Browsing by Subject "DEPRESSED-PATIENTS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Tiihonen, Jari; Burkin, Mark; Joffe, Grigori (2017)
    Aim: Sexual dysfunction, common in schizophrenia, may be further exaggerated by antipsychotics, especially those of First Generation (FGAs), and antidepressants, such as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRs). Mirtazapine, an antidepressant characterized by its different action mechanism compared with that of the majority of other antidepressants, may improve SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with depression. It is unknown, however, whether mirtazapine improves sexual functioning in schizophrenia.Methods: This study randomly assigned FGA-treated patients with schizophrenia to receive either an add-on mirtazapine (n=20) or a placebo (n=19) for 6 weeks. Sexual functioning was prospectively measured using five relevant items from the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side-effect rating scale (UKU-SERS).Results: Orgasmic function improved with statistical significance in the mirtazapine group (p=.03), with no changes in any other sexual functions in either group.Conclusion: Add-on mirtazapine appears to relieve orgasmic dysfunction in FGA-treated patients with schizophrenia.
  • Antila, Hanna; Ryazantseva, Maria; Popova, Dina; Sipilä, Pia; Guirado, Ramon; Kohtala, Samuel; Yalcin, Ipek; Lindholm, Jesse; Vesa, Liisa; Sato, Vinicius; Cordeira, Joshua; Autio, Henri; Kislin, Mikhail; Rios, Maribel; Joca, Samia; Casarotto, Plinio; Khiroug, Leonard; Lauri, Sari; Taira, Tomi; Castren, Eero; Rantamäki, Tomi (2017)
    A brief burst-suppressing isoflurane anesthesia has been shown to rapidly alleviate symptoms of depression in a subset of patients, but the neurobiological basis of these observations remains obscure. We show that a single isoflurane anesthesia produces antidepressant-like behavioural effects in the learned helplessness paradigm and regulates molecular events implicated in the mechanism of action of rapid-acting antidepressant ketamine: activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor TrkB, facilitation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3 beta). Moreover, isoflurane affected neuronal plasticity by facilitating long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. We also found that isoflurane increased activity of the parvalbumin interneurons, and facilitated GABAergic transmission in wild type mice but not in transgenic mice with reduced TrkB expression in parvalbumin interneurons. Our findings strengthen the role of TrkB signaling in the antidepressant responses and encourage further evaluation of isoflurane as a rapid-acting antidepressant devoid of the psychotomimetic effects and abuse potential of ketamine.
  • van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Sallinen, Mikael; Virkkala, Jussi; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Hublin, Christer; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Harma, Mikko (2018)
    Purpose Sleep restriction is increasingly common and associated with the development of health problems. We investigated how the neuroendocrine stress systems respond to prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep in healthy young men. Methods After two baseline (BL) nights of 8 h time in bed (TIB), TIB was restricted to 4 h per night for five nights (sleep restriction, SR, n = 15), followed by three recovery nights (REC) of 8 h TIB, representing a busy workweek and a recovery weekend. The control group (n = 8) had 8 h TIB throughout the experiment. A variety of autonomic cardiovascular parameters, together with salivary neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cortisol levels, were assessed. Results In the control group, none of the parameters changed. In the experimental group, heart rate increased from 60 +/- 1.8 beats per minute (bpm) at BL, to 63 +/- 1.1 bpm after SR and further to 65 +/- 1.8 bpm after REC. In addition, whole day low-frequency to-high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio of heart rate variability increased from 4.6 +/- 0.4 at BL to 6.0 +/- 0.6 after SR. Other parameters, including salivary NPY and cortisol levels, remained unaffected. Conclusions Increased heart rate and LF/HF power ratio are early signs of an increased sympathetic activity after prolonged sleep restriction. To reliably interpret the clinical significance of these early signs of physiological stress, a follow-up study would be needed to evaluate if the stress responses escalate and lead to more unfavourable reactions, such as elevated blood pressure and a subsequent elevated risk for cardiovascular health problems.
  • Dahoun, Tarik; Pardinas, Antonio F.; Veronese, Mattia; Bloomfield, Michael A. P.; Jauhar, Sameer; Bonoldi, Ilaria; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Nosarti, Chiara; Korth, Carsten; Hennah, William; Walters, James; Prata, Diana; Howes, Oliver D. (2018)
    Whilst the role of the Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene in the aetiology of major mental illnesses is debated, the characterization of its function lends it credibility as a candidate. A key aspect of this functional characterization is the determination of the role of common non-synonymous polymorphisms on normal variation within these functions. The common allele (A) of the DISCI single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs821616 encodes a serine (ser) at the Ser704Cys polymorphism, and has been shown to increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein Kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) that stimulate the phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis. We therefore set out to test the hypothesis that human ser (A) homozygotes would show elevated dopamine synthesis capacity compared with cysteine (cys) homozygotes and heterozygotes (TT and AT) for rs821616. [F-18]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) was used to index striatal dopamine synthesis capacity as the influx rate constant K-i(cer) in healthy volunteers DISC1 rs821616 ser homozygotes (N = 46) and healthy volunteers DISC1. rs821616 cys homozygotes and heterozygotes (N = 56), matched for age, gender, ethnicity and using three scanners. We found DISC1 rs821616 ser homozygotes exhibited a significantly higher striatal K-i(cer) compared with cys homozygotes and heterozygotes (P = 0.012) explaining 6.4% of the variance (partial eta(2) = 0.064). Our finding is consistent with its previous association with heightened activation of ERK1/2, which stimulates tyrosine hydroxylase activity for dopamine synthesis. This could be a potential mechanism mediating risk for psychosis, lending further credibility to the fact that DISC1. is of functional interest in the aetiology of major mental illness.