Browsing by Subject "DIAGNOSTICS"

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  • Massart, Sebastien; Candresse, Thierry; Gil, Jose; Lacomme, Christophe; Predajna, Lukas; Ravnikar, Maja; Reynard, Jean-Sebastien; Rumbou, Artemis; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Skoric, Dijana; Vainio, Eeva J.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Vanderschuren, Herve; Varveri, Christina; Wetzel, Thierry (2017)
    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies and bioinformatics have generated huge new opportunities for discovering and diagnosing plant viruses and viroids. Plant virology has undoubtedly benefited from these new methodologies, but at the same time, faces now substantial bottlenecks, namely the biological characterization of the newly discovered viruses and the analysis of their impact at the biosecurity, commercial, regulatory, and scientific levels. This paper proposes a scaled and progressive scientific framework for efficient biological characterization and risk assessment when a previously known or a new plant virus is detected by next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. Four case studies are also presented to illustrate the need for such a framework, and to discuss the scenarios.
  • Litaudon, X.; Ahlgren, T.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Airila, M.; Asunta, O.; Bjorkas, C.; Lahtinen, A.; Lasa, A.; Nordlund, K.; Safi, E.; JET Contributors (2017)
    The 2014-2016 JET results are reviewed in the light of their significance for optimising the ITER research plan for the active and non-active operation. More than 60 h of plasma operation with ITER first wall materials successfully took place since its installation in 2011. New multi-machine scaling of the type I-ELM divertor energy flux density to ITER is supported by first principle modelling. ITER relevant disruption experiments and first principle modelling are reported with a set of three disruption mitigation valves mimicking the ITER setup. Insights of the L-H power threshold in Deuterium and Hydrogen are given, stressing the importance of the magnetic configurations and the recent measurements of fine-scale structures in the edge radial electric. Dimensionless scans of the core and pedestal confinement provide new information to elucidate the importance of the first wall material on the fusion performance. H-mode plasmas at ITER triangularity (H = 1 at beta(N) similar to 1.8 and n/n(GW) similar to 0.6) have been sustained at 2 MA during 5 s. The ITER neutronics codes have been validated on high performance experiments. Prospects for the coming D-T campaign and 14 MeV neutron calibration strategy are reviewed.
  • Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Ljungberg, Börje; Hemminki, Otto (2021)
    Global survival studies have shown favorable development in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treatment but few studies have considered extended periods or covered populations for which medical care is essentially free of charge. We analyzed RCC survival in Finland and Sweden over a 50-year period (1967-2016) using data from the NORDCAN database provided by the local cancer registries. While the health care systems are largely similar in the two countries, the economic resources have been stronger in Sweden. In addition to the standard 1- and 5-year relative survival rates, we calculated the difference between these as a measure of how well survival was maintained between years 1 and 5. Relative 1- year survival rates increased almost linearly in both countries and reached 90% in Sweden and 80% in Finland. Although 5-year survival also developed favorably the difference between 1- and 5-year survival rates did not improve in Sweden suggesting that the gains in 5-year survival were entirely due to gains in 1-year survival. In Finland there was a gain in survival between years 1 and 5, but the gain in 1-years survival was the main contributor to the favorable 5-year survival. Age group specific analysis showed large survival differences, particularly among women. Towards the end of the follow-up period the differences narrowed but the disadvantage of the old patients remained in 5-year survival. The limitations of the study were lack of information on performed treatment and clinical stage in the NORDCAN database. In conclusion, the available data suggest that earlier diagnosis and surgical treatment of RCC have been the main driver of the favorable change in survival during the past 50 years. The main challenges are to reduce the age-specific survival gaps, particularly among women, and push survival gains past year 1.
  • Svard, Tuomas; Lakovaara, Martti; Pakarinen, Harri; Haapea, Marianne; Kiviranta, Ilkka; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Jurvelin, Jukka; Tervonen, Osmo; Ojala, Risto; Nieminen, Miika (2018)
    Objective. To investigate the association of cartilage defect severity, as determined by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS) grading with indentation stiffness and T2 relaxation time of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a biomarker for the integrity of articular cartilage. Design. Twenty-one patients scheduled for arthroscopic were included in the study. Prior to arthroscopy, subjects underwent quantitative MRI of articular cartilage, namely T2 relaxation time mapping at 1.5 T. Within 2 months, subjects underwent arthroscopy, which also included ICRS grading and measurement of arthroscopic indentation stiffness. Arthroscopic evaluations and T2 mapping at anterior, central, and posterior medial and lateral femoral condyles were correlated using a colocalization scheme. Differences in Young's modulus, as derived by indentation tests, and T2 times between ICRS grades were analyzed using Mann-Whitney's U or Kruskal-Wallis H tests. The correlation between modulus and T2 times was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Results. Modulus and T2 showed significant topographical variation. In the anterior region of interest (ROI) on the medial condyle the modulus showed a negative association with ICRS grade (P = 0.040) and the T2 times were longer in ICRS grade 2 compared with grades 0 and 1 (P = 0.047). Similar, but nonsignificant associations were found in the central ROI on the medial condyle. No significant correlations were observed between the indentation modulus and T2 times. Conclusions. Cartilage degeneration is identified both with mechanical indentation and T2 mapping in MRI. However, in this study, indentation stiffness and T2 relaxation time in vivo, were not associated.