Browsing by Subject "DIMERIZATION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Hänninen, Vesa; Murdachaew, Garold; Nathanson, Gilbert M.; Gerber, R. Benny; Halonen, Lauri (2018)
    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of formic acid (FA) dimer colliding with liquid water at 300 K have been performed using density functional theory. The two energetically lowest FA dimer isomers were collided with a water slab at thermal and high kinetic energies up to 68k(B)T. Our simulations agree with recent experimental observations of nearly a complete uptake of gas-phase FA dimer: the calculated average kinetic energy of the dimers immediately after collision is 5 +/- 4% of the incoming kinetic energy, which compares well with the experimental value of 10%. Simulations support the experimental observation of no delayed desorption of FA dimers following initial adsorption. Our analysis shows that the FA dimer forms hydrogen bonds with surface water molecules, where the hydrogen bond order depends on the dimer structure, such that the most stable isomer possesses fewer FA-water hydrogen bonds than the higher energy isomer. Nevertheless, even the most stable isomer can attach to the surface through one hydrogen bond despite its reduced hydrophilicity. Our simulations further show that the probability of FA dimer dissociation is increased by high collision energies, the dimer undergoes isomerization from the higher energy to the lowest energy isomer, and concerted double-proton transfer occurs between the FA monomers. Interestingly, proton transfer appears to be driven by the release of energy arising from such isomerization, which stimulates those internal vibrational degrees of freedom that overcome the barrier of a proton transfer.
  • Leppänen, Veli-Matti; Brouillard, Pascal; Korhonen, Emilia A.; Sipilä, Tuomas; Jha, Sawan Kumar; Revencu, Nicole; Labarque, Veerle; Fastré, Elodie; Schlögel, Matthieu; Ravoet, Marie; Singer, Amihood; Luzzatto, Claudia; Angelone, Donatella; Crichiutti, Giovanni; D’Elia, Angela; Kuurne, Jaakko; Elamaa, Harri; Koh, Gou Young; Saharinen, Pipsa; Vikkula, Miikka; Alitalo, Kari (2020)
    Lymphedema can occur when tissue fluid cannot enter or leaks from the lymphatic system into surrounding tissues. Some genetic causes of primary lymphedema are known, but these currently explain a minority of cases. Previous studies have shown that dominant-negative mutations in angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2), which is involved in lymphatic vessel formation and maturation, promote lymphangiogenesis in mice. Leppänen et al. now show that inactivating mutations in angiopoietin 2 associate with primary lymphedema in humans.Primary lymphedema is caused by developmental and functional defects of the lymphatic vascular system that result in accumulation of protein-rich fluid in tissues, resulting in edema. The 28 currently known genes causing primary lymphedema can explain <30% of cases. Angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and ANGPT2 function via the TIE1-TIE2 (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor–like domains 1 and 2) receptor complex and α5β1 integrin to form an endothelial cell signaling pathway that is critical for blood and lymphatic vessel formation and remodeling during embryonic development, as well as for homeostasis of the mature vasculature. By screening a cohort of 543 individuals affected by primary lymphedema, we identified one heterozygous de novo ANGPT2 whole-gene deletion and four heterozygous ANGPT2 missense mutations. Functional analyses revealed three missense mutations that resulted in decreased ANGPT2 secretion and inhibited the secretion of wild-type (WT)–ANGPT2, suggesting that they have a dominant-negative effect on ANGPT2 signaling. WT-ANGPT2 and soluble mutants T299M and N304K activated TIE1 and TIE2 in an autocrine assay in human lymphatic endothelial cells. Molecular modeling and biophysical studies showed that amino-terminally truncated ANGPT subunits formed asymmetrical homodimers that bound TIE2 in a 2:1 ratio. The T299M mutant, located in the dimerization interphase, showed reduced integrin α5 binding, and its expression in mouse skin promoted hyperplasia and dilation of cutaneous lymphatic vessels. These results demonstrate that primary lymphedema can be associated with ANGPT2 mutations and provide insights into TIE1 and TIE2 activation mechanisms.
  • Seppälä, Jonne; Tossavainen, Helena; Rodic, Nebojsa; Permi, Perttu; Pentikäinen, Ulla; Ylänne, Jari (2015)
    Filamins (FLNs) are large, multidomain actin cross-linking proteins with diverse functions. Besides regulating the actin cytoskeleton, they serve as important links between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton by binding cell surface receptors, functioning as scaffolds for signaling proteins, and binding several other cytoskeletal proteins that regulate cell adhesion dynamics. Structurally, FLNs are formed of an amino terminal actin-binding domain followed by 24 immunoglobulin-like domains (IgFLNs). Recent studies have demonstrated that myosin-mediated contractile forces can reveal hidden protein binding sites in the domain pairs IgFLNa18-19 and 20-21, enabling FLNs to transduce mechanical signals in cells. The atomic structures of these mechanosensor domain pairs in the resting state are known, as well as the structures of individual IgFLN21 with ligand peptides. However, little experimental data is available on how interacting protein binding deforms the domain pair structures. Here, using small-angle x-ray scattering-based modelling, x-ray crystallography, and NMR, we show that the adaptor protein migfilin-derived peptide-bound structure of IgFLNa20-21 is flexible and adopts distinctive conformations depending on the presence or absence of the interacting peptide. The conformational changes reported here may be common for all peptides and may play a role in the mechanosensor function of the site.
  • Katz, Anna; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Backstrom, Vera; Schulz, Axel R.; Mateos, Angelo; Holm, Liisa; Pettersson, Ralf F.; Vaheri, Antti; Flick, Ramon; Plyusnin, Alexander (2010)
    Background Uukuniemi virus (UUKV) belongs to the Phlebovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. As a non-pathogenic virus for humans UUKV has served as a safe model bunyavirus in a number of studies addressing fundamental questions such as organization and regulation of viral genes, genome replication, structure and assembly. The present study is focused on the oligomerization of the UUKV nucleocapsid (N) protein, which plays an important role in several steps of virus replication. The aim was to locate the domains involved in the N protein oligomerization and study the process in detail. Results A set of experiments concentrating on the N- and C-termini of the protein was performed, first by completely or partially deleting putative N-N-interaction domains and then by introducing point mutations of amino acid residues. Mutagenesis strategy was based on the computer modeling of secondary and tertiary structure of the N protein. The N protein mutants were studied in chemical cross-linking, immunofluorescence, mammalian two-hybrid, minigenome, and virus-like particle-forming assays. The data showed that the oligomerization ability of UUKV-N protein depends on the presence of intact α-helices on both termini of the N protein molecule and that a specific structure in the N-terminal region plays a crucial role in the N-N interaction(s). This structure is formed by two α-helices, rich in amino acid residues with aromatic (W7, F10, W19, F27, F31) or long aliphatic (I14, I24) side chains. Furthermore, some of the N-terminal mutations (e.g. I14A, I24A, F31A) affected the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays. Conclusions UUKV-N protein has ability to form oligomers in chemical cross-linking and mammalian two-hybrid assays. In mutational analysis, some of the introduced single-point mutations abolished the N protein functionality both in mammalian two-hybrid and minigenome assays, suggesting that especially the N-terminal region of the UUKV-N protein is essential for the N-N-interaction.
  • Nicol, Marion; Alexandre, Stephane; Luizet, Jean-Baptiste; Skogman, Malena; Jouenne, Thierry; Salcedo, Suzana P.; De, Emmanuelle (2018)
    The increasing threat of Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is mainly due to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains that are associated with the real problem of its eradication from hospital wards. The particular ability of this pathogen to form biofilms contributes to its persistence, increases antibiotic resistance, and promotes persistent/device-related infections. We previously demonstrated that virstatin, which is a small organic compound known to decrease virulence of Vibrio cholera via an inhibition of T4-pili expression, displayed very promising activity to prevent A. baumannii biofilm development. Here, we examined the antibiofilm activity of mono-unsaturated chain fatty acids, palmitoleic (PoA), and myristoleic (MoA) acids, presenting similar action on V. cholerae virulence. We demonstrated that PoA and MoA (at 0.02 mg/mL) were able to decrease A. baumannii ATCC 17978 biofilm formation up to 38% and 24%, respectively, presented a biofilm dispersing effect and drastically reduced motility. We highlighted that these fatty acids decreased the expression of the regulator abaR from the LuxIR-type quorum sensing (QS) communication system AbaIR and consequently reduced the N-acyl-homoserine lactone production (AHL). This effect can be countered by addition of exogenous AHLs. Besides, fatty acids may have additional non-targeted effects, independent from QS. Atomic force microscopy experiments probed indeed that PoA and MoA could also act on the initial adhesion process in modifying the material interface properties. Evaluation of fatty acids effect on 22 clinical isolates showed a strain-dependent antibiofilm activity, which was not correlated to hydrophobicity or pellicle formation ability of the tested strains, and suggested a real diversity in cell-to-cell communication systems involved in A. baumannii biofilm formation.