Browsing by Subject "DIAGNOSTIC-CRITERIA"

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  • Hotta, Jaakko; Saari, Jukka; Koskinen, Miika; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Forss, Nina; Hari, Riitta (2017)
    Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) display various abnormalities in central motor function, and their pain is intensified when they perform or just observe motor actions. In this study, we examined the abnormalities of brain responses to action observation in CRPS. We analyzed 3-T functional magnetic resonance images from 13 upper limb CRPS patients (all female, ages 31-58 years) and 13 healthy, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired while the subjects viewed brief videos of hand actions shown in the first-person perspective. A pattern-classification analysis was applied to characterize brain areas where the activation pattern differed between CRPS patients and healthy subjects. Brain areas with statistically significant group differences (q <.05, false discovery rate-corrected) included the hand representation area in the sensorimotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, secondary somatosensory cortex, inferior parietal lobule, orbitofrontal cortex, and thalamus. Our findings indicate that CRPS impairs action observation by affecting brain areas related to pain processing and motor control. Perspective: This article shows that in CRPS, the observation of others' motor actions induces abnormal neural activity in brain areas essential for sensorimotor functions and pain. These results build the cerebral basis for action-observation impairments in CRPS. (C) 2016 by the American Pain Society
  • Petaja, Liisa; Vaara, Suvi; Liuhanen, Sasu; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili; Mildh, Leena; Nisula, Sara; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Salmenpera, Markku; Pettila, Ville (2017)
    Objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for diagnosing AKI include creatinine and urine output values. However, the value of the latter is debated. The authors aimed to evaluate the incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery and the independent association of KDIGO criteria, especially the urine output criterion, and 2.5-year mortality. Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Setting: Single-center study in a university hospital. Participants: The study comprised 638 cardiac surgical patients from September 1, 2011, to June 20, 2012. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Hourly urine output, daily plasma creatinine, risk factors for AKI, and variables for EuroSCORE II were recorded. AKI occurred in 183 (28.7%) patients. Patients with AKI diagnosed using only urine output had higher 2.5-year mortality than did patients without AKI (9/53 [17.0%] v 23/455 [5.1%], p = 0.001). AKI was associated with mortality (hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 3.3 [1.8-6.1] for KDIGO I; 5.8 [2.7-12.1] for KDIGO 2; and 7.9 [3.5-17.6]) for KDIGO 3. KDIGO stages and AKI diagnosed using urine output were associated with mortality even after adjusting for mortality risk assessed using EuroSCORE II and risk factors for AKI. Conclusions: AKI diagnosed using only the urine output criterion without fulfilling the creatinine criterion and all stages of AKI were associated with long-term mortality. Preoperatively assessed mortality risk using EuroSCORE II did not predict this AKI-associated mortality. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Annanmaki, Tua; Palmu, Kirsi; Murros, Kari; Partanen, Juhani (2017)
    The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia often occurring with Parkinson's disease (PD) is still based on the clinical picture and neuropsychological examination. Ancillary methods to detect cognitive decline in these patients are, therefore, needed. Alterations in the latencies and amplitudes of evoked response potential (ERP) components N100 and P200 have been described in PD. Due to limited number of studies their relation to cognitive deficits in PD remains obscure. The present study was designed to examine if alterations in the N100- and P200-potentials associate with neuropsychological impairment in PD. EEG-ERP was conducted to 18 PD patients and 24 healthy controls. The patients underwent a thorough neuropsychological evaluation. The controls were screened for cognitive impairment with Consortium to Establish Alzheimer's disease (CERAD)-testing and a normal result were required to be included in the study. The N100-latency was prolonged in the patients compared to the controls (p = 0.05). In the patients, the N100 latency correlated significantly with a visual working memory task (p = 0.01). Also N100 latency was prolonged and N100 amplitude habituation diminished in the patients achieving poorly in this task. We conclude that prolonged N100-latency and diminished amplitude habituation associate with visual working memory impairment in PD.
  • Stephen, Ruth; Liu, Yawu; Ngandu, Tiia; Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina; Parkkola, Riitta; Laatikainen, Tiina; Paajanen, Teemu; Hanninen, Tuomo; Strandberg, Timo; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Keinanen Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Vanninen, Ritva; Helisalmi, Seppo; Levalahti, Esko; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina (2017)
    Background: CAIDE Dementia Risk Score is the first validated tool for estimating dementia risk based on a midlife risk profile. Objectives: This observational study investigated longitudinal associations of CAIDE Dementia Risk Score with brain MRI, amyloid burden evaluated with PIB-PET, and detailed cognition measures. Methods: FINGER participants were at-risk elderly without dementia. CAIDE Risk Score was calculated using data from previous national surveys (mean age 52.4 years). In connection to baseline FINGER visit (on average 17.6 years later, mean age 70.1 years), 132 participants underwent MRI scans, and 48 underwent PIB-PET scans. All 1,260 participants were cognitively assessed (Neuropsychological Test Battery, NTB). Neuroimaging assessments included brain cortical thickness and volumes (Freesurfer 5.0.3), visually rated medial temporal atrophy (MTA), white matter lesions (WML), and amyloid accumulation. Results: Higher CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was related to more pronounced deep WML (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.05-1.43), lower total gray matter (beta- coefficient -0.29, p = 0.001) and hippocampal volume (beta- coefficient -0.28, p = 0.003), lower cortical thickness (beta-coefficient -0.19, p = 0.042), and poorer cognition (beta-coefficients -0.31 for total NTB score, -0.25 for executive functioning, -0.33 for processing speed, and -0.20 for memory, all p <0.001). Higher CAIDE Dementia Risk Score including APOE genotype was additionally related to more pronounced MTA (OR 1.15,95% CI 1.00-1.30). No associations were found with periventricular WML or amyloid accumulation. Conclusions: The CAIDE Dementia Risk Score was related to indicators of cerebrovascular changes and neurodegeneration on MRI, and cognition. The lack of association with brain amyloid accumulation needs to be verified in studies with larger sample sizes.
  • Kiiski, Ville O; Salava, Alexander; Susitaival, Päivikki; Barnhill, Satu; Remitz, Anita; Heliövaara, Markku (2022)
    Background The prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has increased, but studies in adult or elderly populations are sparse. Methods We investigated 12-month and lifetime prevalences of AD in the Finnish adult population ≥30 years of age and analyzed living environment factors, socioeconomic factors, lifestyle-related factors, and serum vitamin D levels for their associations with AD in a national health examination survey. Results The lifetime prevalence was 21.9% and 12-month prevalence 10.1%. The highest prevalence (lifetime 28.6%, 12-month 15.4%) was seen in subjects 30-39 years of age. Prevalence decreased with age. Subjects with highly educated parents were more likely to have active AD, though there was no effect of higher education in subjects themselves. Younger age and being an ex-smoker were associated with active AD. Female sex and daily smoking increased the risk in subjects 30-49 years of age. There was no dose– response relationship to serum vitamin D levels and no association with the living environment. Conclusions Our data show that the number of adult patients with atopic dermatitis has grown and prevalence numbers of AD in Finnish adults are among the highest reported. Together with the aging of the society, the burden of AD is not limited to childhood.
  • Kuhlefelt, Marina; Laine, Pekka; Thoren, Hanna (2016)
    Objective. A prospective study to clarify the impact of forward bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD). Study Design. We examined and interviewed patients with BSSO before and at 1 year after surgery to evaluate the changes in TMD symptoms. A well-known TMD index, which incorporated two complementary subindices-the objective functional Helkimo dysfunction index (Di) and the subjective symptomatic anamnestic index (Ai)-was used. Patients with a forward movement of the mandible and osteosynthesis with titanic miniplates were included. Results. Forty patients (26 females and 14 males, mean age of study population 36.9 years) retrognathia completed the study. There was no change in TMD symptoms in 24 patients (60%), as measured by the Di, and 26 (65%), as measured by the Ai. Twelve patients improved (30%), according to the Di scores and 10 (25%) according to the Ai scores. Four patients had more TMD symptoms at follow-up (10%), as measured by both Di and Ai. Conclusions. Surgery for orthognathia is a predictable treatment for improving aesthetics and occlusion but less predictable for alleviating TMD symptoms in patients with retrognathia. TMD symptoms should therefore be treated independently.
  • Halonen, Pia; Jakobsson, Maija; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Riska, Annika; Gissler, Mika; Pukkala, Eero (2018)
    The association between Lichen planus (LP) and cancer has been under debate for decades. We studied the connection via population-based Finnish register data. All women with the diagnosis of LP (n=13,100) were identified from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Registry from 1969-2012. These patients were linked with subsequent cancer diagnoses from the Finnish Cancer Registry until 2014. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were counted for different cancers by dividing the observed numbers of cancers by expected numbers, which were based on national cancer incidence rates. In total, 1,520 women with LP were diagnosed with cancer (SIR 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.20). LP was associated with an increased risk of cancer of lip (SIR 5.17, 95% CI 3.06-8.16), cancer of tongue (SIR 12.4, 95% CI 9.45-16.0), cancer of oral cavity (SIR 7.97, 95% CI 6.79-9.24), cancer of esophagus (SIR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.04), cancer of larynx (SIR of 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-8.10) and cancer of vulva (SIR 1.99, 95% CI 1.18-3.13). The risk of cancer was not increased in other locations where LP manifests (pharynx and skin). Patients with diagnosed LP have an increased risk of developing cancer of lip, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, larynx and vulva. These data are important when considering treatment and follow-up of patients with LP diagnosis. What's new?Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic disease of the skin and mucous membranes that is likely autoimmune in origin. Owing to its inflammatory nature, it is also suspected of causing certain cancers. Whether LP possesses malignant potential, however, remains uncertain. Here, in a cohort of 13,100 women diagnosed with LP between 1969 and 2012 in Finland, some 1,520 were eventually diagnosed with cancer. Malignancies with significant increases in incidence in LP patients included those of the lip, tongue, oral cavity, esophagus, larynx and vulva. The findings suggest that LP patients could benefit from multidisciplinary approaches to care.
  • Huvinen, Emilia; Eriksson, Johan G.; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Tiitinen, Aila; Koivusalo, Saila B. (2018)
    AimsGestational diabetes (GDM) affects a growing number of women and identification of individuals at risk, e.g., with risk prediction models, would be important. However, the performance of GDM risk scores has not been optimal. Here, we assess the impact of GDM heterogeneity on the performance of two top-rated GDM risk scores.MethodsThis is a substudy of the RADIEL triala lifestyle intervention study including women at high GDM risk. We assessed the GDM risk score by Teede and that developed by Van Leeuwen in our high-risk cohort of 510 women. To investigate the heterogeneity of GDM, we further divided the women according to GDM history, BMI, and parity. With the goal of identifying novel predictors of GDM, we further analyzed 319 women with normal glucose tolerance in the first trimester.ResultsBoth risk scores underestimated GDM incidence in our high-risk cohort. Among women with a BMI30kg/m(2) and/or previous GDM, 49.4% developed GDM and 37.4% received the diagnosis already in the first trimester. Van Leeuwen score estimated a 19% probability of GDM and Teede succeeded in risk identification in 61%. The lowest performance of the risk scores was seen among the non-obese women. Fasting plasma glucose, HbA(1c), and family history of diabetes were predictors of GDM in the total study population. Analysis of subgroups did not provide any further information.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that the marked heterogeneity of GDM challenges the development of risk scores for detection of GDM.
  • Schormair, Barbara; Zhao, Chen; Bell, Steven; Tilch, Erik; Salminen, Aaro V.; Puetz, Benno; Dauvilliers, Yves; Stefani, Ambra; Hoegl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner; Kemlink, David; Sonka, Karel; Bachmann, Cornelius G.; Paulus, Walter; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Hornyak, Magdolna; Teder-Laving, Maris; Metspalu, Andres; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Polo, Olli; Fietze, Ingo; Ross, Owen A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Butterworth, Adam S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Roberts, David J.; Danesh, John; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.; Ondo, William G.; Xiong, Lan; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gan-Or, Ziv; Perola, Markus; Vodicka, Pavel; Dina, Christian; Franke, Andre; Tittmann, Lukas; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Shah, Svati H.; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Rouleau, Guy A.; Berger, Klaus; Oexle, Konrad; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Hinds, David A.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Collaboration 23andMe Res Team; DESIR Study Grp (2017)
    Background Restless legs syndrome is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder with potentially severe mental and physical health consequences. Clearer understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is needed to improve treatment options. We did a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify potential molecular targets. Methods In the discovery stage, we combined three GWAS datasets (EU-RLS GENE, INTERVAL, and 23andMe) with diagnosis data collected from 2003 to 2017, in face-to-face interviews or via questionnaires, and involving 15126 cases and 95 725 controls of European ancestry. We identified common variants by fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analysis. Significant genome-wide signals (p Findings We identified and replicated 13 new risk loci for restless legs syndrome and confirmed the previously identified six risk loci. MEIS1 was confirmed as the strongest genetic risk factor for restless legs syndrome (odds ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1 85-1.99). Gene prioritisation, enrichment, and genetic correlation analyses showed that identified pathways were related to neurodevelopment and highlighted genes linked to axon guidance (associated with SEMA6D), synapse formation (NTNG1), and neuronal specification (HOXB cluster family and MYT1). Interpretation Identification of new candidate genes and associated pathways will inform future functional research. Advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie restless legs syndrome could lead to new treatment options. We focused on common variants; thus, additional studies are needed to dissect the roles of rare and structural variations.
  • Charvat, Hadrien; Goto, Atsushi; Goto, Maki; Inoue, Machiko; Heianza, Yoriko; Arase, Yasuji; Sone, Hirohito; Nakagami, Tomoko; Song, Xin; Qiao, Qing; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Inoue, Manami (2015)
    Aims/IntroductionTo provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and MethodsIn the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.5% (48mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of 126mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of 200mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). ResultsFor both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5-8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2-9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9-16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5-12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. ConclusionsThis large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population.
  • Halonen, Pia; Jakobsson, Maija; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gissler, Mika; Pukkala, Eero (2020)
    The incidence pattern of lichen planus (LP) and LP-related mortality are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess these factors, based on Finnish nationwide registry data including 13,378 women with LP diagnosed during 1969 to 2012. The incidence rate for LP in 2003 to 2012 was 28 per 100,000 woman-years age-adjusted to the European Standard Population. Mortality was assessed using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with national mortality rates as the reference. All-cause mortality was increased (SMR 1.07, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.11), with excess mortality from Hodgkin lymphoma (SMR 6.73, 95% CI 1.83-17.2), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SMR 1.68, 95% CI 1.11-2.44), cancer of the oral cavity (SMR 10.5, 95% CI 5.99-17.0), cancer of the tongue (SMR 7.25, 95% CI 3.13-14.3), infections (SMR 1.78, 95% CI 1.14-2.64), respiratory diseases (SMR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), and diseases of the digestive system (SMR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.75). In conclusion, LP is a common disease and patients seem to have an impaired long-term prognosis.
  • Järvinen, Elina; Murtonen, Annukka; Tervomaa, Melina; Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa (2019)
    Prognostic factors and long-term treatment response of interferon beta-1a s.c tiw has not been studied in a real-life clinical cohort in Finland. The aim of the paper was to evaluate long-term treatment response, prognostic clinical factors and adherence among interferon beta-1a s.c tiw treated patients in Finland. A retrospective review of medical records was performed. Confirmed relapsing multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon beta-1a s.c tiw 22 mu g or 44 mu g as their first treatment, from 1996 to 2010 in Western Finland, were included. Longitudinal generalized linear regression models were applied to assess risk of disability progression, using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), during the treatment period. Odd's ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for risk factors: gender, age at diagnosis, treatment delay, dose, baseline EDSS and EDSS change in one year. Kaplan-Meier was applied to study median time to discontinuation. Mean duration of treatment in 293 cases was 2.9 years (min 0.04, max 13.5). EDSS increase vs. no increase in one-year carried a significant risk for long-term disability progression (1.20, 1.08-1.33). Older age, defined by a 10-year increase in age at diagnosis (1.43, 1.07-1.91) and one-year delay to treatment start showed an increased risk for disability progression (1.05, 0.99-1.11), but gender (0.66, 0.38-1.15) or initial dose (1.00, 0.45-2.25) showed no risk. Treatment was stopped in 37% due to disease activation at median of 1.7 years, and in 25% due to side effects at 9.3 months. Our results show that young age, a short delay to treatment start and slower disability progression were identified as factors for better outcome among cases with interferon beta-1a s.c tiw as their first disease modifying treatment.
  • Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Serinel, Yasmina; Killick, Roo; Child, Julia M.; Raisin, Isabelle; Berry, Callum M.; Lallukka, Tea; Wassing, Rick; Lee, Richard W. W.; Ratnavadivel, Rajeev; Vedam, Hima; Grunstein, Ron; Wong, Keith K. H.; Hoyos, Camilla M.; Cayanan, Elizabeth A.; Comas, Maria; Chapman, Julia L.; Yee, Brendon J. (2019)
    Magnesium supplementation is often suggested for restless legs syndrome (RLS) or period limb movement disorder (PLMD) based on anecdotal evidence that it relieves symptoms and because it is also commonly recommended for leg cramps. We aimed to review all articles reporting the effects of magnesium supplementation on changes in RLS and/or PLMD. We conducted a systematic search looking for all relevant articles and then two reviewers read all article titles and abstracts to identify relevant studies. Eligible studies were scored for their quality as interventional trials. We found 855 abstracts and 16 of these could not be definitively excluded for not addressing all aspects of our research question. Seven full-text articles were unlocatable and one was ineligible which left eight studies with relevant data. One was a randomised placebo-controlled trial, three were case series and four were case studies. The RCT did not find a significant treatment effect of magnesium but may have been underpowered. After quality appraisal and synthesis of the evidence we were unable to make a conclusion as to the effectiveness of magnesium for RLS/PLMD. It is not clear whether magnesium helps relieve RLS or PLMD or in which patient groups any benefit might be seen. (c) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lingaiah, Shilpa; Arffman, Riikka K.; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Piltonen, Terhi (2021)
    Objectives Altered intestinal permeability and gut barrier dysfunction have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenetic mechanism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine and metabolic condition in reproductive-aged women. However, data on intestinal permeability and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in PCOS is still limited, with conflicting results. To this end, the concentrations of gastrointestinal permeability and gut dysbiosis markers were analysed in women with PCOS. Design Case-control study. Setting General community. Participants 104 women with PCOS and 203 body mass index (BMI) matched control women at age 46. Primary and secondary outcome measures Serum levels of zonulin, fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2), urinary levels of indican, and hormonal and metabolic parameters. Results Serum levels of zonulin (128.0 +/- 17.0 vs 130.9 +/- 14.0 ng/mL, p=0.13) and FABP2 (1.5 +/- 0.9 vs 1.5 +/- 0.7 ng/mL, p=0.63) and urinary levels of indican (9.5 +/- 5.5 vs 8.4 +/- 4.2 mg/dL, p=0.07) were comparable in women with PCOS and controls in the whole study population. Likewise, when the study population was divided into different BMI groups as normal weight, overweight and obese, the levels of the above markers were comparable between the study groups. After BMI adjustment, zonulin levels correlated with the levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (p
  • Saari, T. T.; Hallikainen, I.; Hintsa, T.; Koivisto, A. M. (2020)
    Background: Affective symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be rated with both informantand self-ratings. Information from these two modalities may not converge. We estimated network structures of affective symptoms in AD with both rating modalities and assessed the longitudinal stability of the networks. Methods: Network analyses combining self-rated and informant-rated affective symptoms were conducted in 3198 individuals with AD at two time points (mean follow-up 387 days), drawn from the NACC database. Self rated symptoms were assessed by Geriatric Depression Scale, and informant-rated symptoms included depression, apathy and anxiety questions from Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Results: Informant-rated symptoms were mainly connected to symptoms expressing lack of positive affect, but not to the more central symptoms of self-rated worthlessness and helplessness. Networks did not differ in structure (p = .71), or connectivity (p = .92) between visits. Symptoms formed four clinically meaningful clusters of depressive symptoms and decline, lack of positive affect, informant-rated apathy and anxiety and informant-rated depression. Limitations: The symptom dynamics in our study could have been present before AD diagnosis. The lack of positive affect cluster may represent a methodological artefact rather than a theoretically meaningful subgroup. Requiring follow-up lead to a selection of patients with less cognitive decline. Conclusions: Informant rating may only capture the more visible affective symptoms, such as not being in good spirits, instead of more central and severe symptoms, such as hopelessness and worthlessness. Future research should continue to be mindful of differences between self- and informant-rated symptoms even in earlier stages of AD.
  • Int PCOS Network; Teede, Helena J.; Misso, Marie L.; Costello, Michael F.; Dokras, Anuja; Laven, Joop; Moran, Lisa; Piltonen, Terhi; Norman, Robert J.; Tapanainen, Juha (2018)
    STUDY QUESTION: What is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise and consumer preference? SUMMARY ANSWER: International evidence-based guidelines, including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. Diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial, and assessment and management are inconsistent. The needs of women with PCOS are not being adequately met and evidence practice gaps persist. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: International evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II-compliant processes were followed, with extensive evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Governance included a six continent international advisory and a project board, five guideline development groups, and consumer and translation committees. Extensive health professional and consumer engagement informed guideline scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included pediatrics, endocrinology, gynecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis and translation experts. In total, 37 societies and organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty face-to-face meetings over 15 months addressed 60 prioritized clinical questions involving 40 systematic and 20 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus voting within the five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, with final recommendations approved across all panels. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS is generally of low to moderate quality. The guideline provides 31 evidence based recommendations, 59 clinical consensus recommendations and 76 clinical practice points all related to assessment and management of PCOS. Key changes in this guideline include: (i) considerable refinement of individual diagnostic criteria with a focus on improving accuracy of diagnosis; (ii) reducing unnecessary testing; (iii) increasing focus on education, lifestyle modification, emotional wellbeing and quality of life; and (iv) emphasizing evidence based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Overall evidence is generally low to moderate quality, requiring significantly greater research in this neglected, yet common condition, especially around refining specific diagnostic features in PCOS. Regional health system variation is acknowledged and a process for guideline and translation resource adaptation is provided. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The international guideline for the assessment and management of PCOS provides clinicians with clear advice on best practice based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation program supports the guideline with an integrated evaluation program. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The guideline was primarily funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) supported by a partnership with ESHRE and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Guideline development group members did not receive payment. Travel expenses were covered by the sponsoring organizations. Disclosures of conflicts of interest were declared at the outset and updated throughout the guideline process, aligned with NHMRC guideline processes. Full details of conflicts declared across the guideline development groups are available at in the Register of disclosures of interest. Of named authors, Dr Costello has declared shares in Virtus Health and past sponsorship from Merck Serono for conference presentations. Prof. Laven declared grants from Ferring, Euroscreen and personal fees from Ferring, Euroscreen, Danone and Titus Healthcare. Prof. Norman has declared a minor shareholder interest in an IVF unit. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The guideline was peer reviewed by special interest groups across our partner and collaborating societies and consumer organizations, was independently assessed against AGREE-II criteria, and underwent methodological review. This guideline was approved by all members of the guideline development groups and was submitted for final approval by the NHMRC.
  • Siuko, Mika; Kivelä, Tero T.; Setälä, Kirsi; Tienari, Pentti J. (2019)
    Background: To analyse in a population-based setting the clinical features, prognostic factors, and seasonality of patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic optic neuritis (ON). Methods: Retrospective analysis of ophthalmological records, laboratory parameters, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with symptoms suggestive of ON referred to the Helsinki University Hospital (serving a population of 1.53 million in Southern Finland) were analysed between May 1, 2008 and April 14, 2012. Results: Of the 291 patients with suspected ON, 184 (63%) were diagnosed with ON (mean age 34 years, 76% females). Intravenous methylprednisolone treatment was administered in 131 (71%) patients. First ON was diagnosed in 123 patients (67%), 55 (30%) had a previous diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and two patients with their first ON were diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica. Evolution of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was analysed in 132 (72%) patients, who were reviewed median of 38 days after onset. Median and mean BCVAs in these reviewed patients were 0.4 and 0.2 at the time of diagnosis and 1.0 and 0.5 at the time of the review. Recovery was relatively good in the majority of patients; 82% (n = 108) had reached BCVA of >= 0.5 and 70% (n = 92) and BCVA of >= 0.8 at the time of the review, while thirteen (10%) had poor prognosis, BCVA Conclusions: Our data suggest that besides baseline visual acuity, optic disc swelling and lesions in the optic nerve on MRI are associated with poorer prognosis. As in previous studies, we observed that diagnostics of ON is difficult, accessory clinical findings such as pain and RAPD are not always present. Although the diagnosis of ON is clinical, the role of MRI should be considered in differential diagnostics and in defining potential prognostic markers.
  • Solje, Eino; Aaltokallio, Heidi; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Suhonen, Noora M.; Moilanen, Virpi; Kiviharju, Anna; Traynor, Bryan; Tienari, Pentti J.; Hartikainen, Paivi; Remes, Anne M. (2015)
    Background The C9ORF72 expansion is one of the most common genetic etiologies observed with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Revised diagnostic criteria for bvFTD (FTDC) were recently introduced but only a few studies have evaluated the accuracy of these criteria. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the applicability of the FTDC criteria and assess the psychiatric history of these patients. Methods The study examined 36 patients carrying the C9ORF72 expansion and suffering from bvFTD (N = 32) or from bvFTD with motor neuron disease (bvFTD-MND, N = 4). Neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, structural brain imaging and PET/SPECT data were evaluated. Results We found 0.75 sensitivity (SD 0.44, 95% CI 0.57-0.87) for possible bvFTD and 0.64 (SD 0.44, 95% CI 0.57-0.87) for probable bvFTD. The sensitivity was even higher in bvFTD patients without MND, i.e., 0.81 for possible bvFTD and 0.69 for probable bvFTD. PET/SPECT was normal in 17.6% of scanned patients with bvFTD. A history of psychiatric symptoms (psychotic and/or mood symptoms) was detected in 61% of cases. Conclusions The FTDC possible and probable bvFTD criteria seem to identify the majority of the C9ORF72 expansion carriers with bvFTD, even though they exhibit only a limited number of behavioral criteria but a significant amount of psychiatric symptoms. The presence of a normal PET/SPECT does not exclude the possibility the C9ORF72 associated bvFTD.
  • Skrobot, Olivia A.; O'Brien, John; Black, Sandra; Chen, Christopher; DeCarli, Charles; Erkinjuntti, Timo; Ford, Gary A.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Pantoni, Leonardo; Pasquier, Florence; Roman, Gustavo C.; Wallin, Anders; Sachdev, Perminder; Skoog, Ingmar; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Passmore, Anthony P.; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; VICCCS Grp; Jokinen, H. (2017)
    Introduction: Numerous diagnostic criteria have tried to tackle the variability in clinical manifestations and problematic diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) but none have been universally accepted. These criteria have not been readily comparable, impacting on clinical diagnosis rates and in turn prevalence estimates, research, and treatment. Methods: The Vascular Impairment of Cognition Classification Consensus Study (VICCCS) involved participants (81% academic researchers) from 27 countries in an online Delphi consensus study. Participants reviewed previously proposed concepts to develop new guidelines. Results: VICCCS had a mean of 122 (98-153) respondents across the study and a 67% threshold to represent consensus. VICCCS redefined VCI including classification of mild and major forms of VCI and subtypes. It proposes new standardized VCI-associated terminology and future research priorities to address gaps in current knowledge. Discussion: VICCCS proposes a consensus-based updated conceptualization of VCI intended to facilitate standardization in research. (C) 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.