Browsing by Subject "DEPENDENCE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 73
  • Thorgeirsson, T. E.; Gudbjartsson, D. F.; Sulem, P.; Besenbacher, S.; Styrkarsdottir, U.; Thorleifsson, G.; Walters, G. B.; Furberg, H.; Sullivan, P. F.; Marchini, J.; McCarthy, M. I.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Stefansson, K.; TAG Consortium; Oxford-GSK Consortium; ENGAGE Consortium; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Shen, Huei-Yi (2013)
  • Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Hietala, H.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2013)
  • Turc, L.; Fontaine, D.; Savoini, P.; Kilpua, E. K. J. (2014)
  • Mustonen, Antti; Alakokkare, Anni-Emilia; Salom, Caroline; Hurtig, Tuula; Levola, Jonna; Scott, James G.; Miettunen, Jouko; Niemelä, Solja (2021)
    Objective: Early onset of alcohol use is associated with an increased risk of substance use disorders (SUD), but few studies have examined associations with other psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study the association between the age of first alcohol intoxication (AFI) and the risk of psychiatric disorders in a Finnish general population sample. Methods: We utilized a prospective, general population-based study, the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. In all, 6,290 15?16-year old adolescents answered questions on AFI and were followed up until the age of 33 years for psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychosis, SUD, mood disorders and anxiety disorders) by using nationwide register linkage data. Cox-regression analysis with Hazard Ratios (HR, with 95% confidence intervals (CI)) was used to assess the risk of psychiatric disorders associated with AFI. Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between AFI and any psychiatric disorder, psychosis, SUDs, and mood disorders. After adjustments for other substance use, family structure, sex and parental psychiatric disorders, AFIs of 13?14 years and
  • Lehikoinen, Anni I.; Kärkkäinen, Olli K.; Lehtonen, Marko A.S.; Auriola, Seppo O.K.; Hanhineva, Kati J.; Heinonen, Seppo T. (2018)
    Background: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester. Study design: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40). Results: We observed statistically significantly differences among the study groups in serum levels of glutamate, glutamine, and serotonin (p-values Conclusion: The present study shows that alcohol and drug use were associated with increased glutamate, and decreased glutamine levels, and alcohol use is associated with decreased serotonin levels. This study serves as a proof-of-concept that the metabolite profile of human first trimester serum samples could be used to detect alcohol exposure during pregnancy. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators (2018)
    Background Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older. Methods Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health. Findings Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week. Interpretation Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.
  • Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Koskinen, Aki; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Virtanen, Marianna; Härkänen, Tommi; Lallukka, Tea (2018)
    Background: Previous studies have not distinguished between different alcohol-use histories, which could have contributed to the current inconsistent evidence regarding the relationship between alcohol use and subsequent sickness absence. We thus examined alcohol use and subsequent diagnosis-specific sickness absence in groups with different levels of alcohol use, as well as in lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and people with clinical alcohol use disorders. Methods: The data of the population-based Health 2000 Survey (BRIF8901) of 3666 Finns aged 30-55 were linked with national registers on medically certified sickness absences lasting for > 10 working days (long-term) for all causes (2000 -2010) and for mental or musculoskeletal disorders (2004-2010), as well as with registers on pensions and death (2000-2010). Alcohol use was assessed by questionnaire. Chronic somatic diseases were evaluated at baseline in a clinical examination, and common mental and alcohol use disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Cox regression analyses were conducted with censoring for death and retirement from work. Results: During an average 10-year follow-up, 56.0% of the participants had at least one long-term sickness absence period. Compared with light drinkers, those having an alcohol use disorder had increased risk of all-cause sickness absence (HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.04 - 1.54) and sickness absence due to mental disorders (HR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.39 - 3.35), when somatic and mental disorders as well as demographic, lifestyle-related and occupational factors at baseline were accounted for. Lifelong abstainers did not differ from light drinkers. Also high-volume drinking (HR = 1.52; 95% CI 1.03 - 2.25) and former drinking (HR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15 - 2.15) were associated with long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders. Alcohol use was not predictive of sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions: These results highlight the need to distinguish between former drinking and lifelong abstinence, as only former drinking was associated with sickness absence. Alcohol use disorder and high-volume drinking were strongly predictive of sickness absence due to mental disorders. Identifying people with excessive alcohol use e.g. in occupational health care, and mapping and supporting their mental health may help in preventing sickness absences.
  • Castren, Sari; Basnet, Syaron; Pankakoski, Maiju; Ronkainen, Jenni-Emilia; Helakorpi, Satu; Uutela, Antti; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2013)
  • Levola, Jonna; Eskelinen, Saana; Pitkanen, Tuuli (2020)
    Background: Alcohol and substance use disorders (SUDs) are known to be associated with various health problems and somatic comorbidities however, not much is known on how individuals with SUDs themselves view their own health. Depression is common in SUDs and it is also associated with various health problems. The aim of this study was to assess how individuals undergoing inpatient treatment for SUDs perceived their health status and quality of life (QoL) and how having symptoms of depression affected these perceptions. Methods: Data regarding a convenience sample of eighty inpatients with a diagnosis of alcohol or substance dependence were analyzed. Data were collected through a clinical interview and validated questionnaires. Results: Individuals undergoing inpatient treatment for SUDs reported various somatic comorbidities and their self-rated health was moderate. Back pain, high blood pressure and liver disease were the most commonly reported somatic comorbidities. More severe symptoms of depression were associated with poorer self-rated health, more comorbidities and poorer QoL after adjusting for potential confounders such as age. Conclusions: Individuals with SUDs have many health-related concerns and their QoL is impaired. Symptoms of depression are associated with self-rated health and QoL in this population.
  • Lehtomaa, Jaakko; Resnick, Sidney (2020)
    One of the central objectives of modern risk management is to find a set of risks where the probability of multiple simultaneous catastrophic events is negligible. That is, risks are taken only when their joint behavior seems sufficiently independent. This paper aims to identify asymptotically independent risks by providing tools for describing dependence structures of multiple risks when the individual risks can obtain very large values. The study is performed in the setting of multivariate regular variation. We show how asymptotic independence is connected to properties of the support of the angular measure and present an asymptotically consistent estimator of the support. The estimator generalizes to any dimension N >= 2 and requires no prior knowledge of the support. The validity of the support estimate can be rigorously tested under mild assumptions by an asymptotically normal test statistic. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Vesala, Timo; Launiainen, Samuli; Kolari, Pasi; Pumpanen, Jukka; Sevanto, S.; Hari, Pertti; Nikinmaa, E.; Kaski, Petteri; Mannila, Heikki; Ukkonen, Esko; Piao, S. L.; Ciais, P. (2010)
  • Adam, J.; Adamova, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahmmed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H. (2016)
    We present measurements of the azimuthal dependence of charged jet production in central and semi-central root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the second harmonic event plane, quantified as nu(ch)(2) (jet). Jet finding is performed employing the anti-k(T) algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.2 using charged tracks from the ALICE tracking system. The contribution of the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying event is taken into account event-by-event. The remaining (statistical) region-to-region fluctuations are removed on an ensemble basis by unfolding the jet spectra for different event plane orientations independently. Significant non-zero nu(ch)(2) (jet) is observed in semi-central collisions (30-50% centrality) for 20 <p(T)(ch) (jet) <90 GeV/c. The azimuthal dependence of the charged jet production is similar to the dependence observed for jets comprising both charged and neutral fragments, and compatible with measurements of the nu(2) of single charged particles at high p(T). Good agreement between the data and predictions from JEWEL, an event generator simulating parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium, is found in semi-central collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The Fourier coefficients v(2) and v(3) characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, 1 <p(T) <100 GeV/c. The analysis focuses on the p(T) > 10 GeV/c range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60% most central events. The v(2) coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to initial-state fluctuations. The values from both methods remain positive up to p(T) similar to 60-80 GeV/c, in all examined centrality classes. The v(3) coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for p(T) greater than or similar to 20 GeV/c. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations. (C) 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    Angular conclations between heavy-flavor decay electrons and charged particles at midrapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.8) are measured in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV. The analysis is carried out for the 0%-20% (high) and 60%-100% (low) multiplicity ranges. The jet contribution in the correlation distribution from high-multiplicity events is removed by subtracting the distribution from low-multiplicity events. An azimuthal modulation remains after removing the jet contribution, similar to previous observations in two-particle angular correlation measurements for light-flavor hadrons. A Fourier decomposition of the modulation results in a positive second-order coefficient (nu(2)) for heavy-flavor decay electrons in the transverse momentum interval 1.5 < p(T) < 4 GeV/c in high-multiplicity events, with a significance larger than 5 sigma. The results are compared with those of charged particles at midrapidity and those of inclusive muons at forward rapidity. The nu(2) measurement of open heavy-flavor particles at midrapidity in small collision systems could provide crucial information to help interpret the anisotropies observed in such systems.
  • Ferreira, Daniela C.; Oliveira, Mayara L.; Bioni, Thais A.; Nawaz, Haq; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert; El Seoud, Omar A. (2019)
    The efficiency of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) and molecular solvents in cellulose dissolution and derivatization depends on the structures of both components. We investigated the ILs 1-(1-butyl)-3-methylimidazolium acetate (C(4)MeImAc) and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-3-methylimidazolium acetate (C(3)OMeImAc) and their solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO, to assess the effect of presence of an ether linkage in the IL side-chain. Surprisingly, C(4)MeImAc-DMSO was more efficient than C(3)OMeImAc-DMSO for the dissolution and acylation of cellulose. We investigated both solvents using rheology, NMR spectroscopy, and solvatochromism. Mixtures of C(3)OMeImAc-DMSO are more viscous, less basic, and form weaker hydrogen bonds with cellobiose than C(4)MeImAc-DMSO. We attribute the lower efficiency of C(3)OMeImAc to "deactivation" of the ether oxygen and C2-(H) under bar of the imidazolium ring due to intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Using the corresponding ILs with C2-(CH3) under bar instead of C2-(H) under bar, namely, 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium acetate (C(4)Me(2)ImAc) and 1-(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3-dimethylimidazolium acetate (C(3)OMe(2)ImAc) increased the concentration of dissolved cellulose; without noticeable effect on biopolymer reactivity.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    The pseudorapidity density of charged particles, dN(ch)/d eta, in p-Pb collisions has been measured at a centre of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair of root S-NN = 8.16 TeV at mid-pseudorapidity for non-single-diffractive events. The results cover 3.6 units of pseudorapidity, vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.8. The dN(ch)/d eta value is 19.1 +/- 0.7 at vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.5. This quantity divided by < N-part >/2 is 4.73 +/- 0.20, where < N-part > is the average number of participating nucleons, is 9.5% higher than the corresponding value for p-Pb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV. Measurements are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production. All models agree within uncertainties with data in the Pb-going side, while HIJING overestimates, showing a symmetric behaviour, and EPOS underestimates the p-going side of the dN(ch)/d eta distribution. Saturation-based models reproduce the distributions well for eta > -1.3. The dN(ch)/d eta is also measured for different centrality estimators, based both on the charged particle multiplicity and on the energy deposited in the Zero Degree Calorimeters. A study of the implications of the large multiplicity fluctuations due to the small number of participants for systems like p-Pb in the centrality calculation for multiplicity-based estimators is discussed, demonstrating the advantages of determining the centrality with energy deposited near beam rapidity.
  • Byggmästar, J; Granberg, F; Sand, A E; Pirttikoski, A; Alexander, Rebecca; Marinica, M. C.; Nordlund, K (2019)
    Overlap of collision cascades with previously formed defect clusters become increasingly likely at radiation doses typical for materials in nuclear reactors. Using molecular dynamics, we systematically investigate the effects of different pre-existing self-interstitial clusters on the damage produced by an overlapping cascade in bcc iron and tungsten. We find that the number of new Frenkel pairs created in direct overlap with an interstitial cluster is reduced to essentially zero, when the size of the defect cluster is comparable to that of the disordered cascade volume. We develop an analytical model for this reduced defect production as a function of the spatial overlap between a cascade and a defect cluster of a given size. Furthermore, we discuss cascade-induced changes in the morphology of self-interstitial clusters, including transformations between 1/2<111> and <100> dislocation loops in iron and tungsten, and between C15 clusters and dislocation loops in iron. Our results provide crucial new cascade-overlap effects to be taken into account in multi-scale modelling of radiation damage in bcc metals.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The pseudorapidity distributions of dijets as functions of their average transverse momentum (p(T)(ave)) are measured in proton-lead (pPb) and proton-proton (pp) collisions. The data samples were collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC, at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. A significant modification of the pPb spectra with respect to the pp spectra is observed in all p(T)(ave) intervals investigated. The ratios of the pPb and pp distributions are compared to next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations with unbound nucleon and nuclear parton distribution functions (PDFs). These results give the first evidence that the gluon PDF at large Bjorken x in lead ions is strongly suppressed with respect to the PDF in unbound nucleons.
  • Sharifian, Fariba; Heikkinen, Hanna; Vigrio, Ricardo; Vanni, Simo (2016)
    In the visual cortex, stimuli outside the classical receptive field (CRF) modulate the neural firing rate, without driving the neuron by themselves. In the primary visual cortex (V1), such contextual modulation can be parametrized with an area summation function (ASF): increasing stimulus size causes first an increase and then a decrease of firing rate before reaching an asymptote. Earlier work has reported increase of sparseness when CRF stimulation is extended to its surroundings. However, there has been no clear connection between the ASF and network efficiency. Here we aimed to investigate possible link between ASF and network efficiency. In this study, we simulated the responses of a biomimetic spiking neural network model of the visual cortex to a set of natural images. We varied the network parameters, and compared the Vi excitatory neuron spike responses to the corresponding responses predicted from earlier single neuron data from primate visual cortex. The network efficiency was quantified with firing rate (which has direct association to neural energy consumption), entropy per spike and population sparseness. All three measures together provided a clear association between the network efficiency and the ASF. The association was clear when varying the horizontal connectivity within V-1, which influenced both the efficiency and the distance to ASF, DAS. Given the limitations of our biophysical model, this association is qualitative, but nevertheless suggests that an ASF-like receptive field structure can cause efficient population response.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    The measurement of dielectron production is presented as a function of invariant mass and transverse momentum (p(T)) at midrapidity (vertical bar ye vertical bar < 0.8) in proton-proton (pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV. The contributions from light-hadron decays are calculated from their measured cross sections in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV or 13 TeV. The remaining continuum stems from correlated semileptonic decays of heavy-flavour hadrons. Fitting the data with templates from two different MC event generators, PYTHIA and POWHEG, the charm and beauty cross sections at midrapidity are extracted for the first time at this collision energy: d sigma(c<(c)over bar>)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 974 +/- 138 (stat.) +/- 140 (syst.) +/- 214(BR) mu b and d sigma(b (b) over bar)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 79 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 11 (syst.) +/- 5(BR) mu b using PYTHIA simulations and d sigma(c (c) over bar)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 1417 +/- 184 (stat.) +/- 204 (syst.) +/- 312(BR) mu b and d sigma(b (b) over bar)/dy vertical bar(y=0) = 48 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 7 (syst.) +/- 3(BR) mu b for POWHEG. These values, whose uncertainties are fully correlated between the two generators, are consistent with extrapolations from lower energies. The different results obtained with POWHEG and PYTHIA imply different kinematic correlations of the heavy-quark pairs in these two generators. Furthermore, comparisons of dielectron spectra in inelastic events and in events collected with a trigger on high charged-particle multiplicities are presented in various p(T) intervals. The differences are consistent with the already measured scaling of light-hadron and open-charm production at high charged-particle multiplicity as a function of p(T). Upper limits for the contribution of virtual direct photons are extracted at 90% confidence level and found to be in agreement with pQCD calculations. (C) 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.