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  • Moura, Fernando S.; Beraldo, Roberto G.; Ferreira, Leonardo A.; Siltanen, Samuli (2021)
    Objective. The objective of this work is to develop a 4D (3D+T) statistical anatomical atlas of the electrical properties of the upper part of the human head for cerebral electrophysiology and bioimpedance applications. Approach. The atlas was constructed based on 3D magnetic resonance images (MRI) of 107 human individuals and comprises the electrical properties of the main internal structures and can be adjusted for specific electrical frequencies. T1w+T2w MRI images were used to segment the main structures of the head while angiography MRI was used to segment the main arteries. The proposed atlas also comprises a time-varying model of arterial brain circulation, based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equation in the main arteries and their vascular territories. Main results. High-resolution, multi-frequency and time-varying anatomical atlases of resistivity, conductivity and relative permittivity were created and evaluated using a forward problem solver for EIT. The atlas was successfully used to simulate electrical impedance tomography measurements indicating the necessity of signal-to-noise between 100 and 125 dB to identify vascular changes due to the cardiac cycle, corroborating previous studies. The source code of the atlas and solver are freely available to download. Significance. Volume conductor problems in cerebral electrophysiology and bioimpedance do not have analytical solutions for nontrivial geometries and require a 3D model of the head and its electrical properties for solving the associated PDEs numerically. Ideally, the model should be made with patient-specific information. In clinical practice, this is not always the case and an average head model is often used. Also, the electrical properties of the tissues might not be completely known due to natural variability. Anatomical atlases are important tools for in silico studies on cerebral circulation and electrophysiology that require statistically consistent data, e.g. machine learning, sensitivity analyses, and as a benchmark to test inverse problem solvers.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Castan, Helena; Duenas, Salvador; Seemen, Helina; Rähn, Mihkel; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Nanocrystalline HfO2:Al2O3 mixture films and nanolaminates were grown by atomic layer deposition at 350 degrees C from metal chloride precursors and water. Formation of metastable HfO2 polymorphs versus monoclinic phase was affected by the relative amount and thickness of constituent oxide layers. The films exhibited saturative magnetization and charge polarization in externally applied fields at room temperature. The films also demonstrated resistive switching behavior with considerable window between low and high resistance states. (C) The Author(s) 2018. Published by ECS.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Vehkamäki, Marko; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Kalam, Kristjan; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Kundrata, Ivan; Frohlich, Karol (2017)
    Thin solid films consisting of ZrO2 and Ta2O5 were grown by atomic layer deposition at 300 degrees C. Ta2O5 films doped with ZrO2, TaZr2.75O8 ternary phase, or ZrO2 doped with Ta2O5 were grown to thickness and composition depending on the number and ratio of alternating ZrO2 and Ta2O5 deposition cycles. All the films grown exhibited resistive switching characteristics between TiN and Pt electrodes, expressed by repetitive current-voltage loops. The most reliable windows between high and low resistive states were observed in Ta2O5 films mixed with relatively low amounts of ZrO2, providing Zr to Ta cation ratio of 0.2. (C) 2017 Author(s).
  • Mäntymäki, Miia; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2018)
    Lithium-ion batteries are the enabling technology for a variety of modern day devices, including cell phones, laptops and electric vehicles. To answer the energy and voltage demands of future applications, further materials engineering of the battery components is necessary. To that end, metal fluorides could provide interesting new conversion cathode and solid electrolyte materials for future batteries. To be applicable in thin film batteries, metal fluorides should be deposited with a method providing a high level of control over uniformity and conformality on various substrate materials and geometries. Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a method widely used in microelectronics, offers unrivalled film uniformity and conformality, in conjunction with strict control of film composition. In this review, the basics of lithium-ion batteries are shortly introduced, followed by a discussion of metal fluorides as potential lithium-ion battery materials. The basics of ALD are then covered, followed by a review of some conventional lithium-ion battery materials that have been deposited by ALD. Finally, metal fluoride ALD processes reported in the literature are comprehensively reviewed. It is clear that more research on the ALD of fluorides is needed, especially transition metal fluorides, to expand the number of potential battery materials available.