Browsing by Subject "DIFFRACTION"

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  • Song, Kay; Das, Suchandrima; Reza, Abdallah; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Xu, Ruqing; Yu, Hongbing; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Armstrong, David E. J.; Hofmann, Felix (2020)
    Ion-irradiated FeCr alloys are useful for understanding and predicting neutron damage in the structural steels of future nuclear reactors. Previous studies have largely focused on the structure of irradiation induced defects, probed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as changes in mechanical properties. Across these studies, a wide range of irradiation conditions has been employed on samples with different processing histories, which complicates the analysis of the relationship between defect structures and material properties. Furthermore, key properties, such as irradiation-induced changes in thermal transport and lattice strain, are little explored. Here we present a systematic study of Fe3Cr, Fe5Cr and Fe10Cr binary alloys implanted with 20 MeV Fe3+ ions to nominal doses of 0.01 dpa and 0.1 dpa at room temperature. Nanoindentation, transient grating spectroscopy (TGS) and X-ray micro-beam Laue diffraction were used to study the changes in hardness, thermal diffusivity and strain in the material as a function of damage and Cr content. Our results suggest that Cr leads to an increased retention of irradiation-induced defects, causing substantial changes in hardness and lattice strain. However, thermal diffusivity varies little with increasing damage and instead degrades significantly with increasing Cr content in the material. We find significant lattice strains even in samples exposed to a nominal displacement damage of 0.01 dpa. The defect density predicted from the lattice strain measurements is significantly higher than that observed in previous TEM studies, suggesting that TEM may not fully capture the irradiation-induced defect population. (C) 2020 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Abelev, B.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Pohjoisaho, E. H. O.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2015)
    The multiplicity and pseudorapidity distributions of inclusive photons have been measured at forward rapidities (2.3 <eta <3.9) in proton-proton collisions at three center-of-mass energies, root s = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV using the ALICE detector. It is observed that the increase in the average photon multiplicity as a function of beam energy is compatible with both a logarithmic and a power-law dependence. The relative increase in average photon multiplicity produced in inelastic pp collisions at 2.76 and 7 TeV center-of-mass energies with respect to 0.9 TeV are 37.2 +/- 0.3% (stat) +/- 8.8% (sys) and 61.2 +/- 0.3% (stat) +/- 7.6% (sys), respectively. The photon multiplicity distributions for all center-of-mass energies are well described by negative binomial distributions. The multiplicity distributions are also presented in terms of KNO variables. The results are compared to model predictions, which are found in general to underestimate the data at large photon multiplicities, in particular at the highest center-of-mass energy. Limiting fragmentation behavior of photons has been explored with the data, but is not observed in the measured pseudorapidity range.
  • Pathak, Harshad; Spah, Alexander; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Tsironi, Ifigeneia; Mariedahl, Daniel; Blanco, Maria; Huotari, Simo; Honkimäki, Veijo; Nilsson, Anders (2019)
    Wide angle x-ray scattering of supercooled water down to 234.8 K was studied using high energy x rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The oxygen-oxygen pair distribution function (PDF) was calculated from the scattering pattern out to the 5th peak at an intermolecular distance, r approximate to 11 angstrom. We observe that the 4th peak and the 5th peak in the PDF increase in height upon supercooling. We also observe that the 4th peak position (r(4)) shifts to shorter distances upon supercooling consistent with previous studies, but we see a more rapid change at the lowest temperature. The running oxygen-oxygen coordination number is calculated for 5 different temperatures, and an isosbestic point at r(iso) = 3.31 +/- 0.05 angstrom was found corresponding to a coordination number of 4.39 +/- 0.15. The comparison of the PDF of the coldest water with that of amorphous ice shows distinct differences. We propose that there are 5-member pentamer rings in low density liquid-like structures giving rise to the sharp correlations at r approximate to 9 angstrom and r approximate to 11 angstrom.
  • Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Ollikkala, Sami; Ahopelto, Taru; Kallio, Antti-Jussi; Blomberg, Merja; Huotari, Simo (2019)
    We present a low-cost laboratory X-ray absorption spectrometer that uses a conventional X-ray tube source and bent Johann-type crystal monochromators. The instrument is designed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the 4-20 keV range which covers most K edges of 3d transition metals and L edges of 5d transition metals and actinides. The energy resolution is typically in the range of 1-5 eV at 10 keV depending on the crystal analyser and the Bragg angle. Measurements can be performed in transmission, fluorescence, and imaging modes. Due to its simple and modular design, the spectrometer can be modified to accommodate additional equipment and complex sample environments required for in situ studies. A showcase of various applications is presented. Published under license by AIP Publishing.
  • Ruskamo, Salla; Nieminen, Tuomo; Kristiansen, Cecilie K.; Vatne, Guro H.; Baumann, Anne; Hallin, Erik I.; Raasakka, Arne; Joensuu, Paivi; Bergmann, Ulrich; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kursula, Petri (2017)
    Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is one of the most common inherited neuropathies. Recently, three CMT1-associated point mutations (I43N, T51P, and I52T) were discovered in the abundant peripheral myelin protein P2. These mutations trigger abnormal myelin structure, leading to reduced nerve conduction velocity, muscle weakness, and distal limb atrophy. P2 is a myelin-specific protein expressed by Schwann cells that binds to fatty acids and membranes, contributing to peripheral myelin lipid homeostasis. We studied the molecular basis of the P2 patient mutations. None of the CMT1-associated mutations alter the overall folding of P2 in the crystal state. P2 disease variants show increased aggregation tendency and remarkably reduced stability, T51P being most severe. In addition, P2 disease mutations affect protein dynamics. Both fatty acid binding by P2 and the kinetics of its membrane interactions are affected by the mutations. Experiments and simulations suggest opening of the beta barrel in T51P, possibly representing a general mechanism in fatty acid-binding proteins. Our findings demonstrate that altered biophysical properties and functional dynamics of P2 may cause myelin defects in CMT1 patients. At the molecular level, a few malformed hydrogen bonds lead to structural instability and misregulation of conformational changes related to ligand exchange and membrane binding.
  • Harju, Jorma; Lehtinen, Kimmo; Romney, Jonathan; Petrov, Leonid; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri; Bach, Uwe; Poutanen, Markku (2018)
    The occultation of the radio galaxy 0141+268 by the asteroid (372) Palma on 2017 May 15 was observed using six antennas of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The shadow of Palma crossed the VLBA station at Brewster, Washington. Owing to the wavelength used, and the size and the distance of the asteroid, a diffraction pattern in the Fraunhofer regime was observed. The measurement retrieves both the amplitude and the phase of the diffracted electromagnetic wave. This is the first astronomical measurement of the phase shift caused by diffraction. The maximum phase shift is sensitive to the effective diameter of the asteroid. The bright spot at the shadow's center, the so called Arago-Poisson spot, is clearly detected in the amplitude time-series, and its strength is a good indicator of the closest angular distance between the center of the asteroid and the radio source. A sample of random shapes constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm suggests that the silhouette of Palma deviates from a perfect circle by 26 +/- 13%. The best-fitting random shapes resemble each other, and we suggest their average approximates the shape of the silhouette at the time of the occultation. The effective diameter obtained for Palma, 192.1 +/- 4.8 km, is in excellent agreement with recent estimates from thermal modeling of mid-infrared photometry. Finally, our computations show that because of the high positional accuracy, a single radio interferometric occultation measurement can reduce the long-term ephemeris uncertainty by an order of magnitude.
  • Oljemark, Fredrik Robert (2013)
    A summary of recent TOTEM double diffraction and charged particle pseudorapidity density results is given, and single diffraction results are also discussed.
  • Ahvenainen, Patrik; Dixon, Patrick G.; Kallonen, Aki; Suhonen, Heikki; Gibson, Lorna J.; Svedstrom, Kirsi (2017)
    Background : Biological materials have a complex, hierarchical structure, with vital structural features present at all size scales, from the nanoscale to the macroscale. A method that can connect information at multiple length scales has great potential to reveal novel information. This article presents one such method with an application to the bamboo culm wall. Moso (Phyllostachys edulis) bamboo is a commercially important bamboo species. At the cellular level, bamboo culm wall consists of vascular bundles embedded in a parenchyma cell tissue matrix. The microfibril angle (MFA) in the bamboo cell wall is related to its macroscopic longitudinal stiffness and strength and can be determined at the nanoscale with wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). Combining WAXS with X-ray microtomography (XMT) allows tissue-specific study of the bamboo culm without invasive chemical treatment. Results : The scattering contribution of the fiber and parenchyma cells were separated with spatially-localized WAXS. The fiber component was dominated by a high degree of orientation corresponding to small MFAs (mean MFA 11 degrees). The parenchyma component showed significantly lower degree of orientation with a maximum at larger angles (mean MFA 65 degrees). The fiber ratio, the volume of cell wall in the fibers relative to the overall volume of cell wall, was determined by fitting the scattering intensities with these two components. The fiber ratio was also determined from the XMT data and similar fiber ratios were obtained from the two methods, one connected to the cellular level and one to the nanoscale. X-ray diffraction tomography was also done to study the differences in microfibril orientation between fibers and the parenchyma and further connect the microscale to the nanoscale. Conclusions : The spatially-localized WAXS yields biologically relevant, tissue-specific information. With the custommade bench-top set-up presented, diffraction contrast information can be obtained from plant tissue (1) from regions-of-interest, (2) as a function of distance (line scan), or (3) with two-dimensional or three-dimensional tomography. This nanoscale information is connected to the cellular level features.
  • Buffiere, Jean; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Borrega, Marc; Svedström, Kirsi; Sixta, Herbert (2016)
    This work discusses the suitability of supercritical water treatment (SCWT) for depolymerising microcrystalline cellulose in a controlled way. The SCWT partially hydrolysed cellulose down to a mixture of three valuable products: water-insoluble low-molecular-weight cellulose (WI-LMWC) precipitate, water-soluble low-molecular-weight cellulose (WS-LMWC) oligomers, and glucose. The conditions under which the energy demand for obtaining these products is minimised were identified by adjusting the reaction time inside the continuous reactor and the temperature around the critical point. The optimum conditions were 370 degrees C and 0.4 seconds for producing WI-LMWC and 360 degrees C and 0.5 seconds for producing WS-LMWC, with maximum yields of 19 wt% and 50 wt%, respectively. This work also shows that the water-insoluble product precipitates into crystalline cellulose II arrangements. This precipitation phenomenon enabled isolation of cellulose chains of different lengths according to their respective solubilities in ambient water. The results show that SCWT is a relevant process for producing narrowly distributed fractions of low-molecular-weight cellulose using water and heat only.
  • de Oliveira, Paulo F. M.; Michalchuk, Adam A. L.; Buzanich, Ana Guilherme; Bienert, Ralf; Torresi, Roberto M.; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Emmerling, Franziska (2020)
    Current time-resolvedin situapproaches limit the scope of mechanochemical investigations possible. Here we develop a new, general approach to simultaneously follow the evolution of bulk atomic and electronic structure during a mechanochemical synthesis. This is achieved by coupling two complementary synchrotron-based X-ray methods: X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction. We apply this method to investigate the bottom-up mechanosynthesis of technologically important Au micro and nanoparticles in the presence of three different reducing agents, hydroquinone, sodium citrate, and NaBH4. Moreover, we show how XAS offers new insight into the early stage generation of growth species (e.g.monomers and clusters), which lead to the subsequent formation of nanoparticles. These processes are beyond the detection capabilities of diffraction methods. This combined X-ray approach paves the way to new directions in mechanochemical research of advanced electronic materials.
  • Claesson, Elin; Wahlgren, Weixiao Yuan; Takala, Heikki; Pandey, Suraj; Castillon, Leticia; Kuznetsova, Valentyna; Henry, Leocadie; Panman, Matthijs; Carrillo, Melissa; Kubel, Joachim; Nanekar, Rahul; Isaksson, Linnea; Nimmrich, Amke; Cellini, Andrea; Morozov, Dmitry; Maj, Michal; Kurttila, Moona; Bosman, Robert; Nango, Eriko; Tanaka, Rie; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Fangjia, Luo; Iwata, So; Owada, Shigeki; Moffat, Keith; Groenhof, Gerrit; Stojkovic, Emina A.; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Schmidt, Marius; Westenhoff, Sebastian (2020)
    Phytochrome proteins control the growth, reproduction, and photosynthesis of plants, fungi, and bacteria. Light is detected by a bilin cofactor, but it remains elusive how this leads to activation of the protein through structural changes. We present serial femtosecond X-ray crystallographic data of the chromophore-binding domains of a bacterial phytochrome at delay times of 1 ps and 10 ps after photoexcitation. The data reveal a twist of the D-ring, which leads to partial detachment of the chromophore from the protein. Unexpectedly, the conserved so-called pyrrole water is photodissociated from the chromophore, concomitant with movement of the A-ring and a key signaling aspartate. The changes are wired together by ultrafast backbone and water movements around the chromophore, channeling them into signal transduction towards the output domains. We suggest that the observed collective changes are important for the phytochrome photoresponse, explaining the earliest steps of how plants, fungi and bacteria sense red light.
  • Viljanen, Mira; Suomela, Jenni A.; Svedstrom, Kirsi (2022)
    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) is a potential source material for industrial applications. However, systematic research on the ultrastructural properties of nettle fibres is lacking. Determining the ultrastructure of nettle and the other bast fibres also provides new insights into the studies of archaeological fibres and their usage. In this study, the nanostructure of modern and ancient nettle samples was studied using wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) and compared to other bast fibres. The culturo-historical fibre samples consisted of nettle, flax, and hemp from White Karelian textiles collected 1894 as well as of 800-900-year-old archaeological textile fragments from Ravattula Ristimaki burial site, Finland. Using WAXS, the average cellulose crystallite widths, relative crystallinities and orientational order (including microfibril angle for the modern fibres) were determined and compared. The results also revealed the suitability of the WAXS analysis for fibre identification. The crystallite widths were of the similar size for all modern fibres (3.4-4.8 nm). Subtle differences in the relative crystallinities in descending order (from flax to nettle, and finally hemp) were observed. Also, subtle differences in the mean MFAs were observed (10 +/- 1 degrees for flax, 12 +/- 1 degrees for nettle, and 14 +/- 1 degrees for hemp). For the culturo-historical fibres, the values for crystallite widths and relative crystallinities were larger compared to the corresponding modern references. In addition, features due to the presence of non-cellulosic, crystalline substances (e.g., calcium oxalates) were detected in the WAXS patterns of all the modern nettle fibres. These features could potentially be used as a tool for identification purposes.