Browsing by Subject "DIET"

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  • Schrandt, Meagan N.; Stone, Laura C.; Klimek, Brian; Makelin, Saara; Heck, Kenneth L.; Mattila, Johanna; Herlevi, Heidi (2016)
    In the Baltic Sea, species diversity is relatively low and the introduction of new predator species can have large direct and indirect impacts on native species - both prey and potential competitors. The alien round goby Neogobius melanostomus Pallas, 1811 was introduced to the Baltic Sea in the early 1990s and is now well-established. We examined the feeding habits of male round gobies from the Aland Islands, Finland, where round gobies were first recorded in 2011. Specifically, we tested whether small round gobies (
  • Terraube, J.; Van Doninck, J.; Helle, P.; Cabeza, M. (2020)
    Protected areas (PAs) are essential to prevent further biodiversity loss yet their effectiveness varies largely with governance and external threats. Although methodological advances have permitted assessments of PA effectiveness in mitigating deforestation, we still lack similar studies for the impact of PAs on wildlife populations. Here we use an innovative combination of matching methods and hurdle-mixed models with a large-scale and long-term dataset for Finland's large carnivore species. We show that the national PA network does not support higher densities than non-protected habitat for 3 of the 4 species investigated. For some species, PA effects interact with region or time, i.e., wolverine densities decreased inside PAs over the study period and lynx densities increased inside eastern PAs. We support the application of matching methods in combination of additional analytical frameworks for deeper understanding of conservation impacts on wildlife populations. These methodological advances are crucial for preparing ambitious PA targets post-2020. Assessing the effectiveness of protected areas for wildlife conservation is challenging. Here, Terraube et al. combine statistical matching and hurdle mixed-effects models to show that PAs have limited impact on population densities of large carnivores across Finland.
  • Koponen, Kari K.; Salosensaari, Aaro; Ruuskanen, Matti O.; Havulinna, Aki S.; Männistö, Satu; Jousilahti, Pekka; Palmu, Joonatan; Salido, Rodolfo; Sanders, Karenina; Brennan, Caitriona; Humphrey, Gregory C.; Sanders, Jon G.; Meric, Guillaume; Cheng, Susan; Inouye, Michael; Jain, Mohit; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Valsta, Liisa M.; Knight, Rob; Salomaa, Veikko V. (2021)
    Background: Diet has a major influence on the human gut microbiota, which has been linked to health and disease. However, epidemiological studies on associations of a healthy diet with the microbiota utilizing a whole-diet approach are still scant. Objectives: To assess associations between healthy food choices and human gut microbiota composition, and to determine the strength of association with functional potential. Methods: This population-based study sample consisted of 4930 participants (ages 25-74; 53% women) in the FINRISK 2002 study. Intakes of recommended foods were assessed using a food propensity questionnaire, and responses were transformed into healthy food choices (HFC) scores. Microbial diversity (alpha diversity) and compositional differences (beta diversity) and their associations with the HFC score and its components were assessed using linear regression. Multiple permutational multivariate ANOVAs were run from whole-metagenome shallow shotgun-sequenced samples. Associations between specific taxa and HFC were analyzed using linear regression. Functional associations were derived from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthologies with linear regression models. Results: Both microbial alpha diversity (beta/SD, 0.044; SE, 6.18 x 10(-5); P = 2.21 x 10(-3)) and beta diversity (R-2, 0.12; P Conclusions: Our results from a large, population-based survey confirm and extend findings of other, smaller-scale studies that plant and fiber-rich dietary choices are associated with a more diverse and compositionally distinct microbiota, and with a greater potential to produce SCFAs.
  • Oinonen, Markku; Alenius, Teija; Arppe, Laura; Bocherens, Hervé; Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Helama, Samuli; Huhtamaa, Heli; Lahtinen, Maria; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Onkamo, Päivi; Palo, Jukka; Sajantila, Antti; Salo, Kati; Sundell, Tarja; Vanhanen, Santeri; Wessman, Anna (2020)
    Levanluhta is a unique archaeological site with the remains of nearly a hundred Iron Age individuals found from a water burial in Ostrobothnia, Finland. The strongest climatic downturn of the Common Era, resembling the great Fimbulvinter in Norse mythology, hit these people during the 6th century AD. This study establishes chronological, dietary, and livelihood synthesis on this population based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic and radiocarbon analyses on human remains, supported by multidisciplinary evidence. Extraordinarily broad stable isotopic distribution is observed, indicating three subgroups with distinct dietary habits spanning four centuries. This emphasizes the versatile livelihoods practiced at this boundary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial ecosystems. While the impact of the prolonged cold darkness of the 6th century was devastating for European communities relying on cultivation, the broad range of livelihoods provided resilience for the Levanluhta people to overcome the abrupt climatic decline.
  • Ali-Kovero, Kirsi; Pietilainen, Olli; Mauramo, Elina; Jäppinen, Sauli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea; Kanerva, Noora (2020)
    Retirement is a major life transition affecting health and health behaviour, but evidence on how this transition contributes to changes in healthy food habits is scarce. We examined whether the consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as fish changes after transition into statutory retirement. The data were derived from the prospective Helsinki Health Study. At phase 1 in 2000-2002, all participants were 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n 8960, response rate 67 %). Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2007, 2012 and 2017 (response rates 79-83 %). Using the four phases, we formed three nested cohorts in which the participants either continued working or moved to statutory retirement. The final analytical sample consisted of 6887 participants (14 357 observations). Frequency of fruit, vegetable and fish consumption was calculated from a twenty-two-item FFQ. Analyses of repeated measures of food consumption before and after retirement transition were conducted with a negative binomial mixed model, adjusting for age, marital status, limiting long-standing illness and household income. During the follow-up, altogether 3526 participants retired. Transition to retirement was associated with a decrease in vegetable consumption among women and, contrarily, with an increase in fruit consumption among men (P <0 center dot 05 for interaction between time and employment status). Fish consumption did not differ by the change in employment status. Statutory retirement can have mixed effects on healthy food habits, and these can differ between food groups and sex. Healthy food habits should be promoted among employees transitioning to retirement.
  • Leskinen, Tuija; Stenholm, Sari; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2020)
    Objective To compare recent and long-term physical activity levels as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in a risk factor-free adult population. Design A 12-year prospective cohort study. Setting The Finnish Public Sector study with surveys conducted in four waves at 4-year intervals. Participants 19 230 participants (mean age 50.2 (SD 9.1) years, 84% women) with no prevalent cardiometabolic risk factors at wave 3 were included. Physical activity was assessed at waves 1, 2 and 3. The long-term physical activity level was determined as the mean of activity from wave 1 to 3 (over 8 years). Outcome measure 4-year incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes) after wave 3, measured individually and as a sum (accumulation of two or more risk factors vs none). Logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used for the analysis. Results Graded associations between higher physical activity levels and lower odds of all risk factors were observed (p for trend = 60 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/week), those who were persistently inactive (= 2 risk factors). Conclusion Cardiometabolic risk associated with physical inactivity is better captured by repeated measurements of physical activity than by a single measurement of the most recent activity level.
  • Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Hedeker, Donald; Fogelholm, Mikael; Standage, Martyn; Onywera, Vincent; Lambert, Estelle V.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Sarmiento, Olga; Matsudo, Victor; Kurpad, Anura; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Zhao, Pei; Hu, Gang; Olds, Timothy; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose (2017)
    The purpose of this study was to describe children's daily compliance with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations across a week in different parts of the world, and to identify individual-and school-level correlates that may explain differences in daily MVPA compliance. The sample included 6553 children aged 9-11 years from 12 countries, and multilevel statistical analyses were used, including both child-and school-level variables. Most children did not comply with the MVPA guidelines on a daily basis: Chinese children complied the least, whereas Finnish, Australian, Colombian, UK, and Kenyan children complied the most. Boys (rate ratio [RR] = 1.47) and children with higher unhealthy diet scores (RR = 1.08) complied more, but overweight/obese children (RR = 0.81), earlier maturing children (RR = 0.93), and those who spent more time in screen activities (RR = 0.98) and sleeping (RR = 0.96) had the lowest compliance. At the school level, children with access to playground or sport equipment (RR = 0.88, for both) tended to comply less, whereas those with access to a gymnasium outside the school hours complied more with the MVPA guidelines (RR = 1.14). Significant between-country differences in children's daily MVPA compliance were observed, reflecting not only site characteristics, but also the importance of individual traits and local school contexts.
  • Barengo, Noel C.; Acosta, Tania; Arrieta, Astrid; Ricaurte, Carlos; Smits, Dins; Florez, Karen; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O. (2019)
    Background: The objective of the demonstration project for type 2 diabetes prevention in the Barranquilla and Juan Mina (DEMOJUAN) study was to investigate the extent to which it is possible to reach normal glucose metabolism with early lifestyle interventions in people at high risk of type 2 diabetes (prediabetes), compared with those who receive standard usual care. Methods: DEMOJUAN was a randomized controlled trial conducted in Juan Mina and Barranquilla, Northern Colombia. Eligible participants were randomized into one of three groups (control group, initial nutritional intervention, and initial physical activity intervention). The duration of the intervention was 24 months. The main study outcome in the present analysis was reversion to normoglycemia. Relative risks and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for reversal to normoglycemia and T2D incidence. Results: There was no statistically significant association between the intervention groups and reversion to normoglycemia. The relative risk of reversion to normoglycemia was 0.88 (95% CI 0.70-1.12) for the initial nutritional intervention group participants and 0.95 (95% CI 0.75-1.20) for the initial physical activity intervention group participants. Conclusions: Our study did not find any statistically significant differences in reversion to normoglycemia or the development of type 2 diabetes between the intervention groups and the control group in this population.
  • Wallace, Emma K.; Herrelko, Elizabeth S.; Koski, Sonja; Vick, Sarah-Jane; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M.; Slocombe, Katie E. (2019)
    The unique challenges faced by animals living in zoos can lead to the production of anxiety-related behaviours. In this study we aimed to understand what specific factors may cause chimpanzees to display these behaviours. In non-human primates, displacement behaviours, such as self-scratching and yawning, are considered markers of anxiety and stress, and Regurgitation and Reingestion (R/R) is considered an abnormal behaviour with negative consequences for physical health. We examined the possible triggers of R/R, scratching, and yawning in a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees and followed this up with an analysis of long-term data to examine further aspects of R/R behaviour. In the first study we conducted focal observations on 18 adult chimpanzees at Edinburgh Zoo, UK, in addition to all occurrence sampling of visitors using flash photography, screaming and banging on the glass in the exhibit. 158 h of data were analysed and Generalised Linear Mixed Models revealed that yawning was significantly more likely if there was a long period of time since the last feed and when there were moderate numbers of visitors in the zoo. There were trends that yawning was more likely to occur if children screamed and that scratching was more likely to occur if visitors used flash photography. R/R occurred most often within 40 min of a feed, but was not affected by the inter-feed interval preceding that feed, positive or negative social interactions, or visitor numbers or behaviour. As there was no obvious daily trigger for R/R, an analysis of long-term data (2009 to 2015) was conducted to investigate if social or dietary factors affected rates of R/R over a larger timescale. It was found that R/R rates in the months before a significant diet change were not different from R/R rates in the months after, but it was found that R/R rates decreased over the five-year period. Lastly, we found no evidence that the introduction of individuals engaging in R/R lead to resident chimpanzees habitually adopting the behaviour, despite considerable opportunities to observe it. These findings have implications for welfare interventions aimed to reduce R/R and/or anxiety behaviours in captive populations and for the translocation of individuals that are known to engage in R/R between groups.
  • Tverin, Malin; Westberg, Melissa; Kokkonen, Iiris; Tang, Patrik; Lehmann, Philipp; Lundström, Karl; Kakelä, Reijo (2019)
    The biochemistry of marine mammal blubber differs vertically from skin to muscle, which forms a challenge for using fatty acids (FAs) from differently sampled blubber as a proxy for dietary studies required for ecosystem-based management of coastal resources. In the blubber of some phocid seal individuals, the vertical stratification of several FAs is pronounced whereas in others the FAs distribute almost evenly through the blubber column. Using gas chromatography, we analysed the blubber vertical FA profiles of 30 adult male grey seals from the Baltic Sea, and examined which factors induced the largest vertical change of FA composition detected at the depth of 15-18mm (outer and middle blubber boundaries). It was revealed that the degree of this compositional shift did not depend on the blubber thickness. Seal age only affected the vertical distribution of the FAs 16:0 and 16:1n-7. However, the outer blubber ratio of 9-desaturated monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) to their saturated FA (SFA) precursors was not increased by grey seal age, contrasting earlier findings for ringed seals. A major determinant of the degree of FA stratification between the outer and middle blubber was the mismatch between the individually varying FA composition of the innermost blubber, regarded to reflect the dietary FA supply the most, and the uniform FA composition of endogenously regulated MUFA-rich outer blubber. Thus, discarding a fixed-depth layer of the grey seal outermost blubber, which we here show to span 0-18mm from skin and which to a lesser extent reflects the diet of the individual, may in the case of small pinnipeds improve the sensitivity of the FA analysis in assessing spatial, temporal and individual dietary differences. When studying the outer blubber samples using only the diet-derived PUFA variables (SFAs and MUFAs omitted), the sensitivity of the analysis was better than when using this sample type with all main FA variables included.
  • Winther, Signe Abitz; Maininki Mannerla, Miia; Frimodt-Moller, Marie; Persson, Frederik; Hansen, Tine Willum; Lehto, Markku; Hoerkkoe, Sohvi; Blaut, Michael; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Rossing, Peter (2021)
    Gastrointestinal dysbiosis is common among persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but its potential impact on diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains obscure. We examined whether faecal biomarkers, previously associated with low-grade gastrointestinal inflammation, differ between healthy controls and T1D subjects with and without DN. Faecal samples were analyzed for levels of calprotectin, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and immunoglobulins in subjects with T1D (n=159) and healthy controls (NDC; n=50). The subjects with T1D were stratified based on albuminuria: normoalbuminuria (300 mg/g; n=60). aecal calprotectin, IAP and immunoglobulin levels did not differ between the T1D albuminuria groups. However, when subjects were stratified based on faecal calprotectin cut-off level (50 mu g/g), macroalbuminuric T1D subjects exceeded the threshold more frequently than NDC (p=0.02). Concentrations of faecal propionate and butyrate were lower in T1D subjects compared with NDC (p=0.04 and p=0.03, respectively). Among T1D subjects, levels of branched SCFA (BCFA) correlated positively with current albuminuria level (isobutyrate, p=0.03; isovalerate, p=0.005). In our study cohort, fatty acid metabolism seemed to be altered among T1D subjects and those with albuminuria compared to NDC. This may reflect gastrointestinal imbalances associated with T1D and renal complications.
  • Keinanen, Marja; Kakela, Reijo; Ritvanen, Tiina; Myllyla, Timo; Ponni, Jukka; Vuorinen, Pekka J. (2017)
    Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and small herring (Clupea harengus) are the dominant prey fish of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Baltic Sea. If the fatty acid (FA) proportions of sprat and herring differ, the dietary history of ascending salmon could be determined from their FA profiles. Therefore, we investigated the FA composition of several age groups of whole sprat and small herring, caught from the three main feeding areas of salmon in autumn and spring. Oleic acid (18: 1n-9) was the most prevalent FA in sprat and characteristic of this species. In herring, palmitic acid (16: 0) was the most common FA, but herring lipid was characterized by n-6 polyunsaturated FAs, and moreover, by palmitoleic acid (16: 1n-7) and vaccenic acid (18: 1n-7). Due to the higher lipid content of sprat, the concentrations of all other FAs, excluding these, were higher in sprat than in herring. The concentration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22: 6n-3) increased with an increase in the lipid content and was consequently highest in the youngest specimens, being in young sprat almost double that of young herring, and 2.6 times higher in the sprat biomass than in that of herring. As a result of a decrease in the DHA concentration with age, the ratio thiamine/DHA increased with respect to age in both species, and was lower in sprat than in herring. It is concluded that an abundance of DHA in the diet of salmon most likely increases oxidative stress because of the susceptibility of DHA to peroxidation, and thus decreases thiamine resources of fasting, prespawning salmon. Because the FA composition of sprat and herring differs, and the relative abundancies of prey fish differ between the feeding areas of salmon, the feeding area of ascending salmon can most probably be derived by comparing their FA profiles.
  • Lommi, Sohvi; Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Tuorila, Hely; Viljakainen, Heli (2020)
    Convincing evidence suggests that diets laden with added sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, associate with excess weight in children. The relationships between sugar consumption frequency and BMI remain less well studied. We, therefore, evaluated children's consumption frequency of selected sugary products (n8461; mean age 11 center dot 1 (sd0 center dot 9) years) selected from the Finnish Health in Teens cohort study. Using a sixteen-item FFQ including six sugary products (chocolate/sweets, biscuits/cookies, ice cream, sweet pastry, sugary juice drinks and sugary soft drinks), we calculated a Sweet Treat Index (STI) for the frequency of weekly sugary product consumption and categorised children based on quartiles (Q) into low (Q1, cut-off <4 center dot 0), medium (Q2 + Q3, range 4 center dot 0-10 center dot 5) and high STI (Q4, cut-off > 10 center dot 5), and as thin, normal and overweight/obese based on the measured BMI. Through multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that subjects with a high STI exhibited a higher risk of being thin (OR 1 center dot 20, 95 % CI 1 center dot 02, 1 center dot 41) and lower risk of being overweight (OR 0 center dot 79, 95 % CI 0 center dot 67, 0 center dot 92), while subjects with a low STI were at higher risk of being overweight (OR 1 center dot 32, 95 % CI 1 center dot 14, 1 center dot 53). High consumption frequencies of salty snacks, pizza and hamburgers most closely were associated with a high STI. Our findings suggest that consuming sugary products at a high frequency does not associate with being overweight. The relationship between a low consumption frequency and being overweight suggests that overweight children's consumption frequency of sugary products may be controlled, restricted or underreported.
  • Rounge, Trine B.; Page, Christian M.; Lepistö, Maija; Ellonen, Pekka; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2016)
    Aim: We performed an epigenome-wide association study within the Finnish Health in Teens cohort to identify differential DNA methylation and its association with BMI in adolescents. Materials & methods: Differential DNA methylation analyses of 3.1 million CpG sites were performed in saliva samples from 50 lean and 50 heavy adolescent girls by genome-wide targeted bisulfite-sequencing. Results: We identified 100 CpG sites with p-values <0.000524, seven regions by 'bumphunting' and five CpG islands that differed significantly between the two groups. The ten CpG sites and regions most strongly associated with BMI substantially overlapped with obesity-and insulin-related genes, including MC2R, IGFBPL1, IP6K1 and IGF2BP1. Conclusion: Our findings suggest an association between the saliva methylome and BMI in adolescence.
  • GBD 2019 Risk Factors (2020)
    Background Rigorous analysis of levels and trends in exposure to leading risk factors and quantification of their effect on human health are important to identify where public health is making progress and in which cases current efforts are inadequate. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a standardised and comprehensive assessment of the magnitude of risk factor exposure, relative risk, and attributable burden of disease. Methods GBD 2019 estimated attributable mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 87 risk factors and combinations of risk factors, at the global level, regionally, and for 204 countries and territories. GBD uses a hierarchical list of risk factors so that specific risk factors (eg, sodium intake), and related aggregates (eg, diet quality), are both evaluated. This method has six analytical steps. (1) We included 560 risk-outcome pairs that met criteria for convincing or probable evidence on the basis of research studies. 12 risk-outcome pairs included in GBD 2017 no longer met inclusion criteria and 47 risk-outcome pairs for risks already included in GBD 2017 were added based on new evidence. (2) Relative risks were estimated as a function of exposure based on published systematic reviews, 81 systematic reviews done for GBD 2019, and meta-regression. (3) Levels of exposure in each age-sex-location-year included in the study were estimated based on all available data sources using spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression method, or alternative methods. (4) We determined, from published trials or cohort studies, the level of exposure associated with minimum risk, called the theoretical minimum risk exposure level. (5) Attributable deaths, YLLs, YLDs, and DALYs were computed by multiplying population attributable fractions (PAFs) by the relevant outcome quantity for each age-sex-location-year. (6) PAFs and attributable burden for combinations of risk factors were estimated taking into account mediation of different risk factors through other risk factors. Across all six analytical steps, 30 652 distinct data sources were used in the analysis. Uncertainty in each step of the analysis was propagated into the final estimates of attributable burden. Exposure levels for dichotomous, polytomous, and continuous risk factors were summarised with use of the summary exposure value to facilitate comparisons over time, across location, and across risks. Because the entire time series from 1990 to 2019 has been re-estimated with use of consistent data and methods, these results supersede previously published GBD estimates of attributable burden. Findings The largest declines in risk exposure from 2010 to 2019 were among a set of risks that are strongly linked to social and economic development, including household air pollution; unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing; and child growth failure. Global declines also occurred for tobacco smoking and lead exposure. The largest increases in risk exposure were for ambient particulate matter pollution, drug use, high fasting plasma glucose, and high body-mass index. In 2019, the leading Level 2 risk factor globally for attributable deaths was high systolic blood pressure, which accounted for 10.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 9.51-12.1) deaths (19.2% [16.9-21.3] of all deaths in 2019), followed by tobacco (smoked, second-hand, and chewing), which accounted for 8.71 million (8.12-9.31) deaths (15.4% [14.6-16.2] of all deaths in 2019). The leading Level 2 risk factor for attributable DALYs globally in 2019 was child and maternal malnutrition, which largely affects health in the youngest age groups and accounted for 295 million (253-350) DALYs (11.6% [10.3-13.1] of all global DALYs that year). The risk factor burden varied considerably in 2019 between age groups and locations. Among children aged 0-9 years, the three leading detailed risk factors for attributable DALYs were all related to malnutrition. Iron deficiency was the leading risk factor for those aged 10-24 years, alcohol use for those aged 25-49 years, and high systolic blood pressure for those aged 50-74 years and 75 years and older. Interpretation Overall, the record for reducing exposure to harmful risks over the past three decades is poor. Success with reducing smoking and lead exposure through regulatory policy might point the way for a stronger role for public policy on other risks in addition to continued efforts to provide information on risk factor harm to the general public. Copyright (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Sarhadi, Virinder; Lahti, Leo; Saberi, Farideh; Youssef, Omar; Kokkola, Arto; Karla, Tiina; Tikkanen, Milja; Rautelin, Hilpi; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Salehi, Rasoul; Knuutila, Sakari (2020)
    Background/Aim: Gut microbiota plays an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its composition in CRC patients can be influenced by ethnicity and tumour genomics. Herein, the aim was to study the possible associations of ethnicity and gene mutations with the gut microbiota in CRC patients. Materials and Methods: Bacterial composition in stool samples of 83 CRC patients and 60 controls from Iran and Finland was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The association of gut microbiota composition with CRC, host mutations in KRAS, NRAS and TP53, and ethnicity analysed. Results: Beta diversity analysis indicated significant differences between the Iranian and Finnish gut microbiota composition, in both controls and patients' groups. The Iranian controls had higher abundance of Prevotella and lower abundance of Bacteroides compared to the Finnish controls, while the Finnish patients had higher abundance of Clostridium compared to Iranian patients. Abundance of Ruminococcus was higher in patients compared to the controls. Higher abundances of Herbaspirillum, Catenibacterium and lower abundances of Barnesiella were associated with mutations in NRAS, TP53, and RAS respectively. Conclusion: A possible link of host gene mutations with gut bacterial composition is suggested.
  • Ward, Heather A.; Whitman, Julia; Muller, David C.; Johansson, Mattias; Jakszyn, Paula; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Palli, Domenico; Fanidi, Anouar; Vermeulen, Roel; Tjonneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurelie; Kaaks, Rudolf; Fortner, Renee; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Berrino, Franco; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Peeters, Petra H.; Nost, Therese Haugdahl; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Ramon Quiros, Jose; Agudo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Larranaga, Nerea; Maria Huerta, Jose; Ardanaz, Eva; Drake, Isabel; Brunnstrom, Hans; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Travis, Ruth C.; Freisling, Heinz; Stepien, Magdalena; Merritt, Melissa A.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J. (2019)
    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that haem iron, which is found predominantly in red meat and increases endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, may be positively associated with lung cancer. The objective was to examine the relationship between haem iron intake and lung cancer risk using detailed smoking history data and serum cotinine to control for potential confounding. Methods In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 416,746 individuals from 10 countries completed demographic and dietary questionnaires at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident lung cancer (n = 3731) risk relative to haem iron, non-haem iron, and total dietary iron intake. A corresponding analysis was conducted among a nested subset of 800 lung cancer cases and 1489 matched controls for whom serum cotinine was available. Results Haem iron was associated with lung cancer risk, including after adjustment for details of smoking history (time since quitting, number of cigarettes per day): as a continuous variable (HR per 0.3 mg/1000 kcal 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07), and in the highest versus lowest quintile (HR 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32; trend across quintiles: P = 0.035). In contrast, non-haem iron intake was related inversely with lung cancer risk; however, this association attenuated after adjustment for smoking history. Additional adjustment for serum cotinine did not considerably alter the associations detected in the nested case-control subset. Conclusions Greater haem iron intake may be modestly associated with lung cancer risk.
  • Satokari, Reetta (2020)
    The so-called Western diet is rich in saturated fat and sugars and poor in plant-derived fibers, and it is associated with an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as chronic (low grade) inflammation. The detrimental effects of poor diet are in part mediated by gut microbiota, whose composition, functionality and metabolic end products respond to dietary changes. Recent studies have shown that high intake of sugars increase the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the gut, while simultaneously decreasing the abundance of Bacteroidetes, which can mitigate the effects of endotoxin, as well as reinforce gut barrier function. Thus, a high sugar intake may stagger the balance of microbiota to have increased pro-inflammatory properties and decreased the capacity to regulate epithelial integrity and mucosal immunity. Consequently, high dietary sugar can, through the modulation of microbiota, promote metabolic endotoxemia, systemic (low grade) inflammation and the development of metabolic dysregulation and thereby, high dietary sugar may have many-fold deleterious health effects, in addition to providing excess energy.
  • Ahola, Hanna Gabriela; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Schulman, Alan; Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Viitala, Sirja; Huang, Xin (2020)
    Oats have been found to be tolerated by most celiac disease patients, and oats are generally considered a good and safe addition to the gluten-free diet. There have been claims that some individual oat cultivars are harmful or immunogenic for celiac disease patients. In this study, we investigated 26 oat cultivars and landraces from the current breeding market and literature. Their total protein content ranged from 15.3% to 23.1% of which avenins ranged from 6.8% to 10.9%. Immunological activities of avenins were evaluated using mmunochemical analyses using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) R5 and G12. No immunological activity of the oat cultivars was observed by mAb R5 either in immunoblotting or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). mAB G12 showed no activity in immunoblotting, but gave responses between 13 and 53 mg/kg in ELISA for total avenin extract. To understand the varying G12 activity, avenins were further fractionated. One avenin fraction showed a higher G12 response than the other fractions. Protein sequence comparison suggests that there is no direct binding to avenin-specific T-cell epitopes but the differences in repetitive regions in avenins may contribute to varying results in G12 ELISA.