Browsing by Subject "DIFFUSION EXPERIMENT"

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  • Voutilainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Arttu; Sardini, Paul; Parkkonen, Joni; Sammaljärvi, Juuso; Gylling, Björn; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Yli-Kaila, Maarit; Koskinen, Lasse; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja (2019)
    The spatial porosity and mineral distribution of geological materials strongly affects transport processes in them. X-ray micro computed tomography (X-mu CT) has proven to be a powerful tool for characterizing the spatial mineral distribution of geological samples in 3-D. However, limitations in resolution prevent an accurate characterization of pore space especially for tight crystalline rock samples and 2-D methods such as C-14-polymethylmethacrylate (C-14-PMMA) autoradiography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are needed. The spatial porosity and mineral distributions of tight crystalline rock samples from Aspo, Sweden, and Olkiluoto, Finland, were studied here. The X-mu CT were used to characterize the spatial distribution of the main minerals in 3-D. Total porosities, fracture porosities, fracture densities and porosity distributions of the samples were determined using the C-14-PMMA autoradiography and characterization of mineral-specific porosities were assisted using chemical staining of rock surfaces. SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to determine pore apertures and identify the minerals. It was shown that combination of the different imaging techniques creates a powerful tool for the structural characterization of crystalline rock samples. The combination of the results from different methods allowed the construction of spatial porosity, mineral and mineral grain distributions of the samples in 3-D. These spatial distributions enable reactive transport modeling using a more realistic representation of the heterogeneous structure of samples. Furthermore, the realism of the spatial distributions were increased by determinig the densities and porosities of fractures and by the virtual construction heterogeneous mineral distributions of minerals that cannot be separated by X-mu CT.
  • Li, Xiaodong; Puhakka, Eini; Ikonen, Jussi; Söderlund, Mervi; Lindberg, Antero; Holgersson, Stellan; Martin, Andrew; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja (2018)
    The sorption behavior of Se(IV) on Grimsel granodiorite and its main minerals, plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz and biotite, were investigated in Grimsel groundwater simulant in a large Se concentration range (from 1.66 x 10(-10) M to 1 x 10(-3) M). Experimental results show that the distribution coefficients (K-d values) of Se (IV) on the rock and mineral samples increased with the decreasing of Se(IV) concentration. The sorption of Se (IV) on biotite has the largest K-d value in low concentration area (<10(-7) M) stabilizing between 0.0595 +/- 0.0097 m(3)/Kg and 0.0713 +/- 0.0164 m(3)/Kg. The Kd value of Se(IV) on K-feldspar was the second largest (0.0154 +/- 0.0019 m(3)/Kg in 10(-9) M) while the sorption on quartz was negligible. The sorption behavior of Se(IV) on Grimsel granodiorite followed the same trend as plagioclase, the most abundant mineral in Grimsel granodiorite, with K-d values of 0.0078 +/- 0.0010 m(3)/Kg for Grimsel granodiorite and 0.0085 +/- 0.0016 m(3)/Kg for plagioclase, when Se(IV) concentration was 10(-9) M. HPLC-ICP-MS results show that all the Se(IV) remained in + IV oxidation state after more than 1 month experimental time and speciation modelling proved that the main species in Grimsel groundwater simulant were HSeO3- and SeO32-. Multi-site surface complexation modelling was performed by PHREEQC with the help of molecular modelling techniques which was performed with the CASTEP code implemented into Materials Studio. The modelling results predict that there are three kinds of sorption sites on the surface of biotite mineral, with sorption site densities differing in three magnitudes.