Browsing by Subject "DEPOSITION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 29
  • Grythe, Henrik; Kristiansen, Nina I.; Zwaaftink, Christine D. Groot; Eckhardt, Sabine; Strom, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Krejci, Radovan; Stohl, Andreas (2017)
    A new, more physically based wet removal scheme for aerosols has been implemented in the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. It uses three-dimensional cloud water fields from the European Centre for MediumRange Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to determine cloud extent and distinguishes between in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging. The new in-cloud nucleation scavenging depends on cloud water phase (liquid, ice or mixed-phase), based on the aerosol's prescribed efficiency to serve as ice crystal nuclei and liquid water nuclei, respectively. The impaction scavenging scheme now parameterizes below-cloud removal as a function of aerosol particle size and precipitation type (snow or rain) and intensity. Sensitivity tests with the new scavenging scheme and comparisons with observational data were conducted for three distinct types of primary aerosols, which pose different challenges for modeling wet scavenging due to their differences in solubility, volatility and size distribution: (1) Cs-137 released during the Fukushima nuclear accident attached mainly to highly soluble sulphate aerosol particles, (2) black carbon (BC) aerosol particles, and (3) mineral dust. Calculated e-folding lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosols for these three aerosol types were 11.7, 16.0, and 31.6 days respectively, when well mixed in the atmosphere. These are longer lifetimes than those obtained by the previous removal schem, and, for mineral dust in particular, primarily result from very slow in-cloud removal, which globally is the primary removal mechanism for these accumulation mode particles. Calculated e-folding lifetimes in FLEXPART also have a strong size dependence, with the longest lifetimes found for the accumulation-mode aerosols. For example, for dust particles emitted at the surface the lifetimes were 13.8 days for particles with 1 aem diameter and a few hours for 10 aem particles. A strong size dependence in below-cloud scavenging, combined with increased dry removal, is the primary reason for the shorter lifetimes of the larger particles. The most frequent removal is in-cloud scavenging (85% of all scavenging events) but it occurs primarily in the free troposphere, while below-cloud removal is more frequent below 1000m (52% of all events) and can be important for the initial fate of species emitted at the surface, such as those examined here. For assumed realistic in-cloud removal efficiencies, both BC and sulphate have a slight overestimation of observed atmospheric concentrations (a factor of 1.6 and 1.2 respectively). However, this overestimation is largest close to the sources and thus appears more related to overestimated emissions rather than underestimated removal. The new aerosol wet removal scheme of FLEXPART incorporates more realistic information about clouds and aerosol properties and it compares better with both observed lifetimes and concentration than the old scheme.
  • Oikari, Lotta E.; Pandit, Rucha; Stewart, Romal; Cuní-López, Carla; Quek, Hazel; Sutharsan, Ratneswary; Rantanen, Laura M.; Oksanen, Minna; Lehtonen, Sarka; de Boer, Carmela Maria; Polo, Jose M.; Götz, Jürgen; Koistinaho, Jari; White, Anthony R. (2020)
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a barrier for circulating factors, but simultaneously challenges drug delivery. How the BBB is altered in Alzheimer disease (AD) is not fully understood. To facilitate this analysis, we derived brain endothelial cells (iBECs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) of several patients carrying the familial AD PSEN1 mutation. We demonstrate that, compared with isogenic PSEN1 corrected and control iBECs, AD-iBECs exhibit altered tight and adherens junction protein expression as well as efflux properties. Furthermore, by applying focused ultrasound (FUS) that transiently opens the BBB and achieves multiple therapeutic effects in AD mouse models, we found an altered permeability to 3-5 kDa dextran as a model cargo and the amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide in AD-iBECs compared with control iBECs. This presents human-derived in vitro models of the BBB as a valuable tool to understand its role and properties in a disease context, with possible implications for drug delivery.
  • Vesala, Risto; Kiheri, Heikki; Hobbie, Erik A.; van Dijk, Netty; Dise, Nancy; Larmola, Tuula (2021)
    Peatlands store one third of global soil carbon (C) and up to 15% of global soil nitrogen (N) but often have low plant nutrient availability owing to slow organic matter decomposition under acidic and waterlogged conditions. In rainwater-fed ombrotrophic peatlands, elevated atmospheric N deposition has increased N availability with potential consequences to ecosystem nutrient cycling. Here, we studied how 14 years of continuous N addition with either nitrate or ammonium had affected ericoid mycorrhizal (ERM) shrubs at Whim Bog, Scotland. We examined whether enrichment has influenced foliar nutrient stoichiometry and assessed using N stable isotopes whether potential changes in plant nutrient constraints are linked with plant N uptake through ERM fungi versus direct plant uptake. High doses of ammonium alleviated N deficiency in Calluna vulgaris and Erica tetralix, whereas low doses of ammonium and nitrate improved plant phosphorus (P) nutrition, indicated by the lowered foliar N:P ratios. Root acid phosphatase activities correlated positively with foliar N:P ratios, suggesting enhanced P uptake as a result of improved N nutrition. Elevated foliar delta N-15 of fertilized shrubs suggested that ERM fungi were less important for N supply with N fertilization. Increases in N availability in peat porewater and in direct nonmycorrhizal N uptake likely have reduced plant nitrogen uptake via mycorrhizal pathways. As the mycorrhizal N uptake correlates with the reciprocal C supply from host plants to the soil, such reduction in ERM activity may affect peat microbial communities and even accelerate C loss via decreased ERM activity and enhanced saprotrophic activity. Our results thus introduce a previously unrecognized mechanism for how anthropogenic N pollution may affect nutrient and carbon cycling within peatland ecosystems. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Booyens, Wanda; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Kopperi, Matias; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Vakkari, Ville; Josipovic, Miroslav; Kulmala, Markku; Laakso, Lauri (2019)
    Although atmospheric organic N compounds are considered to be important, especially in new particle formation and their contribution to brown carbon, these species are not that well understood. This can be partially attributed to their chemical complexity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of organic N compounds utilising comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GCxGC-TOFMS) in aerosol samples that were collected at a savanna-grassland background region and to determine the possible sources. 135 atmospheric organic N compounds were tentatively characterised and semi-quantified, which included amines, nitriles, amides, urea, pyridine derivatives, amino acids, nitro-and nitroso compounds, imines, cyanates and isocyanates, and azo compounds. Amines contributed to 51% of the semi-quantified concentrations, while nitriles, pyridine derivatives, and amides comprised 20%, 11%, and 8%, respectively, of the semi-quantified concentrations. Amines, nitriles, amides, and pyridine derivatives concentrations were higher during the dry season, which were attributed to meteorology and open biomass burning. Anthropogenic sources impacting air masses measured at Welgegund, as well as regional agricultural activities, were considered as the major sources of amines, while the regional influence of household combustion was most likely the main source of nitriles, amides, and pyridine derivatives. The other organic N species were most likely related to the influence of local and regional agricultural activities.
  • Lucke, Bernhard; Sandler, Amir; Vanselow, Kim André; Bruins, Hendrik J.; Abu-Jaber, Nizar; Baeumler, Rupert; Porat, Naomi; Kouki, Paula (2019)
    Archaeological structures are often filled with sediments and may serve as effective dust traps. The physical parameters and chemical composition of archaeological soils in hilltop ruins, ancient runoff-collecting terraces, and cleanout spoils of cisterns were determined in the Petra region in southern Jordan and the Northern Negev in Israel. Different types of ruins are characterized by certain soil structures, but could not be distinguished with regard to substrate composition. This reflects a predominance of aeolian processes for primary sedimentation, while fluvial processes seem to only re-distribute aeolian material. In the Petra region, the physical and chemical properties of all archaeological soils show a significant local contribution from associated weathered rocks. Compared to modern settled dust, archaeological soils in Southern Jordan are enriched with various major and trace elements associated with clays and oxide coatings of fine silt particles. This seems connected with preferential fixation of silt and clay by surface crusts, and a role of moisture in sedimentation processes as calcareous silt was found to be deposited in greater amounts when associated with precipitation. In contrast, the contribution of rocks is negligible in the Negev due to greater rock hardness and abundant biological crusts that seal surfaces. Archaeological soils in the Negev are chemically similar to current settled dust, which consists of complex mixtures of local and remote sources, including significant portions of recycled material from paleosols. Archaeological soils are archives of Holocene dust sources and aeolian sedimentation processes, with accretion rates exceeding those of Pleistocene hilltop loess in the Negev. Comparison with Pleistocene paleosols suggests that dust sources did not change significantly, but disappearance of snow could have reduced dust accumulation during the Holocene.
  • Viippola, Viljami; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Järvi, Leena; Kulmala, Markku; Setälä, Heikki (2020)
    Trees and other vegetation have been advocated as a mitigation measure for urban air pollution mainly due to the fact that they passively filter particles from the air. However, mounting evidence suggests that vegetation may also worsen air quality by slowing the dispersion of pollutants and by producing volatile organic compounds that contribute to formation of ozone and other secondary pollutants. We monitored nanoparticle (>10 nm) counts along distance gradients away from major roads along paired transects across open and forested landscapes in Baltimore (USA), Helsinki (Finland) and Shenyang (China) − i.e. sites in three biomes with different pollution levels − using condensation particle counters. Mean particle number concentrations averaged across all sampling sites were clearly reduced (15 %) by the presence of forest cover only in Helsinki. For Baltimore and Shenyang, levels showed no significant difference between the open and forested transects at any of the sampling distances. This suggests that nanoparticle deposition on trees is often counterbalanced by other factors, including differing flow fields and aerosol processes under varying meteorological conditions. Similarly, consistent differences in high frequency data patterns between the transects were detected only in Helsinki. No correlations between nanoparticle concentrations and solar radiation or local wind speed as affecting nanoparticle abundances were found, but they were to some extent associated with canopy closure. These data add to the accumulating evidence according to which trees do not necessarily improve air quality in near-road environments.
  • Barreto, Goncalo; Soliymani, Rabah; Baumann, Marc; Waris, Eero; Eklund, Kari K; Zenobi-Wong, Marcy; Lalowski, Maciej (2019)
  • Kupka, K.; Leino, A. A.; Ren, W.; Vazquez, H.; Åhlgren, E. H.; Nordlund, K.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.; Kluth, P.; Toulemonde, M.; Djurabekova, F. (2018)
    Stable C-C bonds existing in several sp hybridizations place carbon thin films of different structural compositions among the materials most tolerant to radiation damage, for applications in extreme environments. One of such applications, solid state electron stripper foils for heavy-ion accelerators, requires the understanding of the structural changes induced by high-energy ion irradiation. Tolerance of carbon structure to radiation damage, thermal effects and stress waves due to swift heavy ion impacts defines the lifetime and operational efficiency of the foils. In this work, we analyze the consequences of a single swift heavy ion impact on two different amorphous carbon structures by means of molecular dynamic simulations. The structures are constructed by using two different recipes to exclude the correlation of the evolution of sp2-to-sp3 hybridization with the initial condition. Both initial structures contain approximately 60% of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, however, with different degree of clustering of atoms with sp3 hybridization. We simulate the swift heavy ion impact employing an instantaneous inelastic thermal spike model. The analysis of changes in density, bonding content and the number and size of carbon primitive rings reveals graphitization of the material within the ion track, with higher degree of disorder in the core and more order in the outer shell. Simulated track dimensions are comparable to those observed in small angle x-ray scattering measurements of evaporation-deposited amorphous carbon stripper foils irradiated by 1.14 GeV U ions.
  • Venäläinen, A.; Jalkanen, P.; Tuboltsev, V.; Savin, A.; Räisänen, J. (2018)
    Cluster deposited Pd films exhibit ferromagnetism in the temperature range from 1.8 to 400K. The magnetization properties are found to be dependent on the film thickness. The varying morphology of the resulting Pd film with respect to thickness suggests that cluster size, deposition energy, and substrate type are crucial for the resulting film magnetization. This is demonstrated by the characteristic ferromagnetic hysteresis with the temperature dependent saturation magnetization, remanence. and coercivity of palladium nanocluster aggregates. The temperature dependence of the saturation magnetization, remanence, and coercivity of Pd nanoclusters were measured using an ultra-high-sensitive magnetometer based on a superconducting quantum interference device, and the morphology of the samples was analyzed by tunneling electron microscopy. Published by AIP Publishing.
  • Akmal, Jan Sher; Salmi, Mika; Mäkitie, Antti; Björkstrand, Roy; Partanen, Jouni (2018)
    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the ability of additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, to produce effective drug delivery devices and implants that are both identifiable, as well as traceable. Drug delivery devices can potentially be used for drug release in the direct vicinity of target tissues or the selected medication route in a patient-specific manner as required. The identification and traceability of additively manufactured implants can be administered through radiofrequency identification systems. The focus of this study is to explore how embedded medication and sensors can be added in different additive manufacturing processes. The concept is extended to biomaterials with the help of the literature. As a result of this study, a patient-specific drug delivery device can be custom-designed and additively manufactured in the form of an implant that can identify, trace, and dispense a drug to the vicinity of a selected target tissue as a patient-specific function of time for bodily treatment and restoration.
  • Dragosics, Monika; Meinander, Outi; Jonsdottir, Tinna; Durig, Tobias; De Leeuw, Gerrit; Palsson, Finnur; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavla; Thorsteinsson, Throstur (2016)
    In the Arctic region, Iceland is an important source of dust due to ash production from volcanic eruptions. In addition, dust is resuspended from the surface into the atmosphere as several dust storms occur each year. During volcanic eruptions and dust storms, material is deposited on the glaciers where it influences their energy balance. The effects of deposited volcanic ash on ice and snow melt were examined using laboratory and outdoor experiments. These experiments were made during the snow melt period using two different ash grain sizes (1 phi and 3.5 phi) from the Eyjafjallajokull 2010 eruption, collected on the glacier. Different amounts of ash were deposited on snow or ice, after which the snow properties and melt were measured. The results show that a thin ash layer increases the snow and ice melt but an ash layer exceeding a certain critical thickness caused insulation. Ash with 1 phi in grain size insulated the ice below at a thickness of 9-15 mm. For the 3.5 phi grain size, the insulation thickness is 13 mm. The maximum melt occurred at a thickness of 1 mm for the 1 phi and only 1-2 mm for 3.5 phi ash. A map of dust concentrations on Vatnajokull that represents the dust deposition during the summer of 2013 is presented with concentrations ranging from 0.2 up to 16.6 g m(-2).
  • Uusheimo, Sari; Tulonen, Tiina; Huotari, Jussi; Arvola, Lauri (2020)
    Agriculture contributes significantly to phosphorus and nitrogen loading in southern Finland. Climate change with higher winter air temperatures and precipitation may also promote loading increase further. We analyzed long-term nutrient trends (2001-2020) based on year-round weekly water sampling and daily weather data from a boreal small agricultural watershed. In addition, nutrient retention was studied in a constructed sedimentation pond system for two years. We did not find any statistically significant trends in weather conditions (temperature, precipitation, discharge, snow depth) except for an increase in discharge in March. Increasing trends in annual concentrations were found for nitrate, phosphate, and total phosphorus and total nitrogen. In fact, phosphate concentration increased in every season and nitrate concentration in other seasons except in autumn. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations increased in winter as well and total phosphorus also in summer. Increasing annual loading trend was found for total phosphorus, phosphate, and nitrate. Increasing winter loading was found for nitrate and total nitrogen, but phosphate loading increased in winter, spring, and summer. In the pond system, annual retention of total nitrogen was 1.9-4.8% and that of phosphorus 4.3-6.9%. In addition, 25-40% of suspended solids was sedimented in the ponds. Our results suggest that even small ponds can be utilized to decrease nutrient and material transport, but their retention efficiency varies between years. We conclude that nutrient loading from small boreal agricultural catchments, especially in wintertime, has already increased and is likely to increase even further in the future due to climate change. Thus, the need for new management tools to reduce loading from boreal agricultural lands becomes even more acute.
  • Mamali, D.; Mikkilä, J.; Henzing, B.; Spoor, R.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Russchenberg, H.; Biskos, G. (2018)
    Long-term measurements of PM2.5 mass concentrations and aerosol particle size distributions from 2008 to 2015, as well as hygroscopicity measurements conducted over one year (2008-2009) at Cabauw, The Netherlands, are compiled here in order to provide a comprehensive dataset for understanding the trends and annual variabilities of the atmospheric aerosol in the region. PM2.5 concentrations have a mean value of 14.4 mu g m(-3) with standard deviation 2.1 mu g m(-3), and exhibit an overall decreasing trend of -0.74 mu g m(-3) year(-1). The highest values are observed in winter and spring and are associated with a shallower boundary layer and lower precipitation, respectively, compared to the rest of the seasons. Number concentrations of particles smaller than 500 nm have a mean of 9.2 x 10(3) particles cm(-3) and standard deviation 4.9x10(3) particles cm(-3), exhibiting an increasing trend between 2008 and 2011 and a decreasing trend from 2013 to 2015. The particle number concentrations exhibit highest values in spring and summer (despite the increased precipitation) due to the high occurrence of nucleation-mode particles, which most likely are formed elsewhere and are transported to the observation station. Particle hygroscopicity measurements show that, independently of the air mass origin, the particles are mostly externally mixed with the more hydrophobic mode having a mean hygroscopic parameter kappa of 0.1 while for the more hydrophilic mode kappa is 0.35. The hygroscopicity of the smaller particles investigated in this work (i.e., particles having diameters of 35 nm) appears to increase during the course of the nucleation events, reflecting a change in the chemical composition of the particles. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Lassmann-Klee, Paul G.; Sundblad, Britt-Marie; Malmberg, Leo P.; Sovijarvi, Anssi R. A.; Piirilä, Päivi (2020)
    Clinical testing of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) provides valuable information in asthma diagnostics. Nevertheless, the test results depend to a great extent on the testing procedure: test substance, apparatus and protocol. In Nordic countries, three protocols predominate in the testing field: Per Malmberg, Nieminen and Sovijarvi methods. However, knowledge of their equivalence is limited. We aimed to find equivalent provocative doses (PD) to obtain similar bronchoconstrictive responses for the three protocols. We recruited 31 patients with suspected asthma and health care workers and performed BHR testing with methacholine according to Malmberg and Nieminen methods, and with histamine according to Sovijarvi. We obtained the individual response-dose slopes for each method and predicted equivalent PD values. Applying a mixed-model, we found significant differences in the mean (standard error of mean) response-dose (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)%/mg): Sovijarvi 7.2 (1.5), Nieminen 13.8 (4.2) and Malmberg 26 (7.3). We found that the earlier reported cut-point values for moderate BHR and marked BHR between the Sovijarvi (PD15) and Nieminen (PD20) methods were similar, but with the Malmberg method a significant bronchoconstrictive reaction was measured with lower PD20 values. We obtained a relationship between slope values and PD (mg) between different methods, useful in epidemiological research and clinical practice.
  • Schmidt, Dietrich J. Epp; Kotze, David Johan; Hornung, Erzsebet; Setala, Heikki; Yesilonis, Ian; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklos; Pouyat, Richard; Cilliers, Sarel; Toth, Zsolt; Yarwood, Stephanie A. (2019)
    Urbanization results in the systemic conversion of land-use, driving habitat and biodiversity loss. The "urban convergence hypothesis" posits that urbanization represents a merging of habitat characteristics, in turn driving physiological and functional responses within the biotic community. To test this hypothesis, we sampled five cities (Baltimore, MD, United States; Helsinki and Lahti, Finland; Budapest, Hungary; Potchefstroom, South Africa) across four different biomes. Within each city, we sampled four land-use categories that represented a gradient of increasing disturbance and management (from least intervention to highest disturbance: reference, remnant, turf/lawn, and ruderal). Previously, we used amplicon sequencing that targeted bacteria/archaea (16S rRNA) and fungi (ITS) and reported convergence in the archaeal community. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing and QPCR of functional genes to the same soil DNA extracts to test convergence in microbial function. Our results suggest that urban land-use drives changes in gene abundance related to both the soil N and C metabolism. Our updated analysis found taxonomic convergence in both the archaeal and bacterial community (16S amplicon data). Convergence of the archaea was driven by increased abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea and genes for ammonia oxidation (QPCR and shotgun metagenomics). The proliferation of ammonia-oxidizers under turf and ruderal land-use likely also contributes to the previously documented convergence of soil mineral N pools. We also found a higher relative abundance of methanogens (amplicon sequencing), a higher relative abundance of gene sequences putatively identified as Ni-Fe hydrogenase and nickel uptake (shotgun metagenomics) under urban land-use; and a convergence of gene sequences putatively identified as contributing to the nickel transport function under urban turf sites. High levels of disturbance lead to a higher relative abundance of gene sequences putatively identified as multiple antibiotic resistance protein marA and multidrug efflux pump mexD, but did not lead to an overall convergence in antibiotic resistance gene sequences.
  • Kooter, Ingeborg; Ilves, Marit; Grollers-Mulderij, Mariska; Duistermaat, Evert; Tromp, Peter C.; Kuper, Frieke; Kinaret, Pia; Savolainen, Kai; Greco, Dario; Karisola, Piia; Ndika, Joseph; Alenius, Harri (2019)
    More than 5% of any population suffers from asthma, and there are indications that these individuals are more sensitive to nanoparticle aerosols than the healthy population. We used an air-liquid interface model of inhalation exposure to investigate global transcriptomic responses in reconstituted three-dimensional airway epithelia of healthy and asthmatic subjects exposed to pristine (nCuO) and carboxylated (nCuO(COOH)) copper oxide nanoparticle aerosols. A dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity (highest in asthmatic donor cells) and pro-inflammatory signaling within 24 h confirmed the reliability and sensitivity of the system to detect acute inhalation toxicity. Gene expression changes between nanoparticle-exposed versus air-exposed cells were investigated. Hierarchical clustering based on the expression profiles of all differentially expressed genes (DEGs), cell-death-associated DEGs (567 genes), or a subset of 48 highly overlapping DEGs categorized all samples according to "exposure severity", wherein nanoparticle surface chemistry and asthma are incorporated into the dose-response axis. For example, asthmatics exposed to low and medium dose nCuO clustered with healthy donor cells exposed to medium and high dose nCuO, respectively. Of note, a set of genes with high relevance to mucociliary clearance were observed to distinctly differentiate asthmatic and healthy donor cells. These genes also responded differently to nCuO and nCuO(COOH) nanoparticles. Additionally, because response to transition-metal nanoparticles was a highly enriched Gene Ontology term (FDR 8 X 10(-13)) from the subset of 48 highly overlapping DEGs, these genes may represent biomarkers to a potentially large variety of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles.
  • Savi, Flavia; Nemitz, Eiko; Coyle, Mhairi; Aitkenhead, Matt; Frumau, Kfa; Gerosa, Giacomo; Finco, Angelo; Gruening, Carten; Goded, Ignacio; Loubet, Benjamin; Stella, Patrick; Ruuskanen, Taina; Weidinger, T.; Horvath, L.; Zenone, Terenzio; Fares, Silvano (2020)
    Tropospheric ozone (O-3) is probably the air pollutant most damaging to vegetation. Understanding how plants respond to O(3)pollution under different climate conditions is of central importance for predicting the interactions between climate change, ozone impact and vegetation. This work analyses the effect of O(3)fluxes on net ecosystem productivity (NEP), measured directly at the ecosystem level with the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The relationship was explored with artificial neural networks (ANNs), which were used to model NEP using environmental and phenological variables as inputs in addition to stomatal O(3)uptake in Spring and Summer, when O(3)pollution is expected to be highest. A sensitivity analysis allowed us to isolate the effect of O-3, visualize the shape of the O-3-NEP functional relationship and explore how climatic variables affect NEP response to O-3. This approach has been applied to eleven ecosystems covering a range of climatic areas. The analysis highlighted that O(3)effects over NEP are highly non-linear and site-specific. A significant but small NEP reduction was found during Spring in a Scottish shrubland (-0.67%), in two Italian forests (up to -1.37%) and during Summer in a Californian orange orchard (-1.25%). Although the overall seasonal effect of O(3)on NEP was not found to be negative for the other sites, with episodic O(3)detrimental effect still identified. These episodes were correlated with meteorological variables showing that O(3)damage depends on weather conditions. By identifying O(3)damage under field conditions and the environmental factors influencing to that damage, this work provides an insight into O(3)pollution, climate and weather conditions.
  • Svensson, J.; Strom, J.; Hansson, M.; Lihavainen, H.; Kerminen, V-M (2013)
  • Ylinen, Vappu; Pylkkö, Päivi; Peura, Jussi; Tuomola, Essi; Valaja, Jarmo (2018)
    The effects of low-protein diets supplemented with DL-methionine (MET) and L-histidine (HIS) on growth, pelt size and pelt quality were studied in two performance trials conducted at the Kannus Research Farm Luova Ltd, Finland. Both trials were conducted with 200 blue foxes, caged male-female pairs, initial age on average 20 weeks (trial 1) and 25 weeks (trial 2). In trial 1, diets contained digestible crude protein (DCP) 24%, 20% and 16% of metabolisable energy (ME). In trial 2, diets contained DCP 20%, 16.5% and 13% of ME. In both trials, the middle protein level was fed with or without MET and the lowest protein level was fed with MET and with or without HIS. In trial 1, blue foxes showed the greatest average daily gain (ADG) in the highest protein diet. Pelt size and pelt quality were not affected. In trial 2, blue foxes showed the greatest ADG in the low-protein groups. Pelt size and pelt quality were not affected.