Browsing by Subject "DISASTER"

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  • Järvensivu, Paavo; Räisänen, Helmi; Hukkinen, Janne (2021)
    Urban policymakers of the 2020s must act within various types of wicked socio-ecological disruptions. Under deep uncertainty and time pressure, they must make decisions which will define the scope of possible actions in the future. Our aim was to develop a research instrument that would enable researchers and practitioners to learn about such policymaking. We designed and ran a half-day simulation exercise, the Policy Operations Room (POR). The participants were the top politicians and a group of senior experts from the City of Helsinki, Finland. The design of the exercise was based on a review of simulation and gaming research literature. The exercise managed to integrate - albeit imperfectly - the utilitarian and emancipatory dimensions in futures studies: it gave the participants the utilitarian possibility to practice decision-making and the emancipatory possibility to critically reflect on decision-making in wicked, science-based scenarios. It also gave the researchers a chance to witness urgent decision-making in action. Issues deserving further attention include the inclusion of social-political complexity in the scenarios and practitioner involvement in the design process of the exercise. All in all, the POR constitutes a unique way of integrating science-based assessment of future path dependencies into science-policy research and interaction.
  • Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Junttila, Ilkka; Bor, Robert; Budowle, Bruce; Pukkala, Eero; Navathe, Pooshan; Sajantila, Antti (2018)
    Pilot aircraft-assisted suicides (AAS) are rare, and there is limited understanding of copycat phenomenon among aviators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect the 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks had on pilot AASs in the U.S. Fatal aviation accidents in the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database were searched using the following search words: "suicide", "murder-suicide" and "homicide-suicide". The timeline between 11 September 1996, and 11 September 2004, was analyzed. Only those accidents in which NTSB judged that the cause of the accident was suicide were included in the final analysis. The relative risk (RR) of the pilot AASs in all fatal accidents in the U.S. was calculated in order to compare the one, two, and three-year periods after the September 11 terrorist attacks with five years preceding the event. The RR of a fatal general aviation aircraft accident being due to pilot suicide was 3.68-fold (95% confidence interval 1.04-12.98) during the first year after 11 September 2001, but there was not a statistically significant increase in the later years. This study showed an association, albeit not determinate causal effect, of a very specific series of simultaneous terrorist murder-suicides with subsequent pilot AASs.
  • Pozza, Matteo; Rao, Ashwin; Flinck, Hannu; Tarkoma, Sasu (2018)
    One of the key features of next-generation mobile networks is the ability to satisfy the requirements coming from different verticals. For satisfying these requirements, 5G networks will need to dynamically reconfigure the deployment of the network functions. However, the current deployments of mobile networks are experiencing difficulties in exhibiting the required flexibility. At the same time, the research on connectivity provisioning in use cases such as after-disaster scenarios or battlefields has converged towards the idea of Network-In-a-Box. This idea revolves around fitting all software and hardware modules needed by a mobile network in a single or a handful of physical devices. A Network-In-a-Box inherently offers a high level of flexibility that makes it capable of providing connectivity services in a wide range of scenarios. Therefore, the Network-In-a-Box concept represents an alternative approach for satisfying the requirements of next-generation mobile networks. In this survey, we analyze the state-of-the-art of Network-In-a-Box solutions proposed by academia and industry in the time frame starting from 1998 up to early 2017. First, we present the main use cases around which the concept has been conceived. Then, we abstract the common features of the Network-In-a-Box implementations, and discuss how different proposals offer these features. We then draw our conclusions and discuss possible future research directions, including steps required to reach an even higher level of flexibility. The aim of our analysis is twofold. On one hand, we provide a comprehensive view of the idea of Network-In-a-Box. On the other hand, through the analysis we present the features that future mobile networks should exhibit to achieve their design goals. In particular, we show how the Network-In-a-Box fosters the transition towards the next-generation mobile networks.