Browsing by Subject "DIFFERENCE"

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  • Kausto, Johanna; Oksanen, Tuula; Koskinen, Aki; Pentti, Jaana; Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Kaila-Kangas, Leena; Nevala, Nina; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Ervasti, Jenni (2021)
    Purpose Employers increasingly use 'return to work' (RTW) coordinators to support work ability and extend working careers, particularly among employees with reduced work ability. We examined whether applying this model was associated with changes in employee sickness absence and disability retirements. Methods We used data from the Finnish Public Sector study from 2009 until 2015. Employees where the model was introduced in 2012 constituted the cases (n = 4120, one municipality) and employees where the model was not in use during the follow-up, represented the controls (n = 5600, two municipalities). We analysed risk of disability retirement in 2013-2015 and risk of sickness absence after (2013-2015) vs. before (2009-2011) intervention by case-control status. Results The incidence of disability retirement after the intervention was lower in cases compared to controls both in the total population (hazard ratio HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.30-0.79) and in the subgroup of participants with reduced work ability (HR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.12-0.99). The risk of sickness absence increased from pre-intervention to post-intervention period both among cases and controls although the relative increase was greater among cases (RRpost- vs. pre-intervention = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.40) than controls (RRpost- vs. pre-intervention = 1.03, 95% CI 0.97-1.08). In the group of employees with reduced work ability, no difference in sickness absence trends between cases and controls was observed. Conclusions These findings suggest that RTW-coordinator model may increase employee sickness absence, but decrease the risk of disability retirement, i.e., permanent exclusion from the labour market.
  • Nygren, Anja Kaarina; Wayessa, Gutu Olana (2018)
    This article examines the politics of institutional governance of displacements and the intersecting experiences of environmental justice, drawing on case studies of flood disasters and urban displacements in Villahermosa, Mexico, and government-sponsored displacements and resettlements in rural Oromia, Ethiopia. We argue that a fuller understanding of how institutional governance produces multiple marginalisations requires political-ecological and intersectional analyses of residents' experiences of injustices that encompass interlinkages between social position, gender and political power. The analysis is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Mexico and Ethiopia, comprising interviews, participant observation, document analysis and surveys. The study shows similarities and differences in patterns of governance, mechanisms of marginalisation and relations of authority and power concerning differentiated displacements and everyday vulnerabilities in different contexts of the global South. Our analysis enriches theoretical understanding of governance and justice, demonstrating how multiple marginalities are produced, reinforced and contested through political processes imbricated with forms of governance characterised by institutional intrusion and absence.
  • Pernu, Tuomas K. (2017)
    A thoroughly physical view on reality and our common sense view on agency and free will seem to be in a direct conflict with each other: if everything that happens is determined by prior physical events, so too are all our actions and conscious decisions; you have no choice but to do what you are destined to do. Although this way of thinking has intuitive appeal, and a long history, it has recently began to gain critical attention. A number of arguments have been raised in defense of the idea that our will could be genuinely free even if the universe is governed by deterministic laws of physics. Determinism and free will have been argued to be compatible before, of course, but these recent arguments seem to take a new step in that they are relying on a more profound and concrete view on the central elements of the issue, the fundamental laws of physics and the nature of causal explanation in particular. The basic idea of this approach is reviewed in here, and it is shown how a careful analysis of physics and causal explanation can indeed enhance our understanding of the issue. Although it cannot be concluded that the problem of free will would now be completely solved ( or dissolved), it is clear that these recent developments can bring significant advancement to the debate.
  • Helakorpi, Jenni; Lappalainen, Sirpa; Mietola, Reetta (2020)
    The article examines policies intended to promote the basic education of Roma and Traveller minorities in Finland, Sweden, and Norway by analysing key national Roma and Traveller policy (n = 5) and education policy documents (n = 3). Analysis shows how the Finnish, Swedish, and Norwegian Roma policies translate the general policy aims of improving the social positioning of people identifying as Roma consistently into policy measures responding to the special needs of Roma pupils. These policy measures are validated by problem representations regarding Roma parents and families. All the policies also problematise the relationship between Roma and Traveller cultures and schools. It is argued that the focuses of the current policy measures constrain opportunities for a change in terms of equality.
  • Salo, Ulla-Maija (2021)
    This paper explores what a forest as a specific place means and does for girls, while it scrutinises how to understand place and how to consider place methodologically. The girls, called 'forest daughters' here, write letters to the female President of Finland. The letters portray a forest as a lived 'place-world' that ties place and self together. The multiplicity of these relations is methodologically displayed as an assemblage of 'girl-place-letter' and conjoined a perspective of the 'where of research'. The paper argues that place and self help construct and activate each other. A forest is a site of pleasures and possibilities and in the letters, it turns out that a forest becomes a stage and practice of power that develops environmental activism and gives rise to utterances of green criticism. To develop and exemplify this discussion, I examine a letter to the president written by one of these young forest daughters.
  • Tang, Xin; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Laursen, Brett; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina (2022)
    Background Most previous studies of teaching styles and reading skills have been cross-sectional. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the direction of effects. The present longitudinal study examined the degree to which differences in teaching styles in the third grade predict the sixth-grade reading performance. The consistency of the findings was addressed by comparing results across students in two countries (Finland and Estonia). Methods A total of 1,057 students (50.9% boys) were followed from the third to sixth grade. Teaching styles of third-grade teachers (N = 70) were examined as predictors of the development of reading (i.e., third-grade to sixth-grade reading fluency and comprehension). Results Five patterns of third-grade teaching practices were found across two countries: child-centred style, teacher-directed style, child-dominated style, extreme child-centred style, and mixed child-centred and teacher-directed style (mixed teaching style). The mixed teaching style and the child-centred style in the third grade were related to the greatest increases in reading fluency from the third to sixth grade, over and above the contribution of age, gender and maternal education. Conclusions The findings underscore the importance of the flexible use of child-centred and teacher-directed practices, which are both linked to the development of reading fluency during late primary school years.
  • From, Tuuli; Sahlström, Fritjof (2017)
    Finland is a bilingual country with 2 national languages, Finnish and Swedish. The Swedish-speaking school institution aims to protect the minority language by maintaining a monolingual school space. In this article, the construction of linguistic and ethnic difference in educational discourse and practice related to the national languages in Finland is analyzed by using discourse analysis, feminist and post-structural theories. By analyzing ethnographic data and public debate, we argue that discursive and material practices related to spatiality have a significant role in constructing difference and otherness in the Finnish school context. Essentialist categories are produced but also contested from the positions within the cultural spaces at school and in society at large.
  • Tarkkala, Heta; Tupasela, Aaro (2018)
    Since the sequencing of the human genome, as well as the completion of the first Human Genome Diversity Project, the benefits of studying one human population over another has been an ongoing debate relating to the replicability of findings in other populations. The leveraging of specific populations into research markets has made headlines in cases such as deCode in Iceland, Quebec Founder Population, and Generation Scotland. In such cases, researchers and policy makers have used the genetic and historical uniqueness of their populations to attract scientific, commercial and political interest. In this article, we explore how in countries with population isolates, such as Finland, the researchers balance considerations relating to the generalization and replicability of findings in small yet unique research populations to global biomedical research interests. This highlights challenges related to forms of competition associated with genetics research markets, as well as what counts as the right' population for genetic research.