Browsing by Subject "DEPTH"

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  • Wallis, Lee A.; Fleming, Julian; Hasselberg, Marie; Laflamme, Lucie; Lundin, Johan (2016)
    Background Each year more than 10 million people worldwide are burned severely enough to require medical attention, with clinical outcomes noticeably worse in resource poor settings. Expert clinical advice on acute injuries can play a determinant role and there is a need for novel approaches that allow for timely access to advice. We developed an interactive mobile phone application that enables transfer of both patient data and pictures of a wound from the point-of-care to a remote burns expert who, in turn, provides advice back. Methods and Results The application is an integrated clinical decision support system that includes a mobile phone application and server software running in a cloud environment. The client application is installed on a smartphone and structured patient data and photographs can be captured in a protocol driven manner. The user can indicate the specific injured body surface(s) through a touchscreen interface and an integrated calculator estimates the total body surface area that the burn injury affects. Predefined standardised care advice including total fluid requirement is provided immediately by the software and the case data are relayed to a cloud server. A text message is automatically sent to a burn expert on call who then can access the cloud server with the smartphone app or a web browser, review the case and pictures, and respond with both structured and personalized advice to the health care professional at the point-of-care. Conclusions In this article, we present the design of the smartphone and the server application alongside the type of structured patient data collected together with the pictures taken at point-of-care. We report on how the application will be introduced at point-of-care and how its clinical impact will be evaluated prior to roll out. Challenges, strengths and limitations of the system are identified that may help materialising or hinder the expected outcome to provide a solution for remote consultation on burns that can be integrated into routine acute clinical care and thereby promote equity in injury emergency care, a growing public health burden.
  • Fischer, Daniel; Mosler, Karl; Mottonen, Jyrki; Nordhausen, Klaus; Pokotylo, Oleksii; Vogel, Daniel (2020)
    The Oja median is one of several extensions of the univariate median to the multivariate case. It has many desirable properties, but is computationally demanding. In this paper, we first review the properties of the Oja median and compare it to other multivariate medians. Then, we discuss four algorithms to compute the Oja median, which are implemented in our R package OjaNP. Besides these algorithms, the package contains also functions to compute Oja signs, Oja signed ranks, Oja ranks, and the related scatter concepts. To illustrate their use, the corresponding multivariate one- and C-sample location tests are implemented.
  • Odriozola, Inaki; Abrego, Nerea; Tlaskal, Vojtech; Zrustova, Petra; Morais, Daniel; Vetrovsky, Tomas; Ovaskainen, Otso; Baldrian, Petr (2021)
    Fungal-bacterial interactions play a key role in the functioning of many ecosystems. Thus, understanding their interactive dynamics is of central importance for gaining predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, it is challenging to disentangle the mechanisms behind species associations from observed co occurrence patterns, and little is known about the directionality of such interactions. Here, we applied joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal and bacterial communities in deadwood to ask whether fungal and bacterial co-occurrences result from shared habitat use (i.e., deadwood's properties) or whether there are fungal-bacterial interactive associations after habitat characteristics are taken into account. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the interactions are mainly modulated through fungal communities influencing bacterial communities. For that, we quantified how much the predictive power of the joint species distribution models for bacterial and fungal community improved when accounting for the other community. Our results show that fungi and bacteria form tight association networks (i.e., some species pairs co-occur more frequently and other species pairs co-occur less frequently than expected by chance) in deadwood that include common (or opposite) responses to the environment as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Additionally, we show that information about the fungal occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the bacterial abundances substantially, whereas information about the bacterial occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the fungal abundances much less. Our results suggest that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. IMPORTANCE Understanding the interactive dynamics between fungal and bacterial communities is important to gain predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind fungal-bacterial associations and the directionality of species interactions. Applying joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal-bacterial communities in deadwood, we found evidence that nonrandom fungal-bacterial associations derive from shared habitat use as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Importantly, the combination of cross-validations and conditional cross-validations helped us to answer the question about the directionality of the biotic interactions, providing evidence that suggests that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. Our modeling approach may help gain insight into the directionality of interactions between different components of the microbiome in other environments.
  • Bello, Ibrahim O.; Almangush, Alhadi; Heikkinen, Ilkka; Haglund, Caj; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Makitie, Antti A.; Nieminen, Pentti; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2020)
    Little is known about the histopathological characteristics that may differentiate early oral tongue cancer (OTSCC) between young and older patients. From a total of 311 cases diagnosed with clinically early-stage OTSCC at 6 institutions, only 42 patients were young patients were aged 60 years old were matched for center of management, clinical stage and gender. We compared epithelial and stromal histopathologic parameters between the two groups. Most of the parameters were similar between the two groups, although the young patients appeared to have marginally higher intensity of tumor budding, histologic risk score, infiltrative pattern of invasion and tumor-stroma ratio. However, none of the factors showed significant difference when comparing the two groups. The histological parameters reflect mechanisms of invasive growth and tissue response to invasive growth, but not the etiological difference in OTSCC between young and older patients. Further investigations are necessary to compare the genetic background of early OTSCC in the two groups.
  • Rodriguez, E.; Kolmonen, P.; Virtanen, T. H.; Sogacheva, L.; Sundström, Anu-Maija; de Leeuw, G. (2015)
    The Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) on board the ENVISAT satellite is used to study aerosol properties. The retrieval of aerosol properties from satellite data is based on the optimized fit of simulated and measured reflectances at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The simulations are made using a radiative transfer model with a variety of representative aerosol properties. The retrieval process utilizes a combination of four aerosol components, each of which is defined by their (lognormal) size distribution and a complex refractive index: a weakly and a strongly absorbing fine-mode component, coarse mode sea salt aerosol and coarse mode desert dust aerosol). These components are externally mixed to provide the aerosol model which in turn is used to calculate the aerosol optical depth (AOD). In the AATSR aerosol retrieval algorithm, the mixing of these components is decided by minimizing the error function given by the sum of the differences between measured and calculated path radiances at 3-4 wavelengths, where the path radiances are varied by varying the aerosol component mixing ratios. The continuous variation of the fine-mode components allows for the continuous variation of the fine-mode aerosol absorption. Assuming that the correct aerosol model (i.e. the correct mixing fractions of the four components) is selected during the retrieval process, also other aerosol properties could be computed such as the single scattering albedo (SSA). Implications of this assumption regarding the ratio of the weakly/strongly absorbing fine-mode fraction are investigated in this paper by evaluating the validity of the SSA thus obtained. The SSA is indirectly estimated for aerosol plumes with moderate-to-high AOD resulting from wildfires in Russia in the summer of 2010. Together with the AOD, the SSA provides the aerosol absorbing optical depth (AAOD). The results are compared with AERONET data, i.e. AOD level 2.0 and SSA and AAOD inversion products. The RMSE (root mean square error) is 0.03 for SSA and 0.02 for AAOD lower than 0.05. The SSA is further evaluated by comparison with the SSA retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The SSA retrieved from both instruments show similar features, with generally lower AATSR-estimated SSA values over areas affected by wildfires.
  • Lu, Peng; Cheng, Bin; Leppäranta, Matti; Li, Zhijun (2018)
    Summary The partitioning of solar radiation in the Arctic sea ice during the melt season is investigated using a radiative transfer model containing three layers of melt pond, underlying sea ice, and ocean beneath ice. The wavelength distribution of the spectral solar irradiance clearly narrowed with increasing depth into ice, from 350–900 nm at the pond surface to 400–600 nm in the ocean beneath. In contrast, the net spectral irradiance is quite uniform. The absorbed solar energy is sensitive to both pond depth (Hp) and the underlying ice thickness (Hi). The solar energy absorbed by the melt pond (Ψp) is proportional only to Hp. However, the solar energy absorbed by the underlying ice (Ψi) is more complicated due to the counteracting effects arising from the pond and ice to the energy absorption. In September, Ψp decreased by 10% from its August value, which is attributed to more components in the shortwave band (<530 nm) of the incident solar radiation in September relative to August. The absorption coefficient of the sea ice only enhances the absorbed energy in ice, while an increase in the ice scattering coefficient only enhances the absorbed energy in the melt pond, although the resulted changes in Ψp and Ψi are smaller than that in the albedo and transmittance. The energy absorption rate with depth depends strongly on the incident irradiance and ice scattering, but only weakly on pond depth. Our results are comparable to previous field measurements and numerical simulations. We conclude that the incident solar energy was largely absorbed by the melt pond rather than by the underlying sea ice.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Pirinen, Matti; Youssef, Omar; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC8) staging manual has major changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We searched PubMed, OvidMedline, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that examined the performance of AJCC8 in OSCC. A total of 40 808 patients were included in the studies of our meta-analysis. A hazard ratio (HR) of 1.87 (95%CI 1.78-1.96) was seen for stage II, 2.65 (95%CI 2.51-2.80) for stage III, 3.46 (95%CI 3.31-3.61) for stage IVa, and 7.09 (95%CI 4.85-10.36) for stage IVb. A similar gradual increase in risk was noted for the N classification. For the T classification, however, there was a less clear variation in risk between T3 and T4. AJCC8 provides a good risk stratification for OSCC. Future research should examine the proposals introduced in the published studies to further improve the performance of AJCC8.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Mäkinen, Laura K.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Pukkila, Matti; Hagström, Jaana; Laranne, Jussi; Soini, Ylermi; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Grenman, Reidar; Haglund, Caj; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (2018)
    One of the main changes in the 8th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) for staging of oral cancer is the inclusion of depth of invasion (DOI) in the T category. However, cancers in different oral subsites have variable behavior, with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) being the most aggressive one even at early stage. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of this new T category in homogenous cohort of early OTSCC. Therefore, we analyzed a large cohort of patients with a small (ae4 cm) OTSCC to demonstrate the differences in T stage between the AJCC 7th and 8th editions. A total of 311 early-stage cases (AJCC 7th) of OTSCC were analyzed. We used 5 mm and 10 mm DOI for upstaging from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3 respectively, as in the AJCC 8th. We further reclassified the cases according to our own proposal suggesting 2 mm to upstage to T2 and 4 mm to upstage to T3. According to AJCC 7th, there were no significant differences in the survival analysis. When we applied the 8th edition, many cases were upstaged to T3 and thus associated with worse disease-specific survival (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.12-4.99) and disease-free survival (HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.09-4.08). Based on our proposal, T3 cases were associated with even worse disease-specific survival (HR 4.19, 95% CI 2.27-7.74). The 8th edition provides better survival prediction for OTSCC than the 7th and can be further optimized by lowering the DOI cutoffs.
  • Hillers, Gregor; Vuorinen, Tommi A.T.; Uski, Marja; Kortström, Jari; Mäntyniemi, Päivi; Tiira, Timo; Malin, Peter E.; Saarno, Tero (2020)
    A seismic network was installed in Helsinki, Finland to monitor the response to an similar to 6-kilometer-deep geothermal stimulation experiment in 2018. We present initial results of multiple induced earthquake seismogram and ambient wavefield analyses. The used data are from parts of the borehole network deployed by the operating St1 Deep Heat Company, from surface broadband sensors and 100 geophones installed by the Institute of Seismology, University of Helsinki, and from Finnish National Seismic Network stations. Records collected in the urban environment contain many signals associated with anthropogenic activity. This results in time- and frequency-dependent variations of the signal-to-noise ratio of earthquake records from a 260-meter-deep borehole sensor compared to the combined signals of 24 collocated surface array sensors. Manual relocations of similar to 500 events indicate three distinct zones of induced earthquake activity that are consistent with the three clusters of seismicity identified by the company. The fault-plane solutions of 14 selected ML 0.6-1.8 events indicate a dominant reverse-faulting style, and the associated SH radiation patterns appear to control the first-order features of the macroseismic report distribution. Beamforming of earthquake data from six arrays suggests heterogeneous medium properties, in particular between the injection site and two arrays to the west and southwest. Ambient-noise cross-correlation functions reconstruct regional surface-wave propagation and path-dependent body-wave propagation. A 1D inversion of the weakly dispersive surface waves reveals average shear-wave velocities around 3.3 km/s below 20 m depth. Consistent features observed in relative velocity change time series and in temporal variations of a proxy for wavefield partitioning likely reflect the medium response to the stimulation. The resolution properties of the obtained data can inform future monitoring strategies and network designs around natural laboratories.