Browsing by Subject "DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS"

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  • Mendes-Santo, Cristina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Santana, Rui; Andersson, Gerhard (2019)
    Background: Internet-delivered interventions can provide remarkable opportunities in addressing breast cancer survivors' unmet support care needs, as they present an effective strategy to improve care coordination and provide access to efficacious, cost-efficient and convenient survivorship care. Nevertheless, research focusing on improving survivors' psychosocial needs using internet-based tools is scarce and its practical implementation is limited. Objectives: To study the acceptability, feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of iNNOVBC, a 10 weeks guided internet-delivered individually-tailored Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)-influenced cognitive behavioural (CBT) intervention developed to improve mild to moderate anxiety and depression in Breast cancer survivors when compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a waiting list control group (WLC). Methods: A two-arm, parallel, open label, multicentre, waiting list randomized controlled trial will be conducted to investigate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of INNOVBC. The primary outcomes in this research will be anxiety and depression. Secondary outcomes will include psychological flexibility, fatigue, insomnia, sexual dysfunction and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Ethical approval: This study has been reviewed and approved by Comisstio Nacional de Protectio de Dados; Instituto Portuguis de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil; Unidade Local de Satide de Matosinhos, EPE; Centro Hospitalar de Sao Joao and Ordem dos Psicologos ethical committees. Expected results: It is anticipated that iNNOVBC will show to be an efficacious and cost-effective program in improving the outcomes of interest in this study, as opposed to a WLC under TAU. The results of this research will be published in accordance with CONSORT-EHEALTH guidelines. Conclusions: This study will inform on the acceptability, feasibility, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of iNNOVBC, in improving psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer survivors when compared to TAU in a WLC. Its conclusions will contribute to understand the idiosyncrasies of designing and implementing internet-delivered interventions in breast cancer survivors.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T. (2020)
    We modeled early psychosocial risks as a network of interconnected variables to study their associations with later depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2580 men and women aged 3-18 years in 1980. Their parents reported the psychosocial risks in 1980, including the following: (1) child-specific life events, (2) parental health behavior, (3) parental socioeconomic status, and (4) parental psychological problems. Adulthood depressive symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes were measured in 2007-2012. The most central risks (most number of connections to other risks) were socioeconomic risks that also predicted health outcomes more consistently than others.
  • Ahola, Aila J; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Aims: Depressive mood negatively affects self-care practices, and thereby increases the risk of long-term complications. Not much is known about the association between depressive symptoms and dietary intake in patients with type 1 diabetes, a population with high risk of cardiovascular disease. Methods: Subjects (n = 976, 41% men, age 48 +/- 14 years) were participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Dietary patterns were derived from food frequency questionnaire-entries by exploratory factor analysis. Energy and macronutrient intakes were calculated from food records. In the same record, participants also reported the results of their daily blood glucose monitoring. Associations between BDI score and selfcare variables were analysed using generalized linear regression. For macronutrients, a substitution model was applied. Results: TWo dietary patterns ("Fish and vegetables", and "Traditional") negatively associated with the BDI score. Instead, an increase in the "Sweet" pattern score was positively associated with depressive symptomatology. Of the macronutrients, favouring protein over carbohydrates or fats associated with lower depression scores. Higher blood glucose selfmonitoring frequency and higher variability of the measurements were positively associated with the BDI score. However, no association was observed between depressive symptoms and the mean of the blood glucose measurements. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms are reflected in the dietary intake and the selfmonitoring of blood glucose, in type 1 diabetes. Whether depression, via compromised self-care practices, negatively affect long-term outcomes in this patient group has to be the subject of future studies. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Lagerberg, Tyra; Khemiri, Lotfi; Suvisaari, Jaana; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Chang, Zheng; Latvala, Antti (2022)
    Background and aims Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed medications for patients with anxiety/depression. These patients often have problems with substance use, but it remains unclear whether the risk of substance misuse is influenced by SSRI treatment. We aimed to determine whether SSRI treatment is associated with a decreased risk of acute substance misuse-related outcomes. Design Cohort study following individuals through Swedish nation-wide registers between July 2005 and December 2013 and comparing the risk of substance misuse outcomes during periods on- versus off-treatment within the same individual. Setting Swedish general population. Participants Individuals with a newly dispensed prescription of SSRIs between July 2006 and December 2013 and an ICD-10 diagnosis of anxiety/depressive disorder before the first treatment initiation. The cohort included 146 114 individuals (60.7% women). Measurements Substance misuse outcomes included ICD-10 diagnoses of acute intoxications (F10.0-F19.0), accidental poisonings by alcohol or drugs (X41-X42, X45-X46) and substance-related criminal offenses. Findings The absolute rate of substance misuse increased sharply before the onset of SSRI treatment and decreased after treatment initiation. Stratified Cox regression models showed an elevated risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.62-1.78] of substance misuse outcomes during a 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, compared with the reference period of more than 1 month before treatment start. The on-treatment estimates (1-30 days, HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.23-1.37; 31-120 days, HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.24-1.35; and > 120 days, HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.30 after treatment initiation] were consistently lower than the 1-month pre-treatment estimate, but still elevated compared with the reference period. Conclusions For people with anxiety/depression, the risk of substance misuse appears to be particularly elevated immediately before initiating selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, which may reflect the emergence or worsening of substance use problems concurrently with anxiety/depression. SSRI treatment appears to be associated with a lower risk of substance misuse compared with the 1-month period preceding treatment initiation, but causality remains uncertain.
  • Toffol, Elena; Partonen, Timo; Heikinheimo, Oskari; But, Anna; Latvala, Antti; Haukka, Jari (2022)
    Objectives The relationship between the use of contraception and of psychiatric medications is understudied. We examined whether the current and past use of psychotropic medications is associated with the use and type of hormonal contraception (HC). Design Nationwide register-based matched case-control study. Settings All fertile-aged (15-49 years) girls and women living in Finland in 2017; data from several national registers. Participants 294 356 girls and women with a redeemed prescription of HC in 2017, and their same-sized control group of non-users (n=294 356) identified through the Prescription Centre. Main outcome measures Associations between the use of psychotropic medications and the use of HC, and the type of HC tested in logistic regression models. Results Altogether 19.5% of the HC users, and 18% of the HC non-users received at least one prescription for a psychotropic medication in 2017. Among HC users, the proportions of occasional and regular users of psychotropic medications in 2013-2016 were 4.5% and 14.8%, while among HC non-users the respective figures were 4.3% and 14.6%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression models both the use of psychotropic medications in 2017, and their occasional or regular use between 2013-2016 were associated with higher odds of HC use, although with small to very small effect sizes (ORs between 1.37 and 1.06 and 95% CIs 1.22 to 1.53, and 1.03 to 1.09, respectively). After adjustment for covariates, when fixed combinations of progestogens and oestrogens for systemic use was the reference category, women using almost any class of psychotropic medications had higher odds of using other types of HC. Conclusions Fertile-aged girls and women with current and past use of psychotropic medications have higher odds of using HC, with a specific pattern in the type of contraceptives used. Further research is warranted to examine whether our observations indicate a reduction of unwanted pregnancies in women with psychiatric disorders.
  • Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Mänty, Minna; Svärd, Anna; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahti, Jouni (2017)
    This study aimed to examine the bidirectional relationship between psychotropic medication use and changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among a population cohort study. Phase 1 data were collected by mail surveys in 2000-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, and phase 2 follow up survey was conducted in 2007. Based on self-report, the respondents were classified as inactive and active (.14.75 MET-hours/week) at the phases 1 and 2. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated for subsequent (2007-10) psychotropic medication purchasing according to changes in physical activity (phases 1-2). Odds ratios (OR) for physical inactivity at phase 2 were calculated according to the amount of psychotropic medication between phases 1-2. Overall, 5361 respondents were included (mean age 50 years, 80% women). Compared with the persistently active, the persistently inactive, those decreasing and adopting LTPA had an increased risk for psychotropic medication. Only the persistently inactive remained at increased risk for psychotropic medication use, following the adjustment for prior psychotropic medication use. Compared with those having no medication, the risk for physical inactivity increased as the psychotropic medication increased. Our data suggest that physical activity has an important role in maintaining wellbeing and reducing psychotropic medication usage.
  • Jantunen, Hanna; Wasenius, Niko; Salonen, Minna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2019)
    The aim of the study was to examine the association between change in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and symptoms of depression during a 10-year follow-up. This prospective study included 1036 men and women (mean age at baseline = 61.2 years) from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with a questionnaire, HRQoL with SF36 and depression symptoms with Beck's depression inventory (BDI). The association between the change in LTPA and change in HRQoL and BDI were investigated with sex-stratified general linear models adjusted for age, smoking, educational attainment, comorbidity score, and baseline value of outcomes. One standard deviation (SD) increase in LTPA was associated with increase in physical summary component of HRQoL in women (B = 0.7 unit, 95% CI = 0.1-1.3, P = 0.032) and in men (B = 0.8 unit, 95% CI = 0.2-1.5, P = 0.014). In women, the 1SD increase in LTPA was also associated with an increase in mental summary component score (B = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-1.7, P = 0.005) and a reduction in depressive symptoms (B = -0.7, 95% CI = -1.1 to -0.2, P = 0.003). In conclusion, increase in the volume of LTPA over a 10-year period in late adulthood was associated with improved HRQoL in both men and women, and also diminished depressive symptoms in women. The findings support the promotion of physical activity in later years to enhance HRQoL and mental well-being.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Elovainio, Marko; Josefsson, Kim; Batty, G. David; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Objective To examine coronary heart disease (CHD) and its risk factors as predictors of long-term trajectories of psychological distress from midlife to old age. Methods In the Whitehall II cohort study, 6890 participants (4814 men, 2076 women; mean age 49.5 years) had up to seven repeat assessments of psychological distress over 21 years (mean follow-up 19 years). CHD and its risk factors (lifestyle-related risk factors, diabetes, hypertension and cholesterol) were assessed at baseline. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to identify clusters of individuals with a similar pattern of psychological distress over time. Results We identified four trajectories of psychological distress over the follow-up: 'persistently low (69% of the participants), 'persistently intermediate' (13%), 'intermediate to low' (12%) and 'persistently high' (7%). The corresponding proportions were 60%, 16%, 13% and 11% among participants with CHD; 63%, 15%, 12% and 10% among smokers and 63%, 16%, 12% and 10% among obese participants. In multivariable adjusted multinomial regression analyses comparing other trajectories to persistently low trajectory, prevalent CHD was associated with intermediate to low (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.68) and persistently high (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.19) trajectories. Smoking (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.64; OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.04) and obesity (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.70; OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.01) were associated with persistently intermediate and persistently high trajectories, respectively. Conclusion CHD, smoking and obesity may have a role in the development of long-lasting psychological distress from midlife to old age.
  • Hietajärvi, Lauri; Maksniemi, Erika; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2022)
    Since the turn of the millennium, the digital revolution has opened a new layer of opportunities for adolescents to participate, create and learn. Simultaneously there has been growth in both debate and worries regarding how the intensive engagement with digital media affects students' academic performance, engagement, and school-related well-being, that is, academic functioning. Students' continuously evolving digital practices are not always in congruence with the more traditional ways of schoolwork. Students flourish and fulfill their potential when the informal and format practices of learning reach congruence, but when this is not the case, frictions can emerge. Spending time with digital media can provide new avenues for learning and development, but it can equally well divert young people from their studies or increase the daily demands. In this narrative review, we address these continuities and discontinuities between engagement with digital media and academic functioning for school-aged children and young people, focusing on meta-analyses, reviews, and key studies. Following the examination of the current literature, we conclude that, in general, the field of "digital media effects" needs to move beyond screen time and utilize the research on the students' multidimensional socio-digital engagement already conducted. Second, we conclude that the average effects of digital engagement on academic functioning are negligibly small but heterogeneous, further corroborating the claim to examine the qualitative differences in students' digital engagement, the individual differences between students, as well as the contextual interplay.
  • Kuula, Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Objective: Early-stage romantic involvement may resemble hypomania in its manifestation on behavioral, physiological, and psychological levels. Previous research suggests that self-reported sleep duration may diminish as a result of falling in love during adolescence. We investigated how feelings of infatuation are related to subjective and objective measures of sleep duration, quality, and timing. Methods: 1374 adolescents (66% girls; mean age: 16.9, SD=0.6 years) selected from the population register responded to online questionnaires regarding romantic love, mental well-being, and sleep behavior. A sub-sample (n=309) underwent a week-long actigraphy measurement (GENEActiv Original). We compared the sleep duration, quality, and timing of those who reported being in the early stages of love to those who were not. Results: 11% of all participants reported being in the early stages of romantic love. Those girls and boys who were in love had higher scores of depression and anxiety than others. Girls who were in love reported poorer sleep quality, later sleep timing, and shorter sleep duration both on weekdays (mean difference: 32 minutes, p Conclusions: We conclude that romantic love is one further cause for short or poor quality sleep in girls and may relate to symptoms of depression and anxiety in both sexes. However, feelings of infatuation contain important developmental lessons. (C) 2020 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Zannas, Anthony S.; Jia, Meiwen; Hafner, Kathrin; Baumert, Jens; Wiechmann, Tobias; Pape, Julius C.; Arloth, Janine; Ködel, Maik; Martinelli, Silvia; Roitman, Maria; Roeh, Simone; Haehle, Andreas; Emeny, Rebecca T.; Iurato, Stella; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Drake, Amanda J.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wahl, Simone; Kunze, Sonja; Lucae, Susanne; Bradley, Bekh; Gieger, Christian; Hausch, Felix; Smith, Alicia K.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Rein, Theo; Gassen, Nils C.; Binder, Elisabeth B. (2019)
    Aging and psychosocial stress are associated with increased inflammation and disease risk, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Because both aging and stress are also associated with lasting epigenetic changes, a plausible hypothesis is that stress along the lifespan could confer disease risk through epigenetic effects on molecules involved in inflammatory processes. Here, by combining large-scale analyses in human cohorts with experiments in cells, we report that FKBP5, a protein implicated in stress physiology, contributes to these relations. Across independent human cohorts (total n > 3,000), aging synergized with stress-related phenotypes, measured with childhood trauma and major depression questionnaires, to epigenetically up-regulate FKBP5 expression. These age/stress-related epigenetic effects were recapitulated in a cellular model of replicative senescence, whereby we exposed replicating human fibroblasts to stress (glucocorticoid) hormones. Unbiased genome-wide analyses in human blood linked higher FKBP5 mRNA with a proinflammatory profile and altered NF-kappa B-related gene networks. Accordingly, experiments in immune cells showed that higher FKBP5 promotes inflammation by strengthening the interactions of NF-kappa B regulatory kinases, whereas opposing FKBP5 either by genetic deletion (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated) or selective pharmacological inhibition prevented the effects on NF-kappa B. Further, the age/stress-related epigenetic signature enhanced FKBP5 response to NF-kappa B through a positive feedback loop and was present in individuals with a history of acute myocardial infarction, a disease state linked to peripheral inflammation. These findings suggest that aging/stress-driven FKBP5-NF-kappa B signaling mediates inflammation, potentially contributing to cardiovascular risk, and may thus point to novel biomarker and treatment possibilities.
  • Karjalainen, M.; Saltevo, J.; Tiihonen, M.; Haanpää, M.; Kautiainen, H.; Mäntyselkä, P. (2018)
    Background: The association between pain and diabetes in older people has been largely unexplored. The aim of this survey was to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of pain among Finnish men and women 65 or older with and without diabetes in primary care. Methods: All home-dwelling persons 65 years or older with diabetes (N = 527) and age and gender matched controls (N = 890) were identified from electronic patient records. Frequent pain was regarded as any pain experienced more often than once a week, and it was divided into pain experienced several times a week but not daily and pain experienced daily or continuously. The Numeric Rating Scale (0-10) (NRS) was used to assess the intensity and interference of the pain. Results: The number of subjects who returned the questionnaire was 1084 (76.5%). The prevalence of frequent pain in the preceding week was 50% among women without diabetes and 63% among women with diabetes (adjusted, p = 0.22). In men, the corresponding proportions were 42% without diabetes and 47% with diabetes (adjusted, p = 0.58). In both genders, depressive symptoms and the number of comorbidities were associated with pain experienced more often than once a week and with daily pain. Diabetes was not associated with pain intensity or pain interference in either women or men. Conclusions: Pain in older adults is associated with depressive symptoms and the number of comorbidities more than with diabetes itself.
  • Aro, Anna-Kaisa; Karjalainen, Merja; Tiihonen, Miia; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Haanpää, Maija; Mäntyselkä, Pekka (2017)
    Aims: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity in relation to glycemic control among older home-dwelling primary care patients. Methods: Electronic patient records were used to identify 527 people over 65 years with diabetes. Of these, 259 randomly selected subjects were invited to a health examination and 172 of them attended and provided complete data. The participants were divided into three groups based on the HbAlc: good (HbAlc 57 mmol/mol (N=29)) glycemic control. HRQoL was measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Functional and cognitive capacity and mental well-being were assessed with the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Results: EQ-5D scores for good, intermediate and poor glycemic control were 0.78; 0.74 and 0.70, p=0.037. Sub-items of mobility (p=0.002) and self-care were the most affected (p=0.031). Corresponding trend was found for IADL, p=0.008. A significant correlation was found between MMSE scores and HbAlc. Conclusion: Older primary care home-dwelling patients with diabetes and poorer glycemic control have lower functional capacity and HRQoL, especially in regard to mobility and self care. (C) 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rietschel, Liz; Streit, Fabian; Zhu, Gu; McAloney, Kerrie; Frank, Josef; Couvy-Duchesne, Baptiste; Witt, Stephanie H.; Binz, Tina M.; McGrath, John; Hickie, Ian B.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Wright, Margaret J.; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Forstner, Andreas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Wust, Stefan; Nothen, Markus M.; Baumgartner, Markus R.; Walker, Brian R.; Crawford, Andrew A.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Rietschel, Marcella; CORtisolNETwork CORNET Consortium; Major Depressive Disorder; Palotie, Aarno (2017)
    Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a promising measure of long-term hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Previous research has suggested an association between HCC and psychological variables, and initial studies of inter-individual variance in HCC have implicated genetic factors. However, whether HCC and psychological variables share genetic risk factors remains unclear. The aims of the present twin study were to: (i) assess the heritability of HCC; (ii) estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlation between HPA axis activity and the psychological variables perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and neuroticism; using formal genetic twin models and molecular genetic methods, i.e. polygenic risk scores (PRS). HCC was measured in 671 adolescents and young adults. These included 115 monozygotic and 183 dizygotic twin-pairs. For 432 subjects PRS scores for plasma cortisol, major depression, and neuroticism were calculated using data from large genome wide association studies. The twin model revealed a heritability for HCC of 72%. No significant phenotypic or genetic correlation was found between HCC and the three psychological variables of interest. PRS did not explain variance in HCC. The present data suggest that HCC is highly heritable. However, the data do not support a strong biological link between HCC and any of the investigated psychological variables.
  • Jarvela-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Rantala, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Juvonen, Kristiina; Myllymaki, Tero; Fohr, Tiina; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2016)
    Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p <0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p <0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p <0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    Background: Both hostile parenting and parental psychopathology have been shown to predict depression in the offspring. However, whether and how they interact in predicting the longitudinal course of depression from adolescence to adulthood remains unclear. Methods: Participants were from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study, aged 3-18 years at baseline in 1980. We used multilevel modeling for repeated measurements to examine the associations of hostile parenting (i.e., parental intolerance and emotional distance) and parental history of psychopathology with trajectories of depressive symptoms across five study phases from 1992 to 2012. Results: On average, depressive symptoms decreased in a curvilinear pattern with age. A relatively steep decreasing trend was also observed among offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology but low intolerance. By contrast, among the offspring of parents with a history of psychopathology and high intolerance there was a rising trend in depressive symptoms starting from young adulthood. There was no similar interaction between parental history of psychopathology, emotional distance, and age. Limitations: Non-standardized, parental self-report scales were used to measure hostile parenting. The observed effects were small, and the depressive symptoms scale applied in the study may not be used for measuring clinical depression. Conclusions: Parental psychopathology might render individuals sensitive to the unfavorable characteristics of the caregiving environment. Intolerance towards the child can exacerbate the effects of parental psychopathology and have a long-term significance on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms over the life course.
  • Veromaa, Veera; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saxen, Ulla; Malmberg-Ceder, Kirsi; Bergman, Elina; Korhonen, Paeivi E. (2017)
    Aims: Ideal cardiovascular health has been defined by the American Heart Association as the absence of disease and the presence of seven key health factors and behaviours. However, little is known about the mental aspects associated with ideal cardiovascular health metrics. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between psychosocial risk factors and ideal cardiovascular health metrics among Finnish women at municipal work units. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Finland among 732 female employees (mean +/- SD age 48 +/- 10 years) from ten work units in 2014. Ideal cardiovascular health metrics were evaluated with a physical examination, laboratory tests, medical history and self-administrated questionnaires. Psychosocial risk factors (social isolation, stress, depressive symptoms, anxiety, hostility and type D personality) were assessed with core questions as suggested by the European Society of Cardiology. Results: The prevalence of having 5-7 ideal cardiovascular health metrics was 183 (25.0%), of whom 54.1% had at least one psychosocial risk factor. Anxiety (31.3%), work stress (30.7%) and type D personality (26.1%) were the most prevalent of the psychosocial risk factors. The prevalence of depressive symptoms (p
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Merjonen, Päivi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Juonala, Markus; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2017)
    Intergenerational continuity in parenting quality has been demonstrated but the mechanisms underlying this continuity are less understood. This study investigated whether the offspring personality and years of education mediate the continuity in qualities of the parent-child relationship and whether offspring personality moderates this association. The sample comprised 1308 Finnish offspring (G2; 62% female) and their mothers (G1). G1 (Mean age = 37.7) reported self-perceived qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 aged 3-18 years in 1980. Thirty-two years later, once having become parents themselves, G2 (Mean age = 42.9) self-rated their own qualities of the parent-child relationship towards their children using the same scales. Between these follow-ups, G2 self-rated their personality (consisting of temperament and character traits) using the Temperament and Character Inventory and reported years of education. Results indicated that G2 character traits-Self-directedness and Cooperativeness-partially mediated the intergenerational continuity in self-perceived emotional warmth and explained 16% of this association. No mediating role of G2 temperament traits was found (all ps > .240). Character traits accounted for the indirect association better than education in a multiple mediator model. Moreover, no moderating role of either temperament or character traits was found (all psaEuroe.064). Study findings show that warm and accepting qualities of the parent-child relationship in childhood are related to offspring character traits that reflect personality maturity in adulthood, which in turn would predict their own positive parent-child relationship later in life.
  • Kraav, Siiri-Liisi; Lehto, Soili M.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Hantunen, Sari; Tolmunen, Tommi (2021)
    Globally, cancer is the second leading cause of death. Loneliness has been suggested as a risk factor for cancer mortality. However, connections between loneliness, social isolation, and cancer are poorly understood. In our longitudinal study (mean follow-up: 20.44 years) of 2570 middle-aged men, loneliness, social isolation, and health-related factors were measured at baseline. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between cancer incidence, loneliness, and social isolation. The effect of relationship status on cancer mortality among cancer patients was tested with the Kaplan-Meier method. Loneliness was associated with total cancer incidence after adjustments for tested lifestyle and health-related covariates. Social Isolation was associated with total cancer incidence, except when adjusted for lifestyle, diet, or Human Population Laboratory (HPL) Depression Scale scores. Loneliness was associated with lung cancer incidence, except when adjusted for HPL Depression Scale scores. There was no significant association between social isolation and lung cancer. Neither loneliness nor social isolation were connected with prostate or colorectal cancer. Being single at baseline was associated with worse survival outcomes for cancer patients. Our findings suggest that regardless of the social network size, loneliness among middle-aged men is associated with an increased likelihood of cancer.
  • Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira (2015)
    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.