach to affect gut microbiota composition and improved functioning of the immune system. However, studies using synbiotic preparations often have the limitation that it remains unclear whether any effect observed is a result of the prebiotic or probiotic or a synergistic effect of the combined supplement. Objectives: We investigated the effects of a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and pilus-deficient L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with Promitor (TM) Soluble Corn Fiber (SCF, a candidate prebiotic) on fecal microbiota, metabolism, immunity, and blood lipids in healthy elderly persons. A prospective, double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized, single-centered, crossover study in 40 healthy elderly subjects (aged 60-80 years) was carried out. Volunteers were randomized to consume either probiotic and prebiotic as synbiotic, prebiotic or placebo (maltodextrin) during 3 weeks. Three-week washout periods separated all the treatments. We assessed effects upon blood lipids, glucose, cytokines, natural killer (NK) cell activity, phenotype, and intestinal microbiota composition. SCF decreased IL-6, which was not observed with the synbiotics. Results: Consumption of L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF increased NK cell activity compared to baseline in females and the older group. In the fecal microbiota analyses, the strongest community shifts were due to L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and SCF treatments. L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with SCF significantly increased the genus Parabacteroides. L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF and SCF increased concentrations of Ruminococcaceae Incertae Sedis. Oscillospira and Desulfovibrio slightly decreased in the L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF group, whereas Desulfovibrio decreased also in the L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with SCF group. L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF reduced total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in volunteers with initially elevated concentrations. C-reactive protein significantly decreased during L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with SCF intervention compared to baseline. Conclusion: In conclusion, the synbiotic combination of L. rhamnosus GG with SCF showed a tendency to promote innate immunity by increasing NK cell activity in elderly women and in 70 to 80-year-old volunteers and decreased TC and LDL-c in hyper-cholesterolemic patients. In addition, L. rhamnosus GG-PB12 combined with SCF demonstrated an increase in NK cell activity compared to SCF alone in older volunteers. We also found significant positive effects on the immune response, evidenced by a decrease of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Therefore, dietary intervention with L. rhamnosus GG combined with SCF could be of importance in elderly as an attractive option for enhancement of both the microbial and immune systems.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Del Prato, Stefano; Bujas-Bobanovic, Maja; Louie, Michael J.; Letierce, Alexia; Thompson, Desmond; Colhoun, Helen M. (2018)
    Background and aims: Alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, significantly reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of alirocumab in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with versus without mixed dyslipidaemia (MDL, defined as baseline LDL-C >= 70 mg/dL [1.8 mmol/L] and triglycerides >= 150mg/dL [1.7 mmol/L]). Methods: Data from 812 individuals with T2DM, from the placebo-controlled, 78-week, Phase 3 ODYSSEY LONG TERM trial of alirocumab 150mg every 2 weeks (Q2W), on a background of maximally tolerated statins +/- other lipid-lowering therapies, were pooled according to MDL status. Efficacy endpoints included percentage change from baseline to Week 24 in calculated LDL-C and other lipids/lipoproteins. Results: In individuals with T2DM who received alirocumab 150mg Q2W, mean LDL-C changes from baseline to Week 24 were -62.6% (vs. -6.0% with placebo) in those with MDL and -56.1% (vs. 5.6%) in those without MDL, with no significant between-group difference (p-interaction = 0.0842). Risk-based LDL-C goals ( Conclusions: Reductions in LDL-C and other lipids with alirocumab, as well as safety and tolerability, were comparable between individuals with T2DM and with versus without MDL. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Salonen, Jukka (2017)
  • Jaakkola, Johanna M.; Pahkala, Katja; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Lagstrom, Hanna; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli (2017)
    Background: The child-oriented dietary intervention given in the prospective Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP) has decreased the intake of saturated fat and lowered serum cholesterol concentration in children from infancy until early adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether the uniquely long-term child-oriented intervention has affected also secondarily parental diet and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: The STRIP study is a longitudinal, randomized infancy-onset atherosclerosis prevention trial continued from the child's age of 8 months to 20 years. The main aim was to modify the child's diet towards reduced intake of saturated fat. Parental dietary intake assessed by a one-day food record and cardio-metabolic risk factors were analysed between the child's ages of 9-19 years. Results: Saturated fat intake of parents in the intervention group was lower [mothers: 12.0 versus 13.9 daily energy (E%), p Conclusions: Child-oriented dietary intervention shifted the dietary fat intakes of parents closer to the recommendations and tended to decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the intervention mothers. Dietary intervention directed to children benefits also parents.
  • Roth, Eli M.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Colhoun, Helen M.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Merlet, Laurence; Pordy, Robert; Baccara-Dinet, Marie T. (2014)
  • InterAct Consortium; LifeLines Cohort Study Grp; de Vries, Paul S.; Brown, Michael R.; Bentley, Amy R.; Heikkinen, Sami; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Weir, David R. (2019)
    A person's lipid profile is influenced by genetic variants and alcohol consumption, but the contribution of interactions between these exposures has not been studied. We therefore incorporated gene-alcohol interactions into a multiancestry genome-wide association study of levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. We included 45 studies in stage 1 (genome-wide discovery) and 66 studies in stage 2 (focused follow-up), for a total of 394,584 individuals from 5 ancestry groups. Analyses covered the period July 2014-November 2017. Genetic main effects and interaction effects were jointly assessed by means of a 2-degrees-of-freedom (df) test, and a 1-df test was used to assess the interaction effects alone. Variants at 495 loci were at least suggestively associated (P <1 x 10(-6)) with lipid levels in stage 1 and were evaluated in stage 2, followed by combined analyses of stage 1 and stage 2. In the combined analysis of stages 1 and 2, a total of 147 independent loci were associated with lipid levels at P <5 x 10(-8) using 2-df tests, of which 18 were novel. No genome-wide-significant associations were found testing the interaction effect alone. The novel loci included several genes (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5), vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB), and apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 1 (APOBEC1) complementation factor (A1CF)) that have a putative role in lipid metabolism on the basis of existing evidence from cellular and experimental models.
  • Gylling, Helena; Plat, Jogchum; Turley, Stephen; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Ellegard, Lars; Jessup, Wendy; Jones, Peter J.; Luetjohann, Dieter; Maerz, Winfried; Masana, Luis; Silbernagel, Guenther; Staels, Bart; Boren, Jan; Catapano, Alberico L.; De Backer, Guy; Deanfield, John; Descamps, Olivier S.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Riccardi, Gabriele; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Chapman, M. John; European Atherosclerosis Soc (2014)
  • FinnGen Project; Ripatti, Pietari; Rämö, Joel T.; Mars, Nina J.; Fu, Yu; Lin, Jake; Söderlund, Sanni; Benner, Christian; Surakka, Ida; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palta, Priit; Freimer, Nelson B.; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Tukiainen, Taru; Pirinen, Matti; Palotie, Aarno; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Background: Hyperlipidemia is a highly heritable risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). While monogenic familial hypercholesterolemia associates with severely increased CAD risk, it remains less clear to what extent a high polygenic load of a large number of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) or triglyceride (TG)-increasing variants associates with increased CAD risk. Methods: We derived polygenic risk scores (PRSs) with approximate to 6M variants separately for LDL-C and TG with weights from a UK Biobank-based genome-wide association study with approximate to 324K samples. We evaluated the impact of polygenic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to lipid levels in 27 039 individuals from the National FINRISK Study (FINRISK) cohort and to CAD risk in 135 638 individuals (13 753 CAD cases) from the FinnGen project (FinnGen). Results: In FINRISK, median LDL-C was 3.39 (95% CI, 3.38-3.40) mmol/L, and it ranged from 2.87 (95% CI, 2.82-2.94) to 3.78 (95% CI, 3.71-3.83) mmol/L between the lowest and highest 5% of the LDL-C PRS distribution. Median TG was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18-1.20) mmol/L, ranging from 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-1.00) to 1.55 (95% CI, 1.48-1.61) mmol/L with the TG PRS. In FinnGen, comparing the highest 5% of the PRS to the lowest 95%, CAD odds ratio was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.24-1.49) for the LDL-C PRS and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.19-1.43) for the TG PRS. These estimates were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for a CAD PRS (odds ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.16-1.38] for LDL-C and 1.24 [95% CI, 1.13-1.36] for TG PRS). Conclusions: The CAD risk associated with a high polygenic load for lipid-increasing variants was proportional to their impact on lipid levels and partially overlapping with a CAD PRS. In contrast with a PRS for CAD, the lipid PRSs point to known and directly modifiable risk factors providing additional guidance for clinical translation.
  • Taddei, Cristina; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Danaei, Goodarz; Jackson, Rod T.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Sophiea, Marisa K.; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Iurilli, Maria Laura Caminia; Martinez, Andrea Rodriguez; Asghari, Golaleh; Dhana, Klodian; Gulayin, Pablo; Kakarmath, Sujay; Santero, Marilina; Voortman, Trudy; Riley, Leanne M.; Cowan, Melanie J.; Savin, Stefan; Bennett, James E.; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Cifkova, Renata; Giampaoli, Simona; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khang, Young-Ho; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Laxmaiah, Avula; Margozzini, Paula; Mathur, Prashant; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Zhao, Dong; Aadahl, Mette; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert J.; Agdeppa, Imelda A.; Aghazadeh-Attari, Javad; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Ahmad, Noor Ani; Ahmadi, Ali; Ahmadi, Naser; Ahmed, Soheir H.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Ajlouni, Kamel; Alarouj, Monira; AlBuhairan, Fadia; AlDhukair, Shahla; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkandari, Abdullah; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amarapurkar, Deepak N.; Amouyel, Philippe; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araujo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arku, Raphael E.; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna K.; Aspelund, Thor; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Auvinen, Juha; Avdicova, Maria; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Azmin, Mehrdad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bamoshmoosh, Mohamed; Banach, Maciej; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, Jose R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Batyrbek, Assembekov; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Belavendra, Antonisamy; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Benet, Mikhail; Benn, Marianne; Berkinbayev, Salim; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bienek, Asako; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bista, Bihungum; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjertness, Marius B.; Bjorkelund, Cecilia; Bloch, Katia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bongard, Vanina; Borchini, Rossana; Borghs, Herman; Bovet, Pascal; Brajkovich, Imperia; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bugge, Anna; Busch, Markus A.; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capanzana, Mario; Capuano, Eduardo; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carvalho, Joana; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Censi, Laura; Chadjigeorgiou, Charalambos A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chaturvedi, Nish; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Shuohua; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheraghian, Bahman; Chetrit, Angela; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Claessens, Frank; Clarke, Janine; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Confortin, Susana C.; Cooper, Cyrus; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Csilla, Semanova; Cui, Liufu; Cureau, Felipe; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; Davletov, Kairat; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; de Gaetano, Giovanni; De Henauw, Stefaan; de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; De Ridder, David; De Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Deev, Alexander D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Helene; Dennison, Elaine; Deschamps, Valerie; Dhimal, Meghnath; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dika, Zivka; Djalalinia, Shirin; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Doring, Angela; Dorobantu, Maria; Dragano, Nico; Drygas, Wojciech; Du, Yong; Duante, Charmaine A.; Duda, Rosemary B.; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eddie, Ricky; Eftekhar, Ebrahim; Eggertsen, Robert; Eghtesad, Sareh; Eiben, Gabriele; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Eliasen, Marie; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erbel, Raimund; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Eriksson, Johan G.; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Eslami, Saeid; Esmaeili, Ali; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Farjam, Mojtaba; Fattahi, Mohammad Reza; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Foger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fujita, Yuki; Fumihiko, Matsuda; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Galvano, Fabio; Gao, Jingli; Garcia-de-la-Hera, Manoli; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghanbari, Ali; Ghasemi, Erfan; Gheorghe-Fronea, Oana-Florentina; Ghimire, Anup; Gianfagna, Francesco; Gill, Tiffany K.; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Gironella, Glen; Giwercman, Aleksander; Goltzman, David; Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez-Chica, David A.; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Gonzalez-Rivas, Juan P.; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Clicerio; Gonzalez-Villalpando, Maria-Elena; Gonzalez, Angel R.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Grosso, Giuseppe; Gruden, Gabriella; Gu, Dongfeng; Guallar-Castillon, Pilar; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudmundsson, Elias F.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Ha, Seongjun; Hadaegh, Farzad; Haghshenas, Rosa; Hakimi, Hamid; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Hantunen, Sari; Kumar, Rachakulla Hari; Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Hata, Jun; Haugsgjerd, Teresa; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; He, Yuna; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hill, Allan G.; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Homayounfar, Reza; Hopman, Wilma M.; Horimoto, Andrea R. V. R.; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Htike, Maung Maung Than; Huerta, Jose Maria; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Huisman, Martijn; Hunsberger, Monica L.; Husseini, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, Mohsen M.; Wong, Norazizah Ibrahim; Iglesia, Iris; Ikeda, Nayu; Ikram, M. Arfan; Iotova, Violeta; Irazola, Vilma E.; Ishida, Takafumi; Islam, Muhammad; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jaddou, Hashem Y.; Jafar, Tazeen; James, Kenneth; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Janus, Edward; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Ana; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jennings, Garry; Jensen, Gorm B.; Jeong, Seung-lyeal; Jha, Anjani Kumar; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Jimenez, Ramon O.; Jockel, Karl-Heinz; Joffres, Michel; Jokelainen, Jari J.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jorgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Joukar, Farahnaz; Jozwiak, Jacek; Juolevi, Anne; Kafatos, Anthony; Kajantie, Eero O.; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kamstrup, Pia R.; Karki, Khem B.; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Keramati, Maryam; Kerimkulova, Alina; Kersting, Mathilde; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khateeb, Mohammad; Kheradmand, Motahareh; Khosravi, Alireza; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Jeongseon; Kim, Yeon-Yong; Klumbiene, Jurate; Knoflach, Michael; Ko, Stephanie; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Kohler, Iliana; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Konig, Jurgen; Korpelainen, Raija; PaulKorrovits,; Kos, Jelena; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Kriemler, Susi; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steiner; Kromhout, Daan; Kujala, Urho M.; Kurjata, Pawel; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Laamiri, Fatima Zahra; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Laid, Youcef; Lam, Tai Hing; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Latt, Tint Swe; Laugsand, Lars E.; Lazo-Porras, Maria; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehmann, Nils; Lehtimaki, Terho; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Lin, Yi-Ting; Lind, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Liu, Jing; Loit, Helle-Mai; Lopez-Garcia, Esther; Lopez, Tania; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, Jose Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lundqvist, Robert; Lunet, Nuno; Ma, Guansheng; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M.; Machi, Suka; Madar, Ahmed A.; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Magriplis, Emmanuella; Mahasampath, Gowri; Maire, Bernard; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Fatemeh; Reza Malekzadeh,; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Manzato, Enzo; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mascarenhas, Luis P.; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mavrogianni, Christina; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McLean, Scott B.; McNulty, Breige A.; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Mehdipour, Parinaz; Mehlig, Kirsten; Mehrparvar, AmirHoushang; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Merat, Shahin; Mereke, Alibek; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metcalf, Patricia; Meyer, Haakon E.; Mi, Jie; Michels, Nathalie; Miller, Jody C.; Minderico, Claudia S.; Mini, G. K.; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mirjalili, Mohammad Reza; Mirrakhimov, Erkin; Modesti, Pietro A.; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohamed, MostafaK; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadi, Zahra; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohammadpourhodki, Reza; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohanna, Salim; MohdYusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Mohebbi, Iraj; Mohebi, Farnam; Moitry, Marie; Mollehave, Line T.; Mller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monterrubio-Flores, Eric; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Morin, Suzanne N.; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Msyamboza, Kelias P.; Muiesan, Maria L.; Muller-Nurasyid, Martina; Mursu, Jaakko; Mustafa, Norlaila; Nabipour, Iraj; Naderimagham, Shohreh; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Najafi, Farid; Nakamura, Harunobu; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Nauck, Matthias; Neal, William A.; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Nenko, Ilona; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Quang Ngoc Nguyen,; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.; Nihal, Thomas; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Noto, Davide; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Nuhoglu, Irfan; O'Neill, Terence W.; O'Reilly, Dermot; Ochoa-Aviles, Angelica M.; Oh, Kyungwon; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Olafsson, Orn; Olie, Valerie; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ong, SokKing; Ordunez, Pedro; Ornelas, Rui; Ortiz, Pedro J.; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Ostovar, Afshin; Otero, Johanna A.; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palmieri, Luigi; Pan, Wen-Harn; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Parnell, Winsome R.; Patel, Nikhil D.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Peters, Annette; Petersmann, Astrid; Petkeviciene, Janina; Peykari, Niloofar; Son Thai Pham,; Pichardo, Rafael N.; Pigeot, Iris; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Piwonska, Aleksandra; Pizarro, Andreia N.; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Plata, Silvia; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Poudyal, Anil; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Price, Jacqueline F.; Providencia, Rui; Puder, Jardena J.; Puhakka, Soile E.; Punab, Margus; Qorbani, Mostafa; Tran Quoc Bao,; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahimikazerooni, Salar; Raitakari, Olli; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramos, Elisabete; Ramos, Rafel; Rampal, Lekhraj; Rampal, Sanjay; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Revilla, Luis; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Richter, Adrian; Rigo, Fernando; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Perez, Maria del Cristo; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Romaguera, Dora; Romeo, Elisabetta L.; Rosengren, Annika; Roy, Joel G. R.; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Russo, Paola; Rust, Petra; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Sadjadi, Alireza; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Safiri, Saeid; Saidi, Olfa; Saki, Nader; Salanave, Benoit; Salmeron, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Sans, Susana; Santaliestra-Pasias, Alba M.; Santos, Diana A.; Santos, MariaPaula; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas C.; Sawada, Norie; Sbaraini, Mariana; Scazufca, Marcia; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Schargrodsky, Herman; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schipf, Sabine; Schmidt, Carsten O.; Schottker, Ben; Schramm, Sara; Sebert, Sylvain; Sein, Aye Aye; Sen, Abhijit; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servais, Jennifer; Shakeri, Ramin; Shalnova, Svetlana A.; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shayanrad, Amaneh; Shi, Zumin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shimizu-Furusawa, Hana; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Shirani, Majid; Shiri, Rahman; Shrestha, Namuna; Si-Ramlee, Khairil; Siani, Alfonso; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjostrom, Michael; Skaaby, Tea; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Snijder, Marieke B.; Soderberg, Stefan; Soemantri, Agustinus; Sofat, Reecha; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Sonestedt, Emily; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jerome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Sozmen, Kaan; Sparrenberger, Karen; Staessen, Jan A.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stevanovic, Ranko; Stieber, Jutta; Stockl, Doris; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Suarez-Medina, Ramon; Sun, Chien-An; Sundstrom, Johan; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Sylva, Rene Charles; Szklo, Moyses; Tai, E. Shyong; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tan, EngJoo; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Taylor, Anne; Taylor, Julie; Tell, Grethe S.; Tello, Tania; Thankappan, K. R.; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Toft, Ulla; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tormo, Maria Jose; Tornaritis, Michael J.; Torrent, Maties; Torres-Collado, Laura; Traissac, Pierre; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Truthmann, Julia; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice; Ulmer, Hanno; Unal, Belgin; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Valvi, Damaskini; van Dam, RobM; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Van Herck, Koen; Hoang Van Minh,; Rossem, Lenievan; Van Schoor, Natasja M.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Varbo, Anette; Varona-Perez, Patricia; Vasan, Senthil K.; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Veidebaum, Toomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venero-Fernandez, Silvia J.; Veronesi, Giovanni; MoniqueVerschuren, W. M.; Victora, Cesar G.; Vidiawati, Dhanasari; Viet, Lucie; Villalpando, Salvador; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vlasoff, Tiina; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Ari; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Bebakar, Wan Mohamad Wan; WanMohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Ying-Wei; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wedderkopp, Niels; Wei, Wenbin; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Wong, Andrew; Wong, Tien Yin; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shouling; Xu, Haiquan; Xu, Liang; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Yasuharu, Tabara; Ye, Xingwang; Yeow, Toh Peng; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoosefi, Moein; Yoshihara, Akihiro; You, San-Lin; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Zainuddin, Ahmad A.; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Zali, Mohammad Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Zambon, Sabina; Zampelas, Antonis; KoZaw, Ko; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Vrkic, Tajana Zeljkovic; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Zhao, Wenhua; Zhen, Shiqi; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zholdin, Bekbolat; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Zoghlami, Nada; Cisneros, Julio Zuniga; Gregg, Edward W.; Ezzati, Majid (2020)
    High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries(1,2). However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world(3) and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health(4,5). However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular riskchanged from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
  • Enani, Sumia; Bahijri, Suhad; Malibary, Manal; Jambi, Hanan; Eldakhakhny, Basmah; Al-Ahmadi, Jawaher; Al Raddadi, Rajaa; Ajabnoor, Ghada; Boraie, Anwar; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2020)
    Diet and other lifestyle habits have been reported to contribute to the development of dyslipidemia in various populations. Therefore, this study investigated the association between dyslipidemia and dietary and other lifestyle practices among Saudi adults. Data were collected from adults (>= 20 years) not previously diagnosed with diabetes in a cross-sectional design. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical characteristics, as well as lifestyle and dietary habits were recorded using a predesigned questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were drawn to estimate the serum lipid profile. Out of 1385 people, 858 (62%) (491 men, 367 women) had dyslipidemia. After regression analysis to adjust for age, body mass index, and waist circumference, an intake of >= 5 cups/week of Turkish coffee, or carbonated drinks was associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia in men (OR (95% CI), 2.74 (1.53, 4.89)p= 0.001, and 1.53 (1.04, 2.26)p= 0.03 respectively), while the same intake of American coffee had a protective effect (0.53 (0.30, 0.92)p= 0.025). Sleep duration
  • Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Santos, Raul D.; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aikawa, Masanori; Al Rasadi, Khalid; Amarenco, Pierre; Barter, Philip J.; Ceska, Richard; Corsini, Alberto; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Duriez, Patrick; Eckel, Robert H.; Ezhov, Marat V.; Farnier, Michel; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Hermans, Michel P.; Ishibashi, Shun; Karpe, Fredrik; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Koenig, Wolfgang; Krempf, Michel; Lim, Soo; Lorenzatti, Alberto J.; McPherson, Ruth; Millan Nunez-Cortes, Jesus; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Ogawa, Hisao; Packard, Chris J.; Plutzky, Jorge; Ponte-Negretti, Carlos I.; Pradhan, Aruna; Ray, Kausik K.; Reiner, Zeljko; Ridker, Paul M.; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Sadikot, Shaukat; Shimano, Hitoshi; Sritara, Piyamitr; Stock, Jane K.; Su, Ta-Chen; Susekov, Andrey V.; Tartar, Andre; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tenenbaum, Alexander; Tokgozoglu, Lale S.; Tomlinson, Brian; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Valensi, Paul; Vrablik, Michal; Wahli, Walter; Watts, Gerald F.; Yamashita, Shizuya; Yokote, Koutaro; Zambon, Alberto; Libby, Peter (2019)
    In the era of precision medicine, treatments that target specific modifiable characteristics of high-risk patients have the potential to lower further the residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia, however, remains a major unmet clinical need. Elevated plasma triglycerides, with or without low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), offer a key modifiable component of this common dyslipidemia, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulators (SPPARM) offers an approach to address this treatment gap. This Joint Consensus Panel appraised evidence for the first SPPARM agonist and concluded that this agent represents a novel therapeutic class, distinct from fibrates, based on pharmacological activity, and, importantly, a safe hepatic and renal profile. The ongoing PROMINENT cardiovascular outcomes trial is testing in 10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of HDL-C whether treatment with this SPPARM agonist safely reduces residual cardiovascular risk.