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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • Teuber, Ziwen; Tang, Xin; Sielemann, Lena; Otterpohl, Nantje; Wild, Elke (2022)
    The important role of parenting is widely acknowledged, but as most studies have understood and examined it as a stable attribute (e.g., parenting style), the stability of and changes in parenting are less well understood. Using longitudinal person-oriented approaches (i.e., latent profile analyses and latent transition analyses), this study aimed to examine the stability of and changes in autonomy-related parenting profiles and their effects on adolescents' academic and psychological development. Four autonomy-related dimensions (i.e., autonomy support, warmth, psychological control, conditional regard) were chosen to identify parenting profiles on the basis of Self-Determination Theory. Using five-year longitudinal data from 789 German secondary school students (50.06% female, M-age at T1 = 10.82 years, age span = 10-17), four autonomy-related parenting profiles were found: Supportive (similar to 17%), Controlling (similar to 31%), Unsupportive-Uncontrolling (similar to 17%), and Limited Supportive (similar to 35%). The results suggest that the Supportive profile contributes to adolescents' positive academic and psychological development, whereas the Controlling profile, which thwarts autonomy development, exacerbates the development of psychopathology, and impairs academic achievement. More importantly, the Limited Supportive profile is as maladaptive as the Unsupportive-Uncontrolling profile. Regarding parenting profiles' stability and changes, the results showed that about half of each profile stayed in the same group. Overall, it could be observed that parents became more supportive and less controlling over time. However, the findings also indicate that parenting profiles are less stable than expected and can still change during early-to-mid adolescence.
  • Casas, Lidia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Täubel, Martin; Hyytiäinen, Heidi; Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Lehmann, Irina; Standl, Marie; Pekkanen, Juha; Heinrich, Joachim (2019)
    This study evaluates the association between indoor microbial diversity early in life and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms in children at ages 10 and 15 years.A random sample enriched with subjects with hyperactivity/inattention at age 15 years was selected from the German LISA birth cohort. Bedroom floor dust was collected at age 3 months and 4 bacterial and fungal diversity measures [number of observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices] were calculated from Illumina MiSeq sequencing data. Hyperactivity/inattention was based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 10 and 15 (cut-off >= 7). Adjusted associations between 4 diversity measures in tertiles and hyperactivity/inattention were investigated with weighted and survey logistic regression models. We included 226 individuals with information on microbial diversity and hyperactivity/inattention. Early life bacterial diversity was inversely associated with hyperactivity/inattention at age 10 [bacterial OTUs (medium vs low: aOR = 0.4, 95%CI = (0.2-0.8)) and Chao1 (medium vs low: 0.3 (0.1-0.5); high vs low: 0.3 (0.2-0.6)], whereas fungal diversity was directly associated [Chao1 (high vs low: 2.1 (1.1-4.0)), Shannon (medium vs low: 2.8 (1.3-5.8)), and Simpson (medium vs low: 4.7 (2.4-9.3))]. At age 15, only Shannon index was significantly associated with hyperactivity/inattention [bacteria (medium vs low: 2.3 (1.2-4.2); fungi (high vs low: 0.5 (0.3-0.9))]. In conclusion, early life exposure to microbial diversity may play a role in the psychobehavioural development. We observe heterogeneity in the direction of the associations encouraging further longitudinal studies to deepen our understanding of the characteristics of the microbial community underlying the observed associations.
  • Maasalo, Katri; Wessman, Jaana; Aronen, Eeva T. (2017)
    Background: Not much is known about low mood and its associates in child psychiatric patients. In this study, we examined the prevalence of low mood, how it associates with disruptive behaviour, and affects clinician-rated global functioning in child psychiatric outpatients. Methods: The study population consisted of 862 5-12 year-old child psychiatric patients. The study sample was a subsample of all 1251 patients attending a child psychiatric outpatient clinic at Helsinki University Hospital in 20132015 formed by excluding 4 year-old and 13 year-old patients and those with missing or incomplete data. The parentrated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, collected as part of the routine clinical baseline measure, was used as a measure of psychiatric symptoms. The diagnoses were set according to ICD-10 by the clinician in charge after an initial evaluation period. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) score set by clinicians provided the measure of the patients' global functioning. All information for the study was collected from hospital registers. Associations between emotional symptoms and conduct problems/hyperactivity scores were examined using ordinal regression in univariate and multivariate models, controlling for age and sex. The independent samples T test was used to compare the CGAS values of patient groups with low/normal mood. Results: In our sample, 512 children (59.4%) showed low mood. In multivariate ordinal regression analysis, low mood associated with conduct problems (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.39-2.67), but no association was found between low mood and hyperactivity. Low mood was prevalent among children with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder (51.8%). The global functioning score CGAS was lower among children with parent-reported low mood (52.21) than among children with normal mood (54.62, p <0.001). The same was true in the subgroup of patients with no depression diagnosis (54.85 vs. 52.82, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Low mood is prevalent in child psychiatric outpatients regardless of depression diagnosis and it has a negative effect on global functioning. Low mood and behavioural problems are often associated. It is important to pay attention to low mood in all child psychiatric patients. We recommend prevention measures and low-threshold services for children with low mood.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, M.; Mina, Theresia H.; Riha, Renata L.; Raikkonen, K.; Pesonen, A. K.; Drake, A. J.; Denison, Fiona C.; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Background The prevalence of sleep problems among pregnant women is over 50%, and daytime sleepiness is among the most common sleep problems. Previous studies have associated antenatal sleep problems with adverse maternal health and neonatal outcomes, but the consequences of antenatal sleep problems and particularly daytime sleepiness on child psychological development have not been assessed prospectively. Methods In this prospective cohort study including 111 mother-child dyads, we examined the associations of maternal daytime sleepiness during pregnancy, assessed at 17 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, with child neuropsychiatric problems and neuropsychological development, assessed with mother-rated questionnaires and individually administered neuropsychological tests, at child age 2.6-5.7 years (mean = 4.3 years). Results Independently of sociodemographic and perinatal covariates and maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during and/or after pregnancy, maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness was associated with increased total [unstandardized regression coefficient (B) = 0.25 standard deviation (s.d.) units; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01-0.48] and internalizing (B = 0.25 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.01-0.49) psychiatric problems and ADHD symptoms (B = 0.27 s.d.s: 95% CI 0.04-0.50) in children, and with poorer executive function, particularly in the areas of attention, working memory and inhibitory control (B = -0.39 s.d.s: 95% CI -0.69 to -0.10). Conclusions Maternal antenatal daytime sleepiness carries adverse consequences for offspring psychological development. The assessment of sleep problems may be an important addition to standard antenatal care.
  • O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Glover, Vivette; Lahti, Jari; Lahti, Marius; Edgar, Rachel D.; Räikkönen, Katri; O'Connor, Thomas G. (2017)
    Maternal prenatal anxiety is an important risk factor for altered child neurodevelopment but there is uncertainty concerning the biological mechanisms involved and sources of individual differences in children's responses. We sought to determine the role of functional genetic variation in COMT, which encodes catechol-O-methyltransferase, in the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child symptoms of ADHD and working memory. We used the prospectively-designed ALSPAC cohort (n = 6,969) for our primary data analyses followed by replication analyses in the PREDO cohort (n = 425). Maternal prenatal anxiety was based on self-report measures; child symptoms of ADHD were collected from 4-15 years of age; working memory was assessed from in-person testing at age 8 years; and genetic variation in COMT at rs4680 was determined in both mothers and children. The association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child attention/hyperactivity symptoms and working memory was moderated by the child's rs4680 genotype, with stronger effects obtained for the val/val (G: G) genotype relative to val/met (A:G) (all p <0.01) and met/met (A: A) groups (all p <0.05). Similar findings were observed in the PREDO cohort where maternal prenatal anxiety interacted with child rs4680 to predict symptoms of ADHD at 3.5 years of age. The findings, from two cohorts, show a robust gene-environment interaction, which may contribute to inter-individual differences in the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety on developmental outcomes from childhood to mid-adolescence.
  • Finell, Eerika; Tolvanen, Asko; Pekkanen, Juha; Minkkinen, Jaana; Stahl, Timo; Rimpela, Arja (2018)
    The effect of students' psychosocial problems on their reporting of indoor air quality (subjective IAQ) and indoor air-related (IA-related) symptoms has not been studied in schools in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, we analyzed whether changes in students' psychosocial problems (socioemotional difficulties and perceived teacher student relations) between the beginning of seventh grade (age 12-13 years) and the end of ninth grade (15-16 years) predicted subjective IAQ and IA-related symptoms at the end of ninth grade. In order to explore the independent effect of psychosocial factors, we focused only on students in schools without observed indoor air problems. The analysis was of longitudinal data (N = 986 students) using latent change modelling. Increased socioemotional difficulties were related to more IA-related symptoms (standardized beta = 0.20) and deteriorated subjective IAQ (standardized beta = 0.20). Increased problems in teacher student relations were related to deteriorated subjective IAQ (standardized beta = 0.21). Although students' psychosocial problems explained only 9-13% of the total variances, our findings support the notion that psychosocial factors also need to be taken into account in the evaluation of IAQ and the prevalence of IA-related symptoms in schools.
  • Maasalo, K.; Fontell, T.; Wessman, Jaana; Aronen, E. T. (2016)
    Background: Few studies have examined the associations between sleep, mood and behaviour in young children in the early stages of developing psychopathology. The purpose here was to examine the association of emotional problems, especially mood, with family and child characteristics, sleep and behavioural problems in 4-12 year-old children. Methods: The sample was population-based and included 1714 children. Parents filled in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and a background questionnaire on child and family characteristics. The associations between (a) emotional symptoms/mood and background variables, (b) emotional problems and conduct problems/hyperactivity and (c) mood and conduct problems/hyperactivity were examined with ordinal regression in univariate and multivariate models. Results: Of the background variables, child's sleeping problems had the most powerful association with emotional symptoms and mood. Abnormal emotional problems score and emotional symptoms were associated with abnormal conduct problems and hyperactivity scores. Of the emotional symptoms, low mood was the one associated most strongly with conduct problems and hyperactivity after controlling for all significant background variables and other emotional symptoms. Conclusions: We conclude that in young children sleep problems associate with low mood. Low mood associates with behavioural problems. When a child presents with low mood or behavioural problems, a comprehensive assessment of their psychiatric symptoms, as well as their sleep problems, is recommended.
  • Beattie, Marguerite M; Konttinen, Hanna Marja; Volanen, Salla-Maarit; Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa (2020)
    While practicing mindfulness can potentially mitigate and prevent mental health problems among adolescents, mindfulness programmes delivered in schools do not uniformly lead to uptake of mindfulness practice. This low adherence threatens the internal validity of mindfulness trials, and may hinder the alleviation of mental health problems in youth who fail to take up potentially effective techniques. Consequently, it is vital to investigate what predicts uptake of independent mindfulness practice in such interventions. This study investigates whether social cognitions from the Reasoned Action Approach and initial mental health predict mindfulness practice among 1,646 adolescent recipients of the school-based Healthy Learning Mind mindfulness intervention. Path analyses revealed that, in line with the Reasoned Action Approach, descriptive and injunctive norms, and positive and negative outcome expectations predicted intention to practice mindfulness (R-squared = .37, p<.001), which in turn predicted different measures of mindfulness practice itself (R-squared = .09-.17, p<.001). Neither perceived behavioural control nor mental health variables (depressive symptoms, internalisation and externalisation of difficulties, and resilience) were associated with mindfulness practice after the intervention (R-squared = .01, p>.05). Social norms and outcome expectations are potential intervention targets to increase mindfulness practice motivation and behaviour among adolescents.