Browsing by Subject "DIAMETER"

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  • Pyorala, Jiri; Liang, Xinlian; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Wang, Yunsheng; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2018)
    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) accompanied by quantitative tree-modeling algorithms can potentially acquire branching data non-destructively from a forest environment and aid the development and calibration of allometric crown biomass and wood quality equations for species and geographical regions with inadequate models. However, TLS's coverage in capturing individual branches still lacks evaluation. We acquired TLS data from 158 Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees and investigated the performance of a quantitative branch detection and modeling approach for extracting key branching parameters, namely the number of branches, branch diameter (b(d)) and branch insertion angle (b) in various crown sections. We used manual point cloud measurements as references. The accuracy of quantitative branch detections decreased significantly above the live crown base height, principally due to the increasing scanner distance as opposed to occlusion effects caused by the foliage. b(d) was generally underestimated, when comparing to the manual reference, while b was estimated accurately: tree-specific biases were 0.89cm and 1.98 degrees, respectively. Our results indicate that full branching structure remains challenging to capture by TLS alone. Nevertheless, the retrievable branching parameters are potential inputs into allometric biomass and wood quality equations.
  • Luoma, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Vastaranta, Mikko; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha (2017)
    Forest resource information has a hierarchical structure: individual tree attributes are summed at the plot level and then in turn, plot-level estimates are used to derive stand or large-area estimates of forest resources. Due to this hierarchy, it is imperative that individual tree attributes are measured with accuracy and precision. With the widespread use of different measurement tools, it is also important to understand the expected degree of precision associated with these measurements. The most prevalent tree attributes measured in the field are tree species, stem diameter-at-breast-height (dbh), and tree height. For dbh and height, the most commonly used measuring devices are calipers and clinometers, respectively. The aim of our study was to characterize the precision of individual tree dbh and height measurements in boreal forest conditions when using calipers and clinometers. The data consisted of 319 sample trees at a study area in Evo, southern Finland. The sample trees were measured independently by four trained mensurationists. The standard deviation in tree dbh and height measurements was 0.3 cm (1.5%) and 0.5 m (2.9%), respectively. Precision was also assessed by tree species and tree size classes; however, there were no statistically significant differences between the mensurationists for dbh or height measurements. Our study offers insights into the expected precision of tree dbh and height as measured with the most commonly used devices. These results are important when using sample plot data in forest inventory applications, especially now, at a time when new tree attribute measurement techniques based on remote sensing are being developed and compared to the conventional caliper and clinometer measurements.
  • Budtz-Lilly, J.; Venermo, M.; Debus, S.; Behrendt, C. -A.; Altreuther, M.; Belles, B.; Szeberin, Z.; Eldrup, N.; Danielsson, G.; Thomson, I.; Wigger, P.; Bjorck, M.; Loftus, I.; Mani, K. (2017)
    Background: Case mix and outcomes of complex surgical procedures vary over time and between regions. This study analyses peri-operative mortality after intact abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in 11 countries over 9 years. Methods: Data on primary AAA repair from vascular surgery registries in 11 countries for the years 2005-2009 and 2010-2013 were analysed. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were carried out to adjust for variations in case mix. Results: A total of 83,253 patients were included. Over the two periods, the proportion of patients >= 80 years old increased (18.5% vs. 23.1%; p <.0001) as did the proportion of endovascular repair (EVAR) (44.3% vs. 60.6; p <.0001). In the latter period, 25.8% of AAAs were less than 5.5 cm. The mean annual volume of open repairs per centre decreased from 12.9 to 10.6 between the two periods (p <.0001), and it increased for EVAR from 10.0 to 17.1 (p <.0001). Overall, peri-operative mortality fell from 3.0% to 2.4% (p <.0001). Mortality for EVAR decreased from 1.5% to 1.1% (p <.0001), but the outcome worsened for open repair from 3.9% to 4.4% (p = .008). The peri-operative risk was greater for octogenarians (overall, 3.6% vs. 2.1%, p <.0001; open, 9.5% vs. 3.6%, p <.0001; EVAR, 1.8% vs. 0.7%, p <.0001), and women (overall, 3.8% vs. 2.2%, p <.0001; open, 6.0% vs. 4.0%, p <.0001; EVAR, 1.9% vs. 0.9%, p <.0001). Peri-operative mortality after repair of AAAs Conclusions: In this large international cohort, total peri-operative mortality continues to fall for the treatment of intact AAAs. The number of EVAR procedures now exceeds open procedures. Mortality after EVAR has decreased, but mortality for open operations has increased. The peri-operative mortality for small AM treatment, particularly open surgical repair, is still considerable and should be weighed against the risk of rupture. (C) 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kostensalo, Inari; Junnila, Mika; Virolainen, Petri; Remes, Ville; Matilainen, Markus; Vahlberg, Tero; Pulkkinen, Pekka; Eskelinen, Antti; Makela, Keijo T. (2013)
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Vastaranta, Mikko; Luoma, Ville; Pyörälä, Jiri; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Liang, Xinlian; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Yu, Xiaowei; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha (2017)
    Interest in measuring forest biomass and carbon stock has increased as a result of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and sustainable planning of forest resources is therefore essential. Biomass and carbon stock estimates are based on the large area estimates of growing stock volume provided by national forest inventories (NFIs). The estimates for growing stock volume based on the NFIs depend on stem volume estimates of individual trees. Data collection for formulating stem volume and biomass models is challenging, because the amount of data required is considerable, and the fact that the detailed destructive measurements required to provide these data are laborious. Due to natural diversity, sample size for developing allometric models should be rather large. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has proved to be an efficient tool for collecting information on tree stems. Therefore, we investigated how TLS data for deriving stem volume information from single trees should be collected. The broader context of the study was to determine the feasibility of replacing destructive and laborious field measurements, which have been needed for development of empirical stem volume models, with TLS. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the TLS data captured at various distance (i.e. corresponding 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of tree height) on the accuracy of the stem volume derived. In addition, we examined how multiple TLS point cloud data acquired at various distances improved the results. Analysis was carried out with two ways when multiple point clouds were used: individual tree attributes were derived from separate point clouds and the volume was estimated based on these separate values (multiple scan A), and point clouds were georeferenced as a combined point cloud from which the stem volume was estimated (multiple-scan B). This permitted us to deal with the practical aspects of TLS data collection and data processing for development of stem volume equations in boreal forests. The results indicated that a scanning distance of approximately 25% of tree height would be optimal for stem volume estimation with TLS if a single scan was utilized in boreal forest conditions studied here and scanning resolution employed. Larger distances increased the uncertainty, especially when the scanning distance was greater than approximately 50% of tree height, because the number of successfully measured diameters from the TLS point cloud was not sufficient for estimating the stem volume. When two TLS point clouds were utilized, the accuracy of stem volume estimates was improved: RMSE decreased from 12.4% to 6.8%. When two point clouds were processed separately (i.e. tree attributes were derived from separate point clouds and then combined) more accurate results were obtained; smaller RMSE and relative error were achieved compared to processing point clouds together (i.e. tree attributes were derived from a combined point cloud). TLS data collection and processing for the optimal setup in this study required only one sixth of time that was necessary to obtain the field reference. These results helped to further our knowledge on TLS in estimating stem volume in boreal forests studied here and brought us one step closer in providing best practices how a phase-shift TLS can be utilized in collecting data when developing stem volume models. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).
  • Lintunen, Anna; Salmon, Yann; Hölttä, Teemu; Suhonen, Heikki (2022)
    Abstract Bubbles of gas trapped in the xylem during freezing are a major cause of damage for trees growing at high altitudes or latitudes, as the bubbles may cause embolism during thawing. Yet the factors controlling bubble formation upon freeze-thaw cycles remain poorly understood. Especially the size of the bubbles formed in the ice is crucial for winter embolism formation. We used high-resolution X-ray microtomography combined with freezing experiments to investigate the size and shape of 68 343 gas bubbles in frozen conduits in branches of Betula pendula. We also studied how conduit size, tree water status (-0.2 MPa vs -0.6 MPa) and bark permeability to gases (decreased by Vaseline-coating) affect the gas bubbles characteristics. High-resolution X-ray images allowed us to detect gas bubbles down to 1.0 ?m in diameter and revealed that not only small spherical gas bubbles but gaseous volumes of various shapes and sizes were found from the frozen xylem indicating that gas bubbles may have started to grow already during the freezing propagation. Most of the gas bubbles were found in fibers, but the rare gas bubbles found in the vessels were larger than those in the fibers. Bubble volume increased with conduit volume in both fibers and vessels, but conduit size alone could not explain gas bubble volume. Low water potential and restriction of gas escape from the branch seem to cause more, larger, and less spherical bubbles and thus increase the risk of embolism formation. These findings open new research avenues for further studies of winter embolism formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Söderqvist, Samuel; Sivonen, Ville; Lamminmäki, Satu; Ylönen, Jere; Markkola, Antti; Sinkkonen, Saku T. (2022)
    Objectives: A narrow bony cochlear nerve canal (BCNC), as well as a hypoplastic and aplastic cochlear nerve (CN) have been associated with increased electrically-evoked compound action potential (eCAP) thresholds in some studies, suggesting poorer neural excitability in cochlear implantation. Also, in large cochleae the extent of activated spiral ganglion neurons with electrical stimulation is less than in smaller ones. However, a detailed description of the relationship between eCAP thresholds for a lateral-wall electrode array and dimensions of the inner-ear structures and internal auditory canal (IAC) is missing. Design: The study subjects were 52 pediatric patients with congenital severe-to-profound hearing loss (27 females and 25 males; ages 0.7-2.0 years; 1.0 +/- 0.3 years, mean +/- SD) implanted bilaterally with Cochlear Nucleus CI422, CI522, or CI622 implants with full insertion of the Slim Straight electrode array. Diameters of the cochlea and the BCNC as well as the widths and heights of the IAC and the CN were evaluated from preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images. These anatomical dimensions were compared with each other and with the patients' intraoperative eCAP thresholds. Results: The eCAP thresholds increased from the apical to basal direction (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). After sorting the cochleae into four size categories, higher eCAP thresholds were found in larger than in smaller cochleae (p < 0.001). With similar categorization, the eCAP thresholds were higher in cochleae with a larger BCNC than in cochleae with a smaller BCNC (p < 0.001). Neither IAC nor CN cross-sectional areas affected the eCAP thresholds. Correlations were found between cochlea and BCNC diameters and between IAC and CN cross-sectional areas (r = 0.39 and r = 0.48, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions: In the basal part of the electrode array, higher stimulation levels to elicit measurable neural responses (eCAP thresholds) were required than in the apical part. Increased eCAP thresholds associated with a larger cochlear diameter, but contrary to the earlier studies, not with a small size of the BCNC or the CN. Instead, the BCNC diameter correlated significantly with the cochlea diameter.
  • Pyörälä, Jiri; Liang, Xinlian; Vastaranta, Mikko; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Wang, Yunsheng; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha (2018)
    State-of-the-art technology available at sawmills enables measurements of whorl numbers and the maximum branch diameter for individual logs, but such information is currently unavailable at the wood procurement planning phase. The first step toward more detailed evaluation of standing timber is to introduce a method that produces similar wood quality indicators in standing forests as those currently used in sawmills. Our aim was to develop a quantitative method to detect and model branches from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds data of trees in a forest environment. The test data were obtained from 158 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) in six mature forest stands. The method was evaluated for the accuracy of the following branch parameters: Number of whorls per tree and for every whorl, the maximum branch diameter and the branch insertion angle associated with it. The analysis concentrated on log-sections (stem diameter > 15 cm) where the branches most affect wood's value added. The quantitative whorl detection method had an accuracy of 69.9% and a 1.9% false positive rate. The estimates of the maximum branch diameters and the corresponding insertion angles for each whorl were underestimated by 0.34 cm (11.1%) and 0.67 degrees (1.0%), with a root-mean-squared error of 1.42 cm (46.0%) and 17.2 degrees (26.3%), respectively. Distance from the scanner, occlusion, and wind were the main external factors that affect the method's functionality. Thus, the completeness and point density of the data should be addressed when applying TLS point cloud based tree models to assess branch parameters.
  • Sundholm, Johnny K. M.; Litwin, Linda; Rönö, Kristiina; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Sarkola, Taisto (2022)
    Obesity is linked to increased arterial size, carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness. The effects of obesity and body composition on muscular artery intima-media and adventitia thickness has previously not been established. The aim of this study was to explore associations between carotid and muscular artery wall layer thickness with body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in early middle-aged women. This is a cross-sectional study including 199 women aged 40 +/- 4 years. Arterial lumen (LD), intima-media (IMT) and adventitia thickness (AT) were measured from carotid, brachial and radial arteries using ultra-high frequency ultrasound (22-71 MHz). Women with obesity had increased IMT in carotid (0.47 vs 0.45 mm), brachial (0.19 vs 0.17 mm) and radial arteries (0.16 vs 0.15 mm) and increased brachial AT (0.14 vs 0.13 mm). In multiple regression models all arterial LD (beta-range 0.02-0.03 mm/kg/m(2)), IMT (beta-range 0.91-3.37 mu m/kg/m(2)), AT (beta-range 0.73-1.38 mu m/kg/m(2)) were significantly associated with BMI. The IMT of all arteries were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (beta-range 0.36-0.85 mu m/mmHg), attenuating the association between IMT and BMI (beta-range 0.18-2.24 mu m/kg/m(2)). Obese early middle-aged women have increased arterial intima media thickness and brachial artery adventitia thickness compared to non-obese counterparts. The association between BMI and intima-media thickness is partly mediated through blood pressure levels.