Browsing by Subject "DISEASE-ACTIVITY"

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  • Berntson, Lillemor; Nordal, Ellen; Fasth, Anders; Aalto, Kristiina; Herlin, Troels; Nielsen, Susan; Rygg, Marite; Zak, Marek; Ronnelid, Johan; Nordic Study Grp Pediat Rheumatolo (2014)
  • Giaretta, Paula R.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Jergens, Albert E.; Steiner, Jorg M.; Lidbury, Jonathan A.; Cook, Audrey K.; Hanifeh, Mohsen; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Syrja, Pernilla; Rech, Raquel R. (2020)
    The intestinal microbiota is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease in humans and chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) in dogs. While most previous studies have described the gut microbiota using sequencing methods, it is fundamental to assess the spatial distribution of the bacteria for a better understanding of their relationship with the host. The microbiota in the colonic mucosa of 22 dogs with CIE and 11 control dogs was investigated using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a universal eubacterial probe (EUB338) and specific probes for select bacterial groups. The number of total bacteria labeled with EUB338 probe was lower within the colonic crypts of dogs with CIE compared to controls. Helicobacter spp. and Akkermansia spp. were decreased on the colonic surface and in the crypts of dogs with CIE. Dogs with CIE had increased number of Escherichia coli/Shigella spp. on the colonic surface and within the crypts compared to control dogs. In conclusion, the bacterial microbiota in the colonic mucosa differed between dogs with and without CIE, with depletion of the crypt bacteria in dogs with CIE. The crypt bacterial species that was intimately associated with the host mucosa in control dogs was composed mainly of Helicobacter spp.
  • Kuuliala, Krista; Kuuliala, Antti; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Kautiainen, Hannu; Repo, Heikki; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta (2017)
    Background: We found recently that baseline signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with treatment response to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). This prompted us to study the baseline phosphorylation profiles of Janus kinases (JAKs) in blood leukocytes with respect to treatment response in early RA. Methods: Thirty-five DMARD-naive patients with early RA provided blood samples for whole blood flow cytometric determination of phosphorylation of JAKs in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD14(+) monocytes. Treatment response was determined after 1 year of treatment with synthetic DMARDs, with remission defined as absence of tender and swollen joints and normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Exact logistic regression was used to investigate the association of baseline variables with treatment response. Ninety-five percent CIs of means were estimated by bias-corrected bootstrapping. Results: High JAK3 phosphorylation in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD14(+) monocytes and low JAK2 phosphorylation in CD14(+) monocytes were significantly associated with remission following treatment with synthetic DMARDs. Conclusions: Baseline JAK phosphorylation profile in peripheral blood leukocytes may provide a means to predict treatment response achieved by synthetic DMARDs among patients with early RA.
  • Purmonen, Timo; Puolakka, Kari; Mishra, Dinesh; Gunda, Praveen; Martikainen, Janne (2019)
    Aim: This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of secukinumab vs currently licensed biologics for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) from the Finnish health care system perspective. Methods: A semi-Markov model compared secukinumab with adalimumab, adalimumab biosimilar, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, etanercept biosimilar, golimumab, and infliximab in a biologic-naive population over a lifetime horizon. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used to assess the treatment response. Efficacy inputs were obtained from the network meta-analysis, and other model inputs were obtained from the published literature and Finnish sources. Main study outcomes included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in terms of cost per QALY gained. Robustness of results was confirmed by sensitivity analyses and alternative scenario analyses. Results: Secukinumab achieved highest QALYs (13.1) at lowest expected lifetime cost (ss279,872) vs other comparators in biologic-naive AS patients in the base case analysis, thus it dominated other biologics. Golimumab had a second highest QALYs (12.9) at the total cost of ss309,551. Results were sensitive to variation in BASDAI 50 response for secukinumab, baseline Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) score across all drugs, change in BASDAI and BASFI scores, and discount rates as observed in the one-way sensitivity analyses. Secukinumab was either dominant or cost-effective treatment in different alternative scenarios. Conclusion: Secukinumab presented itself to be the dominant (ie, less costly and more effective) treatment vs other comparators for the biologic-naive patients with AS in Finland.
  • Salonen, Päivi H.; Salonen, Juha H.; Säilä, Hanna; Helminen, Mika; Linna, Miika; Kauppi, Markku J. (2020)
    OBJECTIVES: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may be predisposed to serious pneumonia due to modern disease-modifying anti-rheumatic treatment. In this nationwide retrospective study with clinical data, we describe the pneumonia episodes among children with JIA. METHODS: Patients under 18 years of age with JIA and pneumonia during 1998-2014 were identified in the National Hospital Discharge Register in Finland. Each individual patient record was reviewed, and detailed data on patients with JIA and pneumonia were retrieved, recorded, and analyzed. If the patient was hospitalized or received intravenous antibiotics, the pneumonia was considered serious. RESULTS: There were 157 episodes of pneumonia among 140 children with JIA; 111 episodes (71%) were serious (80% in 1998-2006 and 66% in 2007-2014). The mean age of the patients was 9 years. Forty-eight percent had active JIA and 46% had comorbidities. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) were used at the time of 135 episodes (86%): methotrexate (MTX) by 62% and biologic DMARDs (bDMARD) by 30%. There was no significant difference in the use of bDMARDs, MTX and glucocorticoids between the patient groups with serious and non-serious pneumonia episodes. During six of the episodes, intensive care was needed. Two patients (1.3%) died, the remaining ones recovered fully. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of pneumonia and the use of immunosuppressive treatment among children with JIA increased from 1998 to 2014, the proportion of serious pneumonias in these patients decreased. There was no significant difference in the use of anti-rheumatic medication between patients with serious and non-serious pneumonia.Key Points• The incidence of serious pneumonias decreased from 1998 to 2014 among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).• There was no significant difference in the use of the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic medication between JIA patients with serious and non-serious pneumonias.• Active JIA, comorbidities, and combination medication were associated with nearly half of the pneumonias.
  • Äyräväinen, Leena; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Laasonen, Leena; Moilanen, Eeva; Hämäläinen, Mari; Tervahartiala, Taina; Meurman, Jukka H.; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Sorsa, Timo (2018)
    Objective: To study prospectively the association of salivary and serum matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMP)-1 and interleukin (IL)-6 with periodontal and systemic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We hypothesized that biomarker concentrations reflect inflammation. Methods: Fifty three early untreated RA (ERA) and 28 chronic RA (CRA) patients, underwent rheumatological and dental examinations at baseline and one year later after starting first conventional or biological disease modifying antirheumatic drug. We included 43 control subjects. Saliva and serum samples were analyzed for MMP-8, TIMP-1 and IL-6. Periodontal health was assessed by bleeding on probing (BOP), pocket depth (PD) and periodontal inflammatory burden index (PIBI); RA disease activity was assessed by disease activity score DAS28. Joint destruction was analyzed by the modified Sharp-van der Heijde (SHS) method. Results: Serum MMP-8 (p <.001; p <.001) and IL-6 (p <.001; p =.002) were significantly higher in CRA vs. other study groups during the study. Salivary MMP-8 (p =.010) and IL-6 (p =.010) were significantly higher in ERA vs. other study groups at baseline. Salivary MMP-8 was associated with periodontal parameters. Conclusion: Elevated serum concentrations of MMP-8 and IL-6 in CRA patients reflected chronic RA, while elevated salivary concentrations of MMP-8 levels in ERA patients reflected increased periodontal inflammation.
  • Gadina, Massimo; Le, Mimi T.; Schwartz, Daniella M.; Silvennoinen, Olli; Nakayamada, Shingo; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; O'Shea, John J. (2019)
    Cytokines are critical mediators of diverse immune and inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytokines and cytokine receptors with biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many of these diseases, but targeting intracellular signalling with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (jakinibs) now represents a major new therapeutic advance. We are still in the first decade since these drugs were approved and there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms of action of these drugs and the practical use of these agents. Herein we will review cytokines that do, and just as importantly, do not signal by JAKs, as well as explain how this relates to both efficacy and side effects in various diseases. We will review new, next-generation selective jakinibs, as well as the prospects and challenges ahead in targeting JAKs.
  • Malmberg, Markus; Palomäki, Antti; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Rautava, Päivi; Gunn, Jarmo; Kytö, Ville (2021)
    Objective To investigate the long-term outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA (n = 378) were retrospectively compared to patients without RA (n = 7560), all treated with CABG in a multicentre, population-based cohort register study in Finland. The outcomes were studied with propensity score-matching adjustment for baseline features. The median follow-up was 9.7 years. Results Diagnosis of RA was associated with an increased risk of mortality after CABG compared to patients without RA (HR 1.50; CI 1.28-1.77; p < .0001). In addition, patients with RA were in higher risk of myocardial infarction during the follow-up period (HR 1.61; CI 1.28-2.04; p < .0001). Cumulative rate of repeated revascularization after CABG was 14.4% in RA patients and 12.0% in control patients (p = .060). Duration of RA before CABG (p = .011) and preoperative corticosteroid usage in RA (p = .041) were independently associated with higher mortality after CABG. There were no differences between the study groups in 30-d mortality or in the post-operative usage of cardiovascular medications. Conclusions RA is independently associated with worse prognosis in coronary artery disease treated with CABG. Preoperative corticosteroid use and longer RA disease duration are additional risk factors for mortality. Key messages Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have impaired long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Glucocorticoid use before CABG and duration of RA are associated with higher mortality. Special attention should be paid in secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in RA patients after CABG.
  • Gudelj, Ivan; Salo, Perttu P.; Trbojevic-Akmacic, Irena; Albers, Malena; Primorac, Dragan; Perola, Markus; Lauc, Gordan (2018)
    Antibodies are known to have an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases which primarily involves the joints. Most RA patients develop auto antibodies against immunoglobulin G (IgG) and changes in IgG glycosylation have been associated with RA. We undertook this study to determine whether altered IgG glycosylation precedes the disease diagnosis. We studied IgG glycosylation in RA in two prospective cohorts (N = 14,749) by measuring 28 IgG glycan traits in 179 subjects who developed RA within 10-years follow-up and 358 matched controls. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography method based on hydrophilic interactions (HILIC-UPLC) was used to analyse IgG glycans. Future RA diagnosis associated with traits related to lower galactosylation and sialylation of IgG when comparing the cases to the matched controls. In RA cases, these traits did not correlate with the time between being recruited to the study and being diagnosed with RA (median time 4.31 years). The difference in IgG glycosylation was relatively stable and present years before diagnosis. This indicates that long-acting factors affecting IgG glycome composition are among the underlying mechanisms of RA and that decreased galactosylation is a preexisting risk factor involved in the disease development.
  • Nordic Soc Paediat Haematology On; Nersting, Jacob; Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Grell, Kathrine; Paerregaard, Maria; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Lund, Bendik; Jonsson, Olafur Gisli; Pruunsild, Kaie; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Kanerva, Jukka; Schmiegelow, Kjeld (2019)
    PurposeMethotrexate polyglutamates (MTXpg) facilitate incorporation of thioguanine nucleotides into DNA (DNA-TG, the primary cytotoxic thiopurine metabolite and outcome determinant in MTX/6-mercaptopurine treatment of childhood ALL). We hypothesized that mapping erythrocyte levels of MTXpg with 1-6 glutamates and their associations with DNA-TG formation would facilitate future guidelines for maintenance therapy dosing.Methods and resultsSummed MTX with 1-6 glutamates resolved by LCMS [median (interquartile): 5.47 (3.58-7.69) nmol/mmol hemoglobin] was in agreement with total MTX by radio ligand assay. In 16,389 blood samples from 1426 ALL maintenance therapy patients, MTXpg3 21.0 (15.2-27.4)% was the predominant metabolite, and MTXpg1 (the maternal drug) constituted 38.6 (27.2-50.2)% of MTXpg1-6. All subsets correlated; the strongest associations were between metabolites with similar polyglutamate lengths. Correlations of MTXpg1 with MTXpg2 and MTXpg3,4,5,6 were r(s)=0.68 and r(s)=0.25-0.42, respectively. Intercorrelations of MTXpg3,4,5,6 were all r(s)0.51. MTXpg4 accounted for 29.8 (24.7-33.3)% of MTXpg3-6, yet explained 96% of the summed MTXpg3-6 variation. MTXpg1-4, MTXpg1-6, MTXpg2-6 and MTXpg3 were all associated with DNA-TG levels (p
  • Soini, Erkki; Asseburg, Christian; Taiha, Maarit; Puolakka, Kari; Purcaru, Oana; Luosujärvi, Riitta (2017)
    To model the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of certolizumab pegol (CZP) (with and without a hypothetical risk-sharing scheme at treatment initiation for biologic-na <ve patients) versus the current mix of reimbursed biologics for treatment of moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Finland. A probabilistic model with 12-week cycles and a societal approach was developed for the years 2015-2019, accounting for differences in ACR responses (meta-analysis), mortality, and persistence. The risk-sharing scheme included a treatment switch and refund of the costs associated with CZP acquisition if patients failed to achieve ACR20 response at week 12. For the current treatment mix, ACR20 at week 24 determined treatment continuation. Quality-adjusted life years were derived on the basis of the Health Utilities Index. In the Finnish target population, CZP treatment with a risk-sharing scheme led to a estimated annual net expenditure decrease ranging from 1.7% in 2015 to 5.6% in 2019 compared with the current treatment mix. Per patient over the 5 years, CZP risk sharing was estimated to decrease the time without ACR response by 5%-units, decrease work absenteeism by 24 days, and increase the time with ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses by 5%-, 6%-, and 1%-units, respectively, with a gain of 0.03 quality-adjusted life years. The modeled risk-sharing scheme showed reduced costs of a,notsign7866 per patient, with a more than 95% probability of cost-effectiveness when compared with the current treatment mix. The present analysis estimated that CZP, with or without the risk-sharing scheme, is a cost-effective alternative treatment for RA patients in Finland. The surplus provided by the CZP risk-sharing scheme could fund treatment for 6% more Finnish RA patients.
  • Nordic Study Grp Pediat Rheumatolo; Nordal, Ellen; Rypdal, Veronika; Arnstad, Ellen Dalen; Aalto, Kristiina; Berntson, Lillemor; Ekelund, Maria; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Rygg, Marite (2019)
    BackgroundThe aim of the study was to describe school attendance and participation in physical education in school among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).MethodsConsecutive cases of JIA from defined geographical areas of Finland, Sweden and Norway with disease onset in 1997 to 2000 were followed for 8 years in a multi-center cohort study, aimed to be as close to population-based as possible. Clinical characteristics and information on school attendance and participation in physical education (PE) were registered.ResultsParticipation in school and in PE was lowest initially and increased during the disease course. Eight years after disease onset 228/274 (83.2%) of the children reported no school absence due to JIA, while 16.8% reported absence during the last 2 months due to JIA. Full participation in PE was reported by 194/242 (80.2%), partly by 16.9%, and none by 2.9%. Lowest participation in PE was found among children with ERA and the undifferentiated categories. Absence in school and PE was associated with higher disease activity measures at the 8-year visit. School absence >1day at baseline predicted use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, including biologics (DMARDs) (OR 1.2 (1.1-1.5)), and non-remission off medication (OR 1.4 (1.1-1.7) 8 years after disease onset.ConclusionSchool absence at baseline predicted adverse long-term outcome. In children and adolescents with JIA participation in school activities is mostly high after 8years of disease. For the minority with low participation, special attention is warranted to promote their full potential of social interaction and improve long-term outcome.
  • Laasonen, Leena; Lindqvist, Ulla; Iversen, Lars; Ejstrup, Leif; Jonmundsson, Thorarinn; Ståhle, Mona; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn (2020)
    Background Psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) is the most severe phenotype of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Purpose To describe the radiological features in PAM and explore whether existing scoring systems for radiological damage in psoriatic arthritis are applicable for PAM. Material and Methods Radiographs were scored according to the modified Sharp-van der Heijde (mSvdH) and the Psoriatic Arthritis Ratingen Score (PARS) systems for PsA. Results At inclusion, 55 PAM patients (49% women, mean age 58 +/- 12 years) had conventional radiographs of both hands and feet. A total of 869 PAM joints were detected and 193 joints with ankylosis. The mean total mSvdH score was 213.7 +/- 137.8 (41% of maximum) with a higher score for hands than for feet: 136.6 +/- 90.1 vs. 79.1 +/- 60.9. However, the total score was relatively higher in the feet than in the hands when compared to the highest possible scoring (47% vs. 38% of max). The mean total PARS score was 126.3 +/- 79.6 (35% of max). Scoring for joint destruction was higher than for proliferation (22% vs. 11% of max). Strong correlation was found between mSvdH and PARS (r(2) = 0.913). A significant correlation was found between scoring and duration of arthritis and the Health Assessment Questionnaire. History of smoking, BMI, and gender did not influence the scoring values. Conclusions The two scoring systems studied may not be ideal to indicate progression of PAM in advanced disease since they reach ceiling effects rather early. Therefore, reporting early signs suggestive of PAM, e.g. signs of pencil-in-cup deformities or osteolysis, is crucial. This would reveal the presence of PAM and might lead to improved treatment in order to minimize joint damage.
  • Kuuliala, Krista; Kuuliala, Antti; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Kautiainen, Hannu; Repo, Heikki; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta (2016)
    Objective To find novel predictors of treatment response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), we studied activation of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) 6 and 1 in circulating leukocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods 19 patients with untreated recent-onset RA, 16 patients with chronic RA irresponsive to synthetic DMARDs and 37 healthy volunteers provided blood samples for whole blood flow cytometric determination of intracellular STAT6 and STAT1 phosphorylation, expressed as relative fluorescence units, in response to IL-4 and IFN-gamma, respectively. Phosphorylation was restudied and treatment response (according to European League Against Rheumatism) determined after 1-year treatment with synthetic DMARDs in recent-onset RA and with biological DMARD in synthetic DMARD-irresponsive RA. Estimation-based exact logistic regression was used to investigate relation of baseline variables to treatment response. 95% confidence intervals of means were estimated by bias-corrected bootstrapping and the significance between baseline and follow-up values was calculated by permutation test. Results At baseline, levels of phosphorylated STAT6 (pSTAT6) induced by IL-4 in monocytes were higher in those who achieved good treatment response to synthetic DMARDs than in those who did not among patients with untreated RA (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.05 to 9.47), and IFN-gamma-stimulated lymphocyte pSTAT1 levels were higher in those who achieved good treatment response to a biological drug than in those who did not among patients with chronic RA (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 20.68). During follow-up, in recent-onset RA patients with good treatment response to synthetic DMARDS, the lymphocyte pSTAT6 levels decreased (p = 0.011), and, consequently, the ratio of pSTAT1/pSTAT6 in lymphocytes increased (p = 0.042). Conclusion Cytokine-stimulated STAT6 and STAT1 phosphorylation in circulating leukocytes was associated with treatment response to DMARDs in this pilot study. The result, if confirmed in larger studies, may aid in developing personalized medicine in RA.
  • Hirvonen, H.; Kautiainen, H.; Moilanen, E.; Mikkelsson, M.; Leirisalo-Repo, M. (2017)
    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased oxidative stress, decreased antioxidant levels, and impaired antioxidant capacity. Cold treatments are used to relieve joint inflammation and pain. Therefore, we measured the effect of cold treatments on the antioxidative capacity of RA patients with active disease. Sixty patients were randomized to (1) whole body cryotherapy at -110 A degrees C, (2) whole body cryotherapy at -60 A degrees C, or (3) local cryotherapy. Each treatment was given three times daily for 7 consecutive days in addition to the conventional rehabilitation. Blinded rheumatologist evaluated disease activity before the first and after the last cryotherapy. We collected plasma samples daily immediately before the first and after the second cryotherapy and measured total peroxyl radical trapping antioxidant capacity of plasma (TRAP), which reflects global combined antioxidant capacity of all individual antioxidants in plasma. Baseline morning TRAP levels (mean, 95% CI), adjusted for age, body mass index, disease activity, and dose of prednisolone, were 1244 (1098-1391) A mu M/l in the local cryotherapy, 1133 (1022-1245) A mu M/l in the cryotherapy at -60 A degrees C, and 989 (895-1082) A mu M/l in the cryotherapy at -110 A degrees C groups (p = 0.006). After the first treatment, there was a rise in 1-h TRAP of 14.2 (-4.2 to 32.6) A mu M/l, 16.1 (-7.4 to 39.6) A mu M/l, and 23.6 (4.1-43.2) A mu M/l, respectively. The increase was significant in the whole-body cryotherapy -110 A degrees C group (p <0.001) but not significant between the groups (p = 0.78). When analyzed for the whole week, the daily morning TRAP values differed significantly between the treatment groups (p = 0.021), but there was no significant change within each treatment group. Whole-body cryotherapy at -110 A degrees C induced a short-term increase in TRAP during the first treatment session with but not during other treatment modalities. The effect was short and the cold treatments did not cause a significant oxidative stress or adaptation during 1 week.