Browsing by Subject "DESIGN"

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  • Donsbach, Carsten; Reiter, Kevin; Sundholm, Dage; Weigend, Florian; Dehnen, Stefanie (2018)
    The use of ionic liquids (C(n)C(1)Im)[BF4] with long alkyl chains (n=10,12) in the ionothermal treatment of Na-2[HgTe2] led to lamellar crystal structures with molecular macrocyclic anions [Hg8Te16](8-) (1), the heaviest known topological relative of porphyrin. [Hg8Te16](8-) differs from porphyrin by the absence of an electronic pi-system, which prevents a global aromaticity. Quantum chemical studies reveal instead small ring currents in the pyrrole-type five-membered rings that indicate weak local (sigma) aromaticity. As a result of their lamellar nature, the compounds are promising candidates for the formation of sheets containing chalcogenidometalate anions.
  • Hassan, Alaa A.; Mohamed, Nasr K.; El-Shaieb, Kamal M. A.; Tawfeek, Hendawy N.; Bräse, Stefan; Nieger, Martin (2019)
    2-Substituted hydrazinecarbothioamides and N ,2-disubstituted hydrazinecarbothioamides react in high yield with dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) to give 4-oxo-Z-(thiazolidin-5-ylidene) acetate derivatives. Several mechanistic options involving interaction are presented. The structures of thiazolidin-4-ones have been unambiguously confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography. (C) 2014 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
  • Okutachi, Sunday; Manoharan, Ganesh Babu; Kiriazis, Alexandros; Laurini, Christina; Catillon, Marie; McCormick, Frank; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Abankwa, Daniel (2021)
    Recently, the highly mutated oncoprotein K-Ras4B (hereafter K-Ras) was shown to drive cancer cell stemness in conjunction with calmodulin (CaM). We previously showed that the covalent CaM inhibitor ophiobolin A (OphA) can potently inhibit K-Ras stemness activity. However, OphA, a fungus-derived natural product, exhibits an unspecific, broad toxicity across all phyla. Here we identified a less toxic, functional analog of OphA that can efficiently inactivate CaM by covalent inhibition. We analyzed a small series of benzazulenones, which bear some structural similarity to OphA and can be synthesized in only six steps. We identified the formyl aminobenzazulenone 1, here named Calmirasone1, as a novel and potent covalent CaM inhibitor. Calmirasone1 has a 4-fold increased affinity for CaM as compared to OphA and was active against K-Ras in cells within minutes, as compared to hours required by OphA. Calmirasone1 displayed a 2.5-4.5-fold higher selectivity for KRAS over BRAF mutant 3D spheroid growth than OphA, suggesting improved relative on-target activity. Importantly, Calmirasone1 has a 40-260-fold lower unspecific toxic effect on HRAS mutant cells, while it reaches almost 50% of the activity of novel K-RasG12C specific inhibitors in 3D spheroid assays. Our results suggest that Calmirasone1 can serve as a new tool compound to further investigate the cancer cell biology of the K-Ras and CaM associated stemness activities.
  • Schlindwein, Simon H.; Sibold, Carlo; Schenk, Mareike; Ringenberg, Mark R.; Feil, Christoph M.; Nieger, Martin; Gudat, Dietrich (2020)
    The ability of 3-(diphenylphosphinomethyl)-benzene-1,2-dithiol (pbdtH(2)) to act as ditopic ligand was probed in reactions with selected group-10-metal complexes. Reactions with [(cod)PdCl2] afforded a mixture of products identified as [Pd(pbdtH)(2)], [Pd-2(mu(2)-pbdt)(2)] and [Pd-3(mu(2)-pbdt)(2)Cl-2]. The polynuclear complexes could be isolated after suitably adjusting the reaction conditions, and heating of a mixture in a microwave reactor effected partial conversion into a further complex [Pd-3(mu(2)-pbdt)(3)]. Reaction of pbdtH(2) with [Ni(H2O)(6)Cl-2] gave rise to a complex [Ni-2(mu(2)-pbdt)(2)], which was shown to undergo two reversible 1e(-)-reduction steps. Reaction of [Pd(pbdtH)(2)] with [Au(PPh3)Cl] afforded heterotrinuclear [PdAu2(mu(2)-pbdt)(2)(PPh3)]. All complexes were characterized by analytical, spectroscopic and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Their molecular structures confirm the ability of the pbdt(2-) unit to support simultaneous P,S- and S,S-chelating coordination to two metal centers.
  • Bhutta, Mahmood F.; Lambie, Jane; Hobson, Lindsey; Goel, Anuj; Hafren, Lena; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Mattila, Petri S.; Farrall, Martin; Brown, Steve; Burton, Martin J. (2017)
    Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) is the most common cause of hearing loss in children, and known to have high heritability. Mutant mouse models have identified Fbxo11, Evi1, Tgif1, and Nisch as potential risk loci. We recruited children aged 10 and under undergoing surgical treatment for COME from 35 hospitals in the UK, and their nuclear family. We performed association testing with the loci FBXO11, EVI1, TGIF1 and NISCH and sought to replicate significant results in a case-control cohort from Finland. We tested 1296 families (3828 individuals), and found strength of association with the T allele at rs881835 (p = 0.006, OR 1.39) and the G allele at rs1962914 (p = 0.007, OR 1.58) at TGIF1, and the A allele at rs10490302 (p = 0.016, OR 1.17) and the G allele at rs2537742 (p = 0.038, OR 1.16) at FBXO11. Results were not replicated. This study supports smaller studies that have also suggested association of otitis media with polymorphism at FBX011, but this is the first study to report association with the locus TGIF1. Both FBX011 and TGIF1 are involved in TGF-beta signalling, suggesting this pathway may be important in the transition from acute to chronic middle ear inflammation, and a potential molecular target.
  • Jousimo, Jussi; Ovaskainen, Otso (2016)
    Random encounter models can be used to estimate population abundance from indirect data collected by non-invasive sampling methods, such as track counts or camera-trap data. The classical Formozov-Malyshev-Pereleshin (FMP) estimator converts track counts into an estimate of mean population density, assuming that data on the daily movement distances of the animals are available. We utilize generalized linear models with spatio-temporal error structures to extend the FMP estimator into a flexible Bayesian modelling approach that estimates not only total population size, but also spatio-temporal variation in population density. We also introduce a weighting scheme to estimate density on habitats that are not covered by survey transects, assuming that movement data on a subset of individuals is available. We test the performance of spatio-temporal and temporal approaches by a simulation study mimicking the Finnish winter track count survey. The results illustrate how the spatio-temporal modelling approach is able to borrow information from observations made on neighboring locations and times when estimating population density, and that spatio-temporal and temporal smoothing models can provide improved estimates of total population size compared to the FMP method.
  • Nahm, Daniel; Weigl, Franziska; Schaefer, Natascha; Sancho, Ana; Frank, Andreas; Groll, Jürgen; Villmann, Carmen; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Dalton, Paul D.; Luxenhofer, Robert (2020)
    In this study, we designed a novel biomaterial ink platform based on hydrophilic poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazine) (PEtOzi) specifically for melt electrowriting (MEW). This material crosslinks spontaneously after processing via dynamic Diels–Alder click chemistry. These direct-written microperiodic structures rapidly swell in water to yield thermoreversible hydrogels. These hydrogels are robust enough for repeated aspiration and ejection through a cannula without structural damage, despite their high water content of 84%. Moreover, the scaffolds retain functional groups for modification using click chemistry and therefore can be readily functionalized as demonstrated using fluorophores and peptides to facilitate visualization and cell attachment. The PEtOzi hydrogel developed here is compatible with confocal imaging and staining protocols for cells. In summary, an advanced material platform based on PEtOzi is reported that is compatible with MEW and results in functionalizable chemically crosslinked microperiodic hydrogels.
  • Wannasarit, Saowanee; Wang, Shiqi; Figueiredo, Patricia; Trujillo Olvera, Claudia Ximenia; Eburnea, Francesca; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Correia, Alexandra; Ding, Yaping; Teesalu, Tambet; Liu, Dongfei; Wiwattanapatapee, Ruedeekorn; Santos, Hélder A.; Li, Wei (2019)
    Achieving cellular internalization and endosomal escape remains a major challenge for many antitumor therapeutics, especially macromolecular drugs. Viral drug carriers are reported for efficient intracellular delivery, but with limited choices of payloads. In this study, a novel polymeric nanoparticle (ADMAP) is developed, resembling the structure and functional features of a virus. ADMAP is synthesized by grafting endosomolytic poly(lauryl methacrylate‐co‐methacrylic acid) on acetalated dextran. The endosomolytic polymer mimics the capsid protein for endosomal escape, and acetalated dextran resembles the viral core for accommodating payloads. After polymer synthesis, the subsequent controlled nanoprecipitation on a microfluidic device yields uniform nanoparticles with high encapsulation efficiency. At late endosomal pH (5.0), the ADMAP particles successfully destabilize endosomal membranes and release the drug payloads synergistically, resulting in a greater therapeutic efficacy compared with that of free anticancer drugs. Further conjugation of a tumor‐penetrating peptide enhances the antitumor efficacy toward 3D spheroids and finally leads to spheroid disintegration. The unique structure along with the synergistic endosomal escape and drug release make ADMAP nanoparticles favorable for intracellular delivery of antitumor therapeutics.
  • Kaaronen, Roope O. (2017)
    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local thinking and external behavior possibilities entails a deep understanding of tacit and explicit attitudes, values, knowledge as well as physical and social environments, best gained via inclusive and polycentric policy approaches.
  • Kajamaa, Anu; Kumpulainen, Kristiina (2019)
    Despite the potential of digitally enhanced learning environments for supporting twenty-first-century learning and educational change, there is a dearth of research knowledge on students' transformative agency in their use of digital technologies and media within these contexts. Transformative agency accounts for young people's initiative and commitment to transform their activity and its context(s) for personal and/or academic ends. This paper reports an investigation of students' transformative agency in a novel, student-centered design and learning environment, referred to as a makerspace. We present our empirical findings as a narrative, illustrating how transformative agency emerged and developed via three intertwined discursive and action-level manifestations of such agency, namely "deviating", "switching", and "transfiguring", in the social activity of a group of four 5th grade students participating in the makerspace environment over one school semester. Our study makes an original contribution to the research on students' transformative agency and its temporal unfolding in a novel digitally enhanced learning environment.
  • Loeblein, Jochen; Lorson, Thomas; Komma, Miriam; Kielholz, Tobias; Windbergs, Maike; Dalton, Paul D.; Luxenhofer, Robert (2021)
    Additive manufacturing or 3D printing as an umbrella term for various materials processing methods has distinct advantages over many other processing methods, including the ability to generate highly complex shapes and designs. However, the performance of any produced part not only depends on the material used and its shape, but is also critically dependent on its surface properties. Important features, such as wetting or fouling, critically depend mainly on the immediate surface energy. To gain control over the surface chemistry post-processing modifications are generally necessary, since it' s not a feature of additive manufacturing. Here, we report on the use of initiator and catalyst-free photografting and photopolymerization for the hydrophilic modification of microfiber scaffolds obtained from hydrophobic medical-grade poly(epsilon-caprolactone) via melt-electrowriting. Contact angle measurements and Raman spectroscopy confirms the formation of a more hydrophilic coating of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Apart from surface modification, we also observe bulk polymerization, which is expected for this method, and currently limits the controllability of this procedure.
  • Benetto Tiz, Davide; Skok, Žiga; Durcik, Martina; Tomašič, Tihomir; Peterlin Mašič, Lucija; Ilaš, Janez; Draskovits, Gábor; Révész, Tamás; Nyerges, Ákos; Pál, Csaba; Cruz, Cristina D.; Tammela, Päivi Sirpa Marjaana; Žigon, Dušan; Kikelj, Danijel; Zidar, Nace (2019)
    ATP competitive inhibitors of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV have great therapeutic potential, but none of the described synthetic compounds has so far reached the market. To optimise the activities and physicochemical properties of our previously reported N-phenylpyrrolamide inhibitors, we have synthesized an improved, chemically variegated selection of compounds and evaluated them against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV enzymes, and against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The most potent compound displayed IC50 values of 6.9 nM against Escherichia coli DNA gyrase and 960 nM against Staphylococcus aureus topoisomerase IV. Several compounds displayed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against Gram-positive strains in the 1-50 mu M range, one of which inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes with MIC values of 1.56 mu M, 1.56 mu M, 0.78 mu M and 0.72 mu M, respectively. This compound has been investigated further on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and on ciprofloxacin non-susceptible and extremely drug resistant strain of S. aureus (MRSA VISA). It exhibited the MIC value of 2.5 mu M on both strains, and MIC value of 32 mu M against MRSA in the presence of inactivated human blood serum. Further studies are needed to confirm its mode of action. (C) 2019 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Alhede, Christina; Lauridsen, Trine K.; Johannessen, Arne; Dixen, Ulrik; Jensen, Jan S.; Raatikainen, Pekka; Hindricks, Gerhard; Walfridsson, Haakan; Kongstad, Ole; Pehrson, Steen; Englund, Anders; Hartikainen, Juha; Hansen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Jens C.; Jons, Christian (2017)
    Background: Supraventricular ectopic complexes (SVEC) originating in the pulmonary veins are known triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) which led to the development of pulmonary vein isolation for AF. However, the long-term prevalence of SVEC after catheter ablation (CA) as compared to antiarrhythmic medication (AAD) is unknown. Our aims were to compare the prevalence of SVEC after AAD and CA and to estimate the association between baseline SVEC burden and AF burden during 24 months of follow-up. Methods: Patients with paroxysmal AF (N = 260) enrolled in the MANTRA PAF trial were treated with AAD (N = 132) or CA (N = 128). At baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow-up patients underwent 7-day Holter monitoring to assess SVEC and AF burden. We compared SVEC burden between treatments with Wilcoxon sum rank test. Results: Patients treated with AAD had significantly lower daily SVEC burden during follow-up as compared to CA (AAD: 19 [6-58] versus CA: 39 [14-125], p = 0.003). SVEC burden increased post-procedurally followed by a decrease after CA whereas after AAD SVEC burden decreased and stabilized after 3 months of follow-up. Patients with low SVEC burden had low AF burden after both treatments albeit this was more pronounced after CA at 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: AAD was superior to CA in suppressing SVEC burden after treatment of paroxysmal AF. After CA SVEC burden increased immediately post-procedural followed by a decrease whereas after AAD an early decrease was observed. Lower SVEC burden was highly associated with lower AF burden during follow-up especially after CA. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Baryshnikov, G. V.; Valiev, R. R.; Cherepanov, V. N.; Karaush-Karmazin, N. N.; Minaeva, V. A.; Minaev, B. F.; Ågren, H. (2019)
    The electronic structure, absorption and emission spectra, aromaticity and photophysical behavior of the recently synthesized tetrasilatetrathia[8]circulene and tetragermatetrathia[8]circulene compounds have been studied computationally. Both compounds demonstrate a specific bifacial aromaticity, which is unusual for hetero[8]circulenes; the inner eight-membered core sustains an expected strong paratropic magnetically-induced ring current, while the outer perimeter contains saturated Si(Et)2 and Ge(Et)2 moieties which break the conjugation between the thiophene rings. The overall magnetically-induced ring current for both studied circulenes is close to zero because of the strong local diatropic currents in each thiophene ring that compensate the paratropic counterpart. The electronic absorption and emission spectra of tetrasilatetrathia[8]circulene and tetragermatetrathia[8]circulene demonstrate a clear visible vibronic progression. The 0–0 band is the most active one in the absorption spectra, while in the fluorescence spectra the 0–1 band composed of several normal vibrations is more intense compared with the 0–0 band in excellent agreement with experiment. Accounting for spin–orbit coupling effects, an analysis of the photophysical constants for the two compounds demonstrates: (1) a clear manifestation of the internal heavy atom effect on the inter-system crossing efficiency; (2) one to two order domination of non-radiative rates over the fluorescence rate; and (3) that the S1–S0 internal conversion is extremely slow and can not compete with the fluorescence, while the S1–Tn inter-system crossing is a main deactivation channel of the S1 excited state. These results provide new insight into the electronic structure and photophysics of tetrasilatetrathia[8]circulene and tetragermatetrathia[8]circulene as novel standalone representatives of hetero[8]circulenes – tetraannelated derivatives of tetrathienylene.
  • Baryshnikov, Glib; Valiev, Rashid R.; Nasibullin, Rinat T.; Sundholm, Dage; Kurten, Theo; Ågren, Hans (2020)
    The recently synthesized cyclo[18]carbon molecule has been characterized in a number of studies by calculating electronic, spectroscopic, and mechanical properties. However, cyclo[18] carbon is only one member of the class of cyclo[n]carbons-standalone carbon allotrope representatives. Many of the larger members of this class of molecules have not been thoroughly investigated. In this work, we calculate the magnetically induced current density of cyclo[n]carbons in order to elucidate how electron delocalization and aromatic properties change with the size of the molecular ring (n), where n is an even number between 6 and 100. We find that the Hiickel rules for aromaticity (4k + 2) and antiaromaticity (4k) become degenerate for large C-n rings (n > 50), which can be understood as a transition from a delocalized electronic structure to a nonaromatic structure with localized current density fluxes in the triple bonds. Actually, the calculations suggest that cyclo[n]carbons with n > 50 are nonaromatic cyclic polyalkynes. The influence of the amount of nonlocal exchange and the asymptotic behavior of the exchange-correlation potential of the employed density functionals on the strength of the magnetically induced ring current and the aromatic character of the large cyclo[n]carbons is also discussed.
  • Chan, Tommy; Cai, Runlong; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Liu, Yiliang; Zhou, Ying; Vanhanen, Joonas; Dada, Lubna; Chao, Yan; Liu, Yongchun; Wang, Lin; Kulmala, Markku; Kangasluoma, Juha (2020)
    Accurate measurements of the size distribution of atmospheric aerosol nanoparticles are essential to build an understanding of new particle formation and growth. This is particularly crucial at the sub-3 nm range due to the growth of newly formed nanoparticles. The challenge in recovering the size distribution is due its complexity and the fact that not many instruments currently measure at this size range. In this study, we used the particle size magnifier (PSM) to measure atmospheric aerosols. Each day was classified into one of the following three event types: a new particle formation (NPF) event, a non-event or a haze event. We then compared four inversion methods (stepwise, kernel, Hagen-Alofs and expectation-maximization) to determine their feasibility to recover the particle size distribution. In addition, we proposed a method to pretreat the measured data, and we introduced a simple test to estimate the efficacy of the inversion itself. Results showed that all four methods inverted NPF events well; however, the stepwise and kernel methods fared poorly when inverting non-events or haze events. This was due to their algorithm and the fact that, when encountering noisy data (e.g. air mass fluctuations or low sub-3 nm particle concentrations) and under the influence of larger particles, these methods overestimated the size distribution and reported artificial particles during inversion. Therefore, using a statistical hypothesis test to discard noisy scans prior to inversion is an important first step toward achieving a good size distribution. After inversion, it is ideal to compare the integrated concentration to the raw estimate (i.e. the concentration difference at the lowest supersaturation and the highest supersaturation) to ascertain whether the inversion itself is sound. Finally, based on the analysis of the inversion methods, we provide procedures and codes related to the PSM data inversion.
  • Perrier, F.; Viallon, V.; Ambatipudi, S.; Ghantous, A.; Cuenin, C.; Hernandez-Vargas, H.; Chajes, V.; Baglietto, L.; Matejcic, M.; Moreno-Macias, H.; Kühn, T.; Boeing, H.; Karakatsani, A.; Kotanidou, A.; Trichopoulou, A.; Sieri, S.; Panico, S.; Fasanelli, F.; Dolle, M.; Onland-Moret, C.; Sluijs, I.; Weiderpass, E.; Quiros, J. R.; Agudo, A.; Huerta, J. M.; Ardanaz, E.; Dorronsoro, M.; Tong, T. Y. N.; Tsilidis, K.; Riboli, E.; Gunter, M. J.; Herceg, Z.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I. (2019)
    BackgroundThere is increasing evidence that folate, an important component of one-carbon metabolism, modulates the epigenome. Alcohol, which can disrupt folate absorption, is also known to affect the epigenome. We investigated the association of dietary folate and alcohol intake on leukocyte DNA methylation levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Leukocyte genome-wide DNA methylation profiles on approximately 450,000 CpG sites were acquired with Illumina HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip measured among 450 women control participants of a case-control study on breast cancer nested within the EPIC cohort. After data preprocessing using surrogate variable analysis to reduce systematic variation, associations of DNA methylation with dietary folate and alcohol intake, assessed with dietary questionnaires, were investigated using CpG site-specific linear models. Specific regions of the methylome were explored using differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis and fused lasso (FL) regressions. The DMR analysis combined results from the feature-specific analysis for a specific chromosome and using distances between features as weights whereas FL regression combined two penalties to encourage sparsity of single features and the difference between two consecutive features.ResultsAfter correction for multiple testing, intake of dietary folate was not associated with methylation level at any DNA methylation site, while weak associations were observed between alcohol intake and methylation level at CpG sites cg03199996 and cg07382687, with q(val)=0.029 and q(val)=0.048, respectively. Interestingly, the DMR analysis revealed a total of 24 and 90 regions associated with dietary folate and alcohol, respectively. For alcohol intake, 6 of the 15 most significant DMRs were identified through FL.ConclusionsAlcohol intake was associated with methylation levels at two CpG sites. Evidence from DMR and FL analyses indicated that dietary folate and alcohol intake may be associated with genomic regions with tumor suppressor activity such as the GSDMD and HOXA5 genes. These results were in line with the hypothesis that epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the association between folate and alcohol, although further studies are warranted to clarify the importance of these mechanisms in cancer.
  • Fuertes, Elaine; Soderhall, Cilla; Acevedo, Nathalie; Becker, Allan; Brauer, Michael; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Dijk, F. Nicole; Heinrich, Joachim; de Jongste, Johan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kere, Juha; Kozyrskyj, Anita L.; Pershagen, Goran; Sandford, Andrew; Standl, Marie; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Westman, Marit; Carlsten, Christopher; Melen, Erik (2015)
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Peltola, Taru; Salo, Marja; Furman, Eeva (2019)
    The critical role of everyday practices in climate change mitigation has placed experimental approaches at the top of the environmental policy agenda. In this paper we discuss the value of behavioural approaches, practice theories, pragmatic tinkering and speculative thinking with respect to experimentation. Whereas the first two have been much discussed within sustainability science and transition research, the notions of pragmatic tinkering and speculative thinking radically broaden the scope of experimental research and its contribution to sustainable everyday practices. Pragmatism brings to the fore the need to coordinate multiple practices and understandings of good eating, as these may clash in practice. Through this lens, the value of experimental research lies in revealing frictions that need to be resolved, or tinkered, in practice. Speculative experimentation, in turn, refers to the power of experiments to challenge the experimental setting itself and force thinking about new possibilities and avenues. We investigate the value of all four approaches in relation to our experiments with sustainable eating in the Finnish and Nordic context. Our elaboration justifies the need to broaden the conception of experimental research in order to capture the multiplicity of sustainable eating. Hence, we call for attentive, speculative experimental research aimed not only at testing solutions for sustainable everyday practice, but also at reflecting on the practice of experimentation itself.
  • Riikonen, Sini; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2020)
    The present investigation aimed to analyze the collaborative making processes and ways of organizing collaboration processes of five student teams. As a part of regular school work, the seventh-grade students were engaged in the use of traditional and digital fabrication technologies for inventing, designing, and making artifacts. To analyze complex, longitudinal collaborative making processes, we developed the visual Making-Process-Rug video analysis method, which enabled tracing intertwined with social-discursive and materially mediated making processes and zoomed in on the teams' efforts to organize their collaborative processes. The results indicated that four of the five teams were able to take on multifaceted epistemic and fabrication-related challenges and come up with novel co-inventions. The successful teams' social-discursive and embodied making actions supported each another. These teams dealt with the complexity of invention challenges by spending a great deal of their time in model making and digital experimentation, and their making process progressed iteratively. The development of adequate co-invention and well-organized collaboration processes appeared to be anchored in the team's shared epistemic object.