Browsing by Subject "DISEASE RESISTANCE"

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Now showing items 1-15 of 15
  • Kaurilind, Eve; Xu, Enjun; Brosche, Mikael (2015)
    Background: To survive in a changing environment plants constantly monitor their surroundings. In response to several stresses and during photorespiration plants use reactive oxygen species as signaling molecules. The Arabidopsis thaliana catalase2 (cat2) mutant lacks a peroxisomal catalase and under photorespiratory conditions accumulates H2O2, which leads to activation of cell death. Methods: A cat2 double mutant collection was generated through crossing and scored for cell death in different assays. Selected double mutants were further analyzed for photosynthetic performance and H2O2 accumulation. Results: We used a targeted mutant analysis with more than 50 cat2 double mutants to investigate the role of stress hormones and other defense regulators in H2O2 -mediated cell death. Several transcription factors (AS1, MYB30, MYC2, WRKY70), cell death regulators (RCD1, DND1) and hormone regulators (AXR1, ERA1, SID2, EDS1, SGT1b) were essential for execution of cell death in cat2. Genetic loci required for cell death in cat2 was compared with regulators of cell death in spontaneous lesion mimic mutants and led to the identification of a core set of plant cell death regulators. Analysis of gene expression data from cat2 and plants undergoing cell death revealed similar gene expression profiles, further supporting the existence of a common program for regulation of plant cell death. Conclusions: Our results provide a genetic framework for further study on the role of H2O2 in regulation of cell death. The hormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and auxin, as well as their interaction, are crucial determinants of cell death regulation.
  • Cui, Fuqiang; Wu, Hongpo; Safronov, Omid; Zhang, Panpan; Kumar, Rajeev; Kollist, Hannes; Salojärvi, Jarkko Tapani; Panstruga, Ralph; Overmyer, Kirk Loren (2018)
    The atmospheric pollutant ozone (O-3) is a strong oxidant that causes extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, has significant ecological relevance, and is used here as a non-invasive ROS inducer to study plant signalling. Previous genetic screens identified several mutants exhibiting enhanced O-3 sensitivity, but few with enhanced tolerance. We found that loss-of-function mutants in Arabidopsis MLO2, a gene implicated in susceptibility to powdery mildew disease, exhibit enhanced dose-dependent tolerance to O-3 and extracellular ROS, but a normal response to intracellular ROS. This phenotype is increased in a mlo2 mlo6 mlo12 triple mutant, reminiscent of the genetic redundancy of MLO genes in powdery mildew resistance. Stomatal assays revealed that enhanced O-3 tolerance in mlo2 mutants is not caused by altered stomatal conductance. We explored modulation of the mlo2-associated O-3 tolerance, powdery mildew resistance, and early senescence phenotypes by genetic epistasis analysis, involving mutants with known effects on ROS sensitivity or antifungal defence. Mining of publicly accessible microarray data suggests that these MLO proteins regulate accumulation of abiotic stress response transcripts, and transcript accumulation of MLO2 itself is O-3 responsive. In summary, our data reveal MLO2 as a novel negative regulator in plant ROS responses, which links biotic and abiotic stress response pathways.
  • Kale, Liga; Nakurte, Ilva; Jalakas, Pirko; Kunga-Jegere, Laura; Brosche, Mikael; Rostoks, Nils (2019)
    Arabidopsis thaliana cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel gene 4 (AtCNGC4) loss-of-function mutant dnd2 exhibits elevated accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), dwarfed morphology, reduced hypersensitive response (HR), altered disease resistance and spontaneous lesions on plant leaves. An orthologous barley mutant, nec1, has been reported to over-accumulate indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and to exhibit changes in stomatal regulation in response to exogenous auxin. Here we show that the Arabidopsis dnd2 over-accumulates both IAA and abscisic acid (ABA) and displays related phenotypic and physiological changes, such as, reduced stomatal size, higher stomatal density and stomatal index. dnd2 showed increased salt tolerance in root growth assay and significantly reduced stomatal conductance, while maintaining near wt reaction in stomatal conductance upon external application of ABA, and probably consequently increased drought stress tolerance. Introduction of both sid2-1 and fmo1 into dnd2 background resulting in removal of SA did not alter stomatal conductance. Hence, the closed stomata of dnd2 is probably a result of increased ABA levels and not increased SA levels. The triple dnd2sid2abi1-1 mutant exhibited intermediate stomatal conductance compared to dnd2 and abil-1 (ABA insensitive, open stomata), while the response to external ABA was as in abi1-1 suggesting that reduced stomatal conductance in dnd2 is not due to impaired ABA signaling. In conclusion, Arabidopsis dnd2 mutant exhibited ABA overaccumulation and stomatal phenotypes, which may contribute to the observed improvement in drought stress resistance. Thus, Arabidopsis dnd2 mutant may serve as a model for studying crosstalk between biotic and abiotic stress and hormonal response in plants.
  • Eck, Jenalle L.; Kytoviita, Minna-Maarit; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2022)
    While pathogenic and mutualistic microbes are ubiquitous across ecosystems and often co-occur within hosts, how they interact to determine patterns of disease in genetically diverse wild populations is unknown. To test whether microbial mutualists provide protection against pathogens, and whether this varies among host genotypes, we conducted a field experiment in three naturally occurring epidemics of a fungal pathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis, infecting a host plant, Plantago lanceolata, in the angstrom land Islands, Finland. In each population, we collected epidemiological data on experimental plants from six allopatric populations that had been inoculated with a mixture of mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or a nonmycorrhizal control. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased growth in plants from every population, but also increased host infection rate. Mycorrhizal effects on disease severity varied among host genotypes and strengthened over time during the epidemic. Host genotypes that were more susceptible to the pathogen received stronger protective effects from inoculation. Our results show that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi introduce both benefits and risks to host plants, and shift patterns of infection in host populations under pathogen attack. Understanding how mutualists alter host susceptibility to disease will be important for predicting infection outcomes in ecological communities and in agriculture.
  • Bos, Nick; Kankaanpää-Kukkonen, Viljami; Freitak, Dalial; Stucki, Dimitri; Sundström, Liselotte (2019)
    Eusocial insects, such as ants, have access to complex disease defenses both at the individual, and at the colony level. However, different species may be exposed to different diseases, and/or deploy different methods of coping with disease. Here, we studied and compared survival after fungal exposure in 12 species of ants, all of which inhabit similar habitats. We exposed the ants to two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), and measured how exposure to these fungi influenced survival. We furthermore recorded hygienic behaviors, such as autogrooming, allogrooming and trophallaxis, during the days after exposure. We found strong differences in autogrooming behavior between the species, but none of the study species performed extensive allogrooming or trophallaxis under the experimental conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the possible importance of the metapleural gland, and how the secondary loss of this gland in the genus Camponotus could favor a stronger behavioral response against pathogen threats.
  • Cotter, S. C.; Pincheira-Donoso, D.; Thorogood, R. (2019)
    Parasitic interactions are so ubiquitous that all multicellular organisms have evolved a system of defences to reduce their costs, whether the parasites they encounter are the “classic parasites” that feed on the individual, or “brood parasites” that usurp parental care. Many parallels have been drawn between defences deployed against both types of parasite, but typically, whilst defences against classic parasites have been selected to protect survival, those against brood parasites have been selected to protect the parent’s inclusive fitness, suggesting that the selection pressures they impose are fundamentally different. However, there is another class of defences against classic parasites that have specifically been selected to protect an individual’s inclusive fitness, known as “social immunity”. Social immune responses include the anti-parasite defences typically provided for others in kin-structured groups, such as the antifungal secretions produced by termite workers to protect the brood. Defences against brood parasites, therefore, are more closely aligned with social immune responses. Much like social immunity, host defences against brood parasitism are employed by a donor (a parent) for the benefit of one or more recipients (typically kin), and as with social defences against classic parasites, defences have therefore evolved to protect the donor’s inclusive fitness, not the survival or ultimately the fitness of individual recipients This can lead to severe conflicts between the different parties, whose interests are not always aligned. Here we consider defences against brood parasitism in the light of social immunity, at different stages of parasite encounter, addressing where conflicts occur and how they might be resolved. We finish with considering how this approach could help us to address longstanding questions in our understanding of brood parasitism.
  • van Eck, Herman J.; Vos, Peter G.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Uitdewilligen, Jan G. A. M. L.; Lensing, Hellen; de Vetten, Nick; Visser, Richard G. F. (2017)
    The method of graphical genotyping is applied to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars to visualize haplotype sharing. The method allowed to map genes involved in virus and nematode resistance. The physical coordinates of the amount of linkage drag surrounding these genes are easily interpretable. Graphical genotyping is a visually attractive and easily interpretable method to represent genetic marker data. In this paper, the method is extended from diploids to a panel of tetraploid potato cultivars. Application of filters to select a subset of SNPs allows one to visualize haplotype sharing between individuals that also share a specific locus. The method is illustrated with cultivars resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY), while simultaneously selecting for the absence of the SNPs in susceptible clones. SNP data will then merge into an image which displays the coordinates of a distal genomic region on the northern arm of chromosome 11 where a specific haplotype is introgressed from the wild potato species S. stoloniferum (CPC 2093) carrying a gene (Ny ((o,n)sto) ) conferring resistance to two PVY strains, PVYO and PVYNTN. Graphical genotyping was also successful in showing the haplotypes on chromosome 12 carrying Ry-f (sto) , another resistance gene derived from S. stoloniferum conferring broad-spectrum resistance to PVY, as well as chromosome 5 haplotypes from S. vernei, with the Gpa5 locus involved in resistance against Globodera pallida cyst nematodes. The image also shows shortening of linkage drag by meiotic recombination of the introgression segment in more recent breeding material. Identity-by-descent was found to be a requirement for using graphical genotyping, which is proposed as a non-statistical alternative method for gene discovery, as compared with genome-wide association studies. The potential and limitations of the method are discussed.
  • Tanigaki, Yusuke; Ito, Kenji; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Kosaka, Akiko; Yamato, Katsuyuki T.; Okanami, Masahiro; Lehtonen, Mikko T.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Akita, Motomu (2014)
  • Durian, Guido; Rahikainen, Moona; Vuorinen, Katariina; Gollan, Peter J.; Brosche, Mikael; Salojarvi, Jarkko; Glawischnig, Erich; Winter, Zsófia; Li, Shengchun; Noctor, Graham; Aro, Eva-Mari; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Overmyer, Kirk; Burow, Meike; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa (2020)
    Plants optimize their growth and survival through highly integrated regulatory networks that coordinate defensive measures and developmental transitions in response to environmental cues. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a key signaling component that controls stress reactions and growth at different stages of plant development, and the PP2A regulatory subunit PP2A-B'gamma is required for negative regulation of pathogenesis responses and for maintenance of cell homeostasis in short-day conditions. Here, we report molecular mechanisms by which PP2A-B'gamma regulates Botrytis cinerea resistance and leaf senescence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We extend the molecular functionality of PP2A-B'gamma to a protein kinase-phosphatase interaction with the defense-associated calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK1 and present indications this interaction may function to control CPK1 activity. In presenescent leaf tissues, PP2A-B'gamma is also required to negatively control the expression of salicylic acid-related defense genes, which have recently proven vital in plant resistance to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. In addition, we find the premature leaf yellowing of pp2a-b'gamma depends on salicylic acid biosynthesis via SALICYLIC ACID INDUCTION DEFICIENT2 and bears the hallmarks of developmental leaf senescence. We propose PP2A-B'gamma age-dependently controls salicylic acid-related signaling in plant immunity and developmental leaf senescence.
  • Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Sun, Hui; Choi, Jaeyoung; Asiegbu, Frederick O.; Valkonen, Jari P. T.; Lee, Yong-Hwan (2014)
  • Wang, Kai; Auzane, Agate; Overmyer, Kirk (2022)
    The phyllosphere is a complex habitat for diverse microbial communities. Under natural conditions, multiple interactions occur between host plants and phyllosphere resident microbes, such as bacteria, oomycetes, and fungi. Our understanding of plant associated yeasts and yeast-like fungi lags behind other classes of plant-associated microbes, largely due to a lack of yeasts associated with the model plant Arabidopsis, which could be used in experimental model systems. The yeast-like fungal species Protomyces arabidopsidicola was previously isolated from the phyllosphere of healthy wild-growing Arabidopsis, identified, and characterized. Here we explore the interaction of P. arabidopsidicola with Arabidopsis and found P. arabidopsidicola strain C29 was not pathogenic on Arabidopsis, but was able to survive in its phyllosphere environment both in controlled environment chambers in the lab and under natural field conditions. Most importantly, P. arabidopsidicola exhibited an immune priming effect on Arabidopsis, which showed enhanced disease resistance when subsequently infected with the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), camalexin, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid signaling pathways, but not the auxin-signaling pathway, was associated with this priming effect, as evidenced by MAPK3/MAPK6 activation and defense marker expression. These findings demonstrate Arabidopsis immune defense priming by the naturally occurring phyllosphere resident yeast species, P. arabidopsidicola, and contribute to establishing a new interaction system for probing the genetics of Arabidopsis immunity induced by resident yeast-like fungi.
  • Rosa, Elena; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2017)
    Aggregation can confer advantages in animal foraging, defense, and thermoregulation. There is a tight connection between the evolution of insect sociality and a highly effective immune system, presumably to inhibit rapid disease spread in a crowded environment. This connection is less evident for animals that spend only part of their life cycle in a social environment, such as noneusocial gregarious insects. Our aim was to elucidate the effects of group living by the gregarious larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly with respect to individual performance, immunity, and susceptibility to a parasitoid. We were also interested in the role of family relative to common postdiapause environment in shaping life-history traits. Larvae were reared at high or low density and then exposed to the pupal parasitoid wasp Pteromalus apum, either in presence or absence of a previous immune challenge that was used to measure the encapsulation immune response. Surviving adult butterflies were further tested for immunity. The wasp offspring from successfully parasitized butterfly pupae were counted and their brood sex ratios assessed. Larvae reared at high density grew larger and faster than those at low density. Despite high mortality due to parasitism, survival was greater among individuals with high pupal immunity in both density treatments. Moreover, butterfly pupae reared at high density were able to kill a larger fraction of individuals in the parasitoid broods, although this did not increase survival of the host. Finally, a larger proportion of variation observed in most of the traits was explained by butterfly family than by common postdiapause rearing environment, except for adult survival and immunity, for which this pattern was reversed. This gregarious butterfly clearly benefits from high conspecific density in terms of developmental performance and its ability to fight a parasitoid. These positive effects may be driven by cooperative interactions during feeding.
  • Brosche, Mikael; Blomster, Tiina; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Cui, Fuqiang; Sipari, Nina; Leppälä, Johanna; Lamminmäki, Airi; Tomai, Gloria; Narayanasamy, Shaman; Reddy, Ramesha A.; Keinänen, Markku Juhani; Overmyer, Kirk; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko (2014)