Browsing by Subject "DIGESTIBILITY"

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  • Pahr, Sandra; Selb, Regina; Weber, Milena; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Hofer, Gerhard; Dordic, Andela; Keller, Walter; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Giavi, Stavroula; Makela, Mika; Pelkonen, Anna; Niederberger, Verena; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf (2014)
  • Mantysaari, P.; Mantysaari, E. A.; Kokkonen, T.; Mehtio, T.; Kajava, S.; Grelet, C.; Lidauer, P.; Lidauer, M. H. (2019)
    The inclusion of feed intake and efficiency traits in dairy cow breeding goals can lead to increased risk of metabolic stress. An easy and inexpensive way to monitor postpartum energy status (ES) of cows is therefore needed. Cows' ES can be estimated by calculating the energy balance from energy intake and output and predicted by indicator traits such as change in body weight (Delta BW), change in body condition score (Delta BCS), milk fat:protein ratio (FPR), or milk fatty acid (FA) composition. In this study, we used blood plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentration as a biomarker for ES. We determined associations between NEFA concentration and ES indicators and evaluated the usefulness of body and milk traits alone, or together, in predicting ES of the cow. Data were collected from 2 research herds during 2013 to 2016 and included 137 Nordic Red dairy cows, all of which had a first lactation and 59 of which also had a second lactation. The data included daily body weight, milk yield, and feed intake and monthly BCS. Plasma samples for NEFA were collected twice in lactation wk 2 and 3 and once in wk 20. Milk samples for analysis of fat, protein, lactose, and FA concentrations were taken on the blood sampling days. Plasma NEFA concentration was higher in lactation wk 2 and 3 than in wk 20 (0.56 +/- 0.30, 0.43 +/- 0.22, and 0.13 +/- 0.06 mmol/L, respectively; all means +/- standard deviation). Among individual indicators, C18:1 cis-9 and the sum of C18:1 in milk had the highest correlations (r = 0.73) with NEFA. Seven multiple linear regression models for NEFA prediction were developed using stepwise selection. Of the models that included milk traits (other than milk FA) as well as body traits, the best fit was achieved by a model with milk yield, FPR, Delta BW, Delta BCS, FPR x Delta BW, and days in milk. The model resulted in a cross-validation coefficient of determination (R(2)cv) of 0.51 and a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.196 mmol/L. When only milk FA concentrations were considered in the model, NEFA prediction was more accurate using measurements from evening milk than from morning milk (R(2)cv = 0.61 vs. 0.53). The best model with milk traits contained FPR, C10:0, C14:0, C18:1 cis-9, C18:1 cis-9 x C14:0, and days in milk (R(2)cv = 0.62; RMSE = 0.177 mmol/L). The most advanced model using both milk and body traits gave a slightly better fit than the model with only milk traits (R(2)cv = 0.63; RMSE = 0.176 mmol/L). Our findings indicate that ES of cows in early lactation can be monitored with moderately high accuracy by routine milk measurements.
  • Tuunainen, Petra; Koivunen, Erja; Valaja, Jarmo; Valkonen, Eija; Hiidenhovi, Jaakko; Tupasela, Tuomo; Hongisto, Marja (2016)
    Performance, meat quality and litter quality were determined in 4000 male and female Ross 308 broilers fed on starter diet (soybean meal or rapeseed meal and peas) and grower-finisher diets based on either soybean meal (control) or substituting rapeseed meal or rapeseed meal and pea in different proportions (100/0%, 75/25% or 50/50%) for soybean meal in iso-nitrogenous basis. Performance of the birds fed with soybean meal diets was superior compared to that of the birds fed with rapeseed meal and pea based diets. Bird performance was the poorest and mortality the highest for the birds fed with the rapeseed meal grower diet. In this experiment birds did not reach performance target for the age and strain of bird. Overall, diet based solely on rapeseed meal protein is not suitable for broiler production. However, dietary rapeseed meal inclusion clearly improved fatty acid profile of breast meat. The omega-6/omega-3-ratio was 4.1, 2.4 and 2.7 for soybean meal, rapeseed meal, and rapeseed meal and peas based diets, respectively. There were no differences in sensory quality evaluation of breast meat between the treatments.
  • Franco, Marcia; Tapio, Ilma; Pirttiniemi, Juho; Stefanski, Tomasz; Jalava, Taina; Huuskonen, Arto; Rinne, Marketta (2022)
    New technologies related to the identification of bacterial communities in fresh forage and silage may give valuable detailed information on the best practices to produce animal feeds. The objective was to evaluate how management conditions during silage making manipulate the profile of bacterial communities and fermentation quality of grass silages. Silages were prepared from mixed timothy and meadow fescue grass using two compaction levels. As an additional treatment the grass was contaminated with soil and feces prior to tight compaction. Four additive treatments with different modes of action were applied: control without additive, formic acid-based additive, homofermentative lactic acid bacteria and salt-based additive. After 93 days the silos were opened, samples were taken and routinely analyzed. DNA extraction was carried out and PCR amplification of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene V4 region was performed using universal primers. The silage pH was higher for loose than tight compaction and higher for non-contaminated than for contaminated silages. Great shift was observed in bacterial profiles from fresh material towards silage. Lactobacillus genus was barely found on the relative abundance of fresh grass but became predominant in the final silage along with Sphingomonas genus. Use of additives improved fermentation quality and modified the bacterial profiles of grass ensiled under different management conditions.
  • Mganga, Kevin Z.; Ndathi, Aphaxard J. N.; Wambua, Stephen M.; Bosma, Luwieke; Kaindi, Eric M.; Kioko, Theophilus; Kadenyi, Nancy; Musyoki, Gilbert K.; van Steenbergen, Frank; Musimba, Nashon K. R. (2021)
    Context. Rangeland grasses native to Africa constitute the main diet for free-ranging livestock and wild herbivores. Leaf:stem ratio is a key characteristic used for assessing quality of forages. However, studies to determine the allocation of biomass to leaves and stems as well as chemical components and nutritive value, especially of grasses in African rangelands, are rare. Aim. This study was conducted to establish biomass allocation and chemical and mineral components in leaf and stem fractions of three grasses, Eragrostis superba, Enteropogon macrostachyus and Cenchrus ciliaris, all indigenous to African rangelands. Methods. Plant height, plant densities, plant tiller densities and biomass yields were estimated at the elongation stage, before inflorescence. Chemical and mineral components were determined from biomass harvested at the vegetative phase for all three grass species. Dry matter, ash content, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, acid detergent lignin, and calcium, phosphorus and potassium contents were determined. Key results. Enteropogon macrostachyus displayed significantly greater plant and tiller densities and plant height than the other two species. Leaf and stem biomass fractions varied significantly (P <0.05) among grasses. Leaf:stem ratio of E. superba was double that of E. macrostachyus and C. ciliaris. Crude protein and organic matter yields and net energy for lactation were highest (P <0.05) in E. superba leaf biomass, as was Ca content. Conclusions. Eragrostis superba demonstrated greater potential as a forage species for ruminant animal production than E. macrostachyus and C. ciliaris. Implications. Eragrostis superba is a key forage species that warrants promotion in pasture establishment programs in its native environments.
  • EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA); Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2021)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on mung bean protein as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF, which is the subject of the application, is mung bean protein extracted from seeds of the plant Vigna radiata. The NF is proposed to be used as a food ingredient added to 'protein products, excluding products covered in category 1.8'. The target population is the general population. The maximum estimated intake of the NF is 758 and 260 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day in children and adults, respectively. The major constituents of this NF are protein (similar to 85%), fat (3-4%) and moisture (3-5.5%). The NF is rich in protein which is well digestible and provides sufficient amounts of most essential amino acids but only limited amounts of sulfu-rcontaining amino acids. The Panel notes that the cumulative exposure to the minerals analysed does not raise concern. The reported values for the levels of antinutritional factors in the NF are comparable to those in other foodstuffs. The Panel considers that taking into account the composition of the NF and the proposed conditions of use, consumption of the NF is not nutritionally disadvantageous. No toxicological studies with the NFs were provided by the applicant; however, the Panel considers that no toxicological studies are required on this NF. This NF has the potential capacity to sensitise individuals and to induce allergic reactions in individuals allergic to soybean, peanuts, lupin and to birch pollen. The Panel considers that the NF, i.e. mung bean protein, is safe at the proposed conditions of use. (C) 2021 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Koivunen, Erja; Talvio, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Tupasela, Tuomo; Tuunainen, Petra; Valaja, Jarmo (2016)
    The aim was to study the effects of dietary pea inclusion and the addition of Avizyme 1200 -enzyme cocktail on broiler performance, intestinal viscosity and organoleptic quality of meat. The experimental design was a 4 x 2 factorial, the factors being dietary pea inclusion (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) in the diets fed from day 9 to day 38 and the addition of Avizyme 1200 enzyme cocktail including amylase, protease and xylanase during the entire experiment. The growth of birds improved (p 0.05). In conclusion, 450 g kg(-1) peas can be used in the broiler grower diets without negative effects on the bird performance. The use of enzyme cocktail improves bird performance.
  • Lopes Graça, Carla Alexandra; Edelmann, Minnamari; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel; Coda, Rossana; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Huang, Xin (2022)
    The incorporation of yoghurt as a starter in sourdough wheat bread, to improve technological and nutritional properties, was investigated. Two bread dough matrices were considered: endosperm wheat flour and blended with whole-grain flour. Two fermentation's types were performed, two-stage sourdough bread and yeast bread fermentation. Compared with yeast dough, yoghurt-sourdough fermentation promoted considerable changes in chemical composition, particularly when whole-grain flour was conjoined with wheat flour: higher protein proteolysis degree, increase of peptide and free amino nitrogen content, solubilization of phenolic compounds (46-53%), increase of DPPH radical scavenging (54-65%) and ferric-reducing power (85-88%), were observed. As a baking ingredient, yoghurt-sourdough improved the bread crumb softness (15-12%) and delayed the staling (40-35%). Nutritionally, the glycemic index was reduced (18-32%) while protein digestibility (6-12%) and free amino acids bioavailability (50-100%) were enhanced. The addition of yoghurt and sourdough fermentation techniques offered a promising tool to improve wheat bread's technological and functional properties.