Browsing by Subject "DIOXIN RECEPTOR"

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  • Sun, Ren X.; Chong, Lauren C.; Simmons, Trent T.; Houlahan, Kathleen E.; Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Moffat, Ivy D.; Lensu, Sanna; Lindén, Jere; P'ng, Christine; Okey, Allan B.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C. (2014)
  • Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Karppinen, Ira; Galban-Velazquez, Suylen; Esteban, Javier; Håkansson, Helen; Sankari, Satu; Linden, Jere (2021)
    The physiological functions of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) are only beginning to unfold. Studies in wildtype and AHR knockout (AHRKO) mice have recently disclosed that AHR activity is required for obesity and steatohepatitis to develop when mice are fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, a line of AHRKO mouse has been reported to accumulate retinoids in the liver. Whether these are universal manifestations across species related to AHR activity level is not known yet. Therefore, we here subjected wildtype and AHRKO male rats (on Sprague-Dawley background) to HFD feeding coupled with free access to 10% sucrose solution and water; controls received a standard diet and water. Although the HFD-fed rats consumed more energy throughout the 24-week feeding regimen, they did not get overweight. However, relative weights of the brown and epididymal adipose tissues were elevated in HFDfed rats, while that of the liver was lower in AHRKO than wildtype rats. Moreover, the four groups exhibited diet-or genotype-dependent differences in biochemical variables, some of which suggested marked dissimilarities from AHRKO mice. Expression of pro-and anti-inflammatory genes was induced in livers of HFD-fed AHRKO rats, but histologically they did not differ from others. HFD reduced the hepatic concentrations of retinyl palmitate, 9-cis-4oxo-13,14-dihydroretinoic acid and (suggestively) retinol, whereas AHR status had no effect. Hence, the background strain/line of AHRKO rat is resistant to diet-induced obesity, and AHR does not modulate this or liver retinoid concentrations. Yet, subtle AHR-dependent differences in energy balance-related factors exist despite similar weight development. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ )
  • Mahiout, Selma; Tagliabue, Sara Giani; Nasri, Atefeh; Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pettersson, Lars; Bonati, Laura; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2018)
    The mediator of dioxin toxicity, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), has also important physiological functions. Selective AHR modulators (SAHRMs) share some effects of dioxins, except for their marked toxicity. We recently characterised toxicologically two novel SAHRMs, prodrugs IMA-08401 and IMA-07101 in rats, demonstrating that they are far less deleterious than the most toxic AHR-agonist, TCDD. Here, we analysed the in vitro toxicity and in silico AHR binding of the respective active, deacetylated metabolites, IMA-06201 (N-ethyl-N-phenyl-5-chloro-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide) and IMA-06504 (N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1,2-dihydro-4-hydroxy-5-methoxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide). In H4IIE rat hepatoma cells, IMA-06201 and IMA-06504 induced CYP1A1 with comparable potencies and efficacies to those of TCDD. They had little effect on cell viability as assessed by LDH leakage and MTT reduction assays, and were not mutagenic in the Ames test, but IMA-06504 elicited a maximally 2.7-fold increase in micronuclei. Molecular docking simulations showed that similar to TCDD, they occupy the central region of AHR ligand binding cavity. Hence, while showing low to negligible in vitro toxicity, these novel SAHRMs bind to the AHR qualitatively in a similar fashion to TCDD, and appear comparably powerful AHR agonists. Combined with our earlier results demonstrating that they seem considerably less toxic in vivo than TCDD, these compounds are thus highly interesting new SAHRMs.
  • Mahiout, Selma; Linden, Jere; Esteban, Javier; Sanchez-Perez, Ismael; Sankari, Satu; Pettersson, Lars; Håkansson, Helen; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2017)
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) mediates the toxicity of dioxins, but also plays important physiological roles. Selective AHR modulators, which elicit some effects imparted by this receptor without causing the marked toxicity of dioxins, are presently under intense scrutiny. Two novel such compounds are IMA-08401 (N-acetyl-N-phenyl-4-acetoxy-5-chloro-1,2-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide) and IMA-07101 (N-acetyl-N-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-4-acetoxy-1,2-dihydro-5-methoxy-1-methyl-2-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxamide). They represent, as diacetyl prodrugs, AHR-active metabolites of the drug compounds laquinimod and tasquinimod, respectively, which are intended for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Here, we toxicologically assessed the novel compounds in Sprague-Dawley rats, after a single dose (8.75-92.5 mg/kg) and 5-day repeated dosing at the highest doses achievable (IMA-08401: 100 mg/kg/day; and IMA-07101: 75 mg/kg/day). There were no overt clinical signs of toxicity, but body weight gain was marginally retarded, and the treatments induced minimal hepatic extramedullary haematopoiesis. Further, both the absolute and relative weights of the thymus were significantly decreased. Cyp1a1 gene expression was substantially increased in all tissues examined. The hepatic induction profile of other AHR battery genes was distinct from that caused by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The only marked alterations in serum clinical chemistry variables were a reduction in triglycerides and an increase in 3-hydroxybutyrate. Liver and kidney retinol and retinyl palmitate concentrations were affected largely in the same manner as reported for TCDD. In vitro, the novel compounds activated CYP1A1 effectively in H4IIE cells. Altogether, these novel compounds appear to act as potent activators of the AHR, but lack some major characteristic toxicities of dioxins. They therefore represent promising new selective AHR modulators. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.