Browsing by Subject "DIETARY-SUPPLEMENTS"

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  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (2022)
    Evidence has shown unambiguously that, in certain contexts, vitamin C is effective against the common cold. However, in mainstream medicine, the views on vitamin C and infections have been determined by eminence-based medicine rather than evidence-based medicine. The rejection of the demonstrated benefits of vitamin C is largely explained by three papers published in 1975-two published in JAMA and one in the American Journal of Medicine-all of which have been standard citations in textbooks of medicine and nutrition and in nutritional recommendations. Two of the papers were authored by Thomas Chalmers, an influential expert in clinical trials, and the third was authored by Paul Meier, a famous medical statistician. In this paper, we summarize several flaws in the three papers. In addition, we describe problems with two recent randomized trial reports published in JAMA which were presented in a way that misled readers. We also discuss shortcomings in three recent JAMA editorials on vitamin C. While most of our examples are from JAMA, it is not the only journal with apparent bias against vitamin C, but it illustrates the general views in mainstream medicine. We also consider potential explanations for the widespread bias against vitamin C.
  • Murto, Tiina; Yngve, Agneta; Svanberg, Agneta Skoog; Altmae, Signe; Salumets, Andres; Wanggren, Kjell; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli (2017)
    Background: Folate has been discussed in relation to fertility among women, but studies on women under treatment for infertility are lacking. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate folic acid supplement use and folate status among women under treatment for infertility (hereafter infertile) and fertile women also in regard to socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Design: Lifestyle and dietary habits, and use of dietary supplements were assessed using a questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of folate status. 24-hour recall interviews were also performed. Results: Highly educated, employed and infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements. The infertile women had a significantly better folate status than the fertile women. Folate status did not correlate with socioeconomic or lifestyle factors. The infertile women were physically more active, smoked less and were employed. Our questionnaire data had only fair agreement with the data from 24-hour recalls, but the folate status data was clearly correlated to our questionnaire results. Conclusions: Infertile women were most prone to using folic acid supplements and had better folate status than the controls. High educational and employment status were found to be key factors for high compliance to the recommended use folic acid supplements.
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita Johanna; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G. (2015)
    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n = 394) were examined at baseline ( Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p <0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.