Browsing by Subject "DISPERSAL"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Ovaskainen, Otso; Somervuo, Panu; Finkelshtein, Dmitri (2020)
    Agent-based models are used to study complex phenomena in many fields of science. While simulating agent-based models is often straightforward, predicting their behaviour mathematically has remained a key challenge. Recently developed mathematical methods allow the prediction of the emerging spatial patterns for a general class of agent-based models, whereas the prediction of spatio-temporal pattern has been thus far achieved only for special cases. We present a general and mathematically rigorous methodology that allows deriving the spatio-temporal correlation structure for a general class of individual-based models. To do so, we define an auxiliary model, in which each agent type of the primary model expands to three types, called the original, the past and the new agents. In this way, the auxiliary model keeps track of both the initial and current state of the primary model, and hence the spatio-temporal correlations of the primary model can be derived from the spatial correlations of the auxiliary model. We illustrate the agreement between analytical predictions and agent-based simulations using two example models from theoretical ecology. In particular, we show that the methodology is able to correctly predict the dynamical behaviour of a host-parasite model that shows spatially localized oscillations.
  • Tolvanen, Jere; Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Valkama, Jari; Tornberg, Risto (2017)
    Capsule: Mark-recapture data suggest low apparent survival and sex- and population-specific site fidelity and territory turnover in adult Northern Goshawks Accipiter gentilis breeding in northern Europe.Aims: To understand how species cope with global environmental change requires knowledge of variation in population demographic rates, especially from populations close to the species' northern range limit and from keystone species such as raptors. We analyse apparent survival and breeding dispersal propensity of adult Northern Goshawks breeding in northern Europe.Methods: We used long-term mark-recapture data from two populations in Finland, northern Europe, and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models and binomial generalized linear models to investigate sex- and population-specific variation in apparent survival, territory turnover and site fidelity.Results: We report low apparent survival (53-72%) of breeding adult Goshawks. Breeding dispersal propensity was higher in females than males, especially in northern Finland, contrasting with previous studies that suggest high site fidelity in both sexes.Conclusion: Low apparent survival in females may be mainly due to permanent emigration outside the study areas, whereas in males the survival rate may truly be low. Both demographic aspects may be driven by the combination of sex-specific roles related to breeding and difficult environmental conditions prevailing in northern latitudes during the non-breeding season.
  • Jamoneau, Aurelien; Passy, Sophia I.; Soininen, Janne; Leboucher, Thibault; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette (2018)
    1. Understanding the mechanisms that drive beta diversity (i.e. beta-diversity), an important aspect of regional biodiversity, remains a priority for ecological research. beta-diversity and its components can provide insights into the processes generating regional biodiversity patterns. We tested whether environmental filtering or dispersal related processes predominated along the stream watercourse by analysing the responses of taxonomic and functional diatom beta-diversity to environmental and spatial factors. 2. We examined the variation in total beta-diversity and its components (turnover and nestedness) in benthic diatom species and ecological guilds (motile, planktonic, low-and high profile) with respect to watercourse position (up-, mid-and downstream) in 2,182 sites throughout France. We tested the effects of pure environmental and pure spatial factors on beta-diversity with partial Mantel tests. Environmental factors included eight physicochemical variables, while geographical distances between sites were used as spatial factors. We also correlated a and c-diversity, and the degree of nestedness (NODF metric) with environmental variables. 3. Total beta-diversity and its turnover component displayed higher values upstream than mid-and downstream. The nestedness component exhibited low values, even when NODF values increased from up-to downstream. Pure environmental factors were highly significant for explaining total beta-diversity and turnover regardless of watercourse position, but pure spatial factors were mostly significant mid-and downstream, with geographical distance being positively correlated with beta-diversity. Across sites, nutrient enrichment decreased turnover but increased the degree of nestedness. Motile and low profile diatoms comprised the most abundant guilds, but their beta-diversity patterns varied in an opposite way. The lowest guild beta-diversity was observed upstream for low profile species, and downstream for motile species. 4. In conclusion, environmental filtering seemed to play a major role in structuring metacommunities irrespective of site watercourse position. Filtering promoted strong turnover patterns, especially in disconnected upstream sites. The greater role of spatial factors mid-and downstream was consistent with mass effects rather than neutral processes because these sites had lower total beta-diversity than upstream sites. Motile species were most strongly affected by mass effects processes, whereas low profile species were primarily influenced by environmental conditions. Collectively, these findings suggest that partitioning of total beta-diversity into its components and the use of diatom ecological guilds provide a useful framework for assessing the mechanisms underlying metacommunity patterns along the stream watercourse.
  • Rosa, Elena; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2020)
    Cold developmental conditions can greatly affect adult life history of ectotherms in seasonal habitats. Such effects are mostly negative, but sometimes adaptive. Here, we tested how cold conditions experienced during pupal development affect adult wing melanization of an insect ectotherm, the Glanville fritillary butterfly, Melitaea cinxia. We also assessed how in turn previous cold exposure and increased melanization can shape adult behaviour and fitness, by monitoring individuals in a seminatural set-up. We found that, despite pupal cold exposure inducing more melanization, wing melanization was not linked to adult thermoregulation preceding flight, under the conditions tested. Conversely, wing vibrating behaviour had a major role in producing heat preceding flight. Moreover, more melanized individuals were more mobile across the experimental set-up. This may be caused by a direct impact of melanization on flight ability or a more indirect impact of coloration on behaviours such as mate search strategies and/or eagerness to disperse to more suitable mating habitats. We also found that more melanized individuals of both sexes had reduced mating success and produced fewer offspring, which suggests a clear fitness cost of melanization. Whether the reduced mating success is dictated by impaired mate search behaviour, reduced physical condition leading to a lower dominance status or weakened visual signalling remains unknown. In conclusion, while there was no clear role of melanization in providing a thermal advantage under our seminatural conditions, we found a fitness cost of being more melanized, which potentially impacted adult space use behaviour. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Mammola, Stefano; Piano, Elena; Cardoso, Pedro; Vernon, Philippe; Dominguez-Villar, David; Culver, David C.; Pipan, Tanja; Isaia, Marco (2019)
    Scientists of different disciplines have recognized the valuable role of terrestrial caves as ideal natural laboratories in which to study multiple eco-evolutionary processes, from genes to ecosystems. Because caves and other subterranean habitats are semi-closed systems characterized by a remarkable thermal stability, they should also represent insightful systems for understanding the effects of climate change on biodiversity in situ. Whilst a number of recent advances have demonstrated how promising this fast-moving field of research could be, a lack of synthesis is possibly holding back the adoption of caves as standard models for the study of the recent climatic alteration. By linking literature focusing on physics, geology, biology and ecology, we illustrate the rationale supporting the use of subterranean habitats as laboratories for studies of global change biology. We initially discuss the direct relationship between external and internal temperature, the stability of the subterranean climate and the dynamics of its alteration in an anthropogenic climate change perspective. Owing to their evolution in a stable environment, subterranean species are expected to exhibit low tolerance to climatic perturbations and could theoretically cope with such changes only by shifting their distributional range or by adapting to the new environmental conditions. However, they should have more obstacles to overcome than surface species in such shifts, and therefore could be more prone to local extinction. In the face of rapid climate change, subterranean habitats can be seen as refugia for some surface species, but at the same time they may turn into dead-end traps for some of their current obligate inhabitants. Together with other species living in confined habitats, we argue that subterranean species are particularly sensitive to climate change, and we stress the urgent need for future research, monitoring programs and conservation measures.
  • Siqueira, Tadeu; Saito, Victor S.; Bini, Luis M.; Melo, Adriano S.; Petsch, Danielle K.; Landeiro, Victor L.; Tolonen, Kimmo T.; Jyrkänkallio-Mikkola, Jenny; Soininen, Janne; Heino, Jani (2020)
    Ecological drift can override the effects of deterministic niche selection on small populations and drive the assembly of some ecological communities. We tested this hypothesis with a unique data set sampled identically in 200 streams in two regions (tropical Brazil and boreal Finland) that differ in macroinvertebrate community size by fivefold. Null models allowed us to estimate the magnitude to which beta-diversity deviates from the expectation under a random assembly process while taking differences in richness and relative abundance into account, i.e., beta-deviation. We found that both abundance- and incidence-based beta-diversity was negatively related to community size only in Brazil. Also, beta-diversity of small tropical communities was closer to stochastic expectations compared with beta-diversity of large communities. We suggest that ecological drift may drive variation in some small communities by changing the expected outcome of niche selection, increasing the chances of species with low abundance and narrow distribution to occur in some communities. Habitat destruction, overexploitation, pollution, and reductions in connectivity have been reducing the size of biological communities. These environmental pressures might make smaller communities more vulnerable to novel conditions and render community dynamics more unpredictable. Incorporation of community size into ecological models should provide conceptual and applied insights into a better understanding of the processes driving biodiversity.
  • Valanko, Sebastian; Heino, Jani; Westerbom, Mats; Viitasalo, Markku; Norkko, Alf (2015)
    The majority of studies in metacommunity ecology have focused on systems other than marine benthic ecosystems, thereby providing an impetus to broaden the focus of metacommunity research to comprise marine systems. These systems are more open than many other systems and may thus exhibit relatively less discrete patterns in community structure across space. Metacommunity structure of soft-sediment benthic invertebrates was examined using a fine-grained (285 sites) data set collected during one summer across a large spatial extent (1700km(2)). We applied the elements of metacommunity structure (EMS) approach, allowing multiple hypothesis of variation in community structure to be tested. We demonstrated several patterns associated with environmental variation and associated processes that could simultaneously assemble species to occur at the sites. A quasi-Clementsian pattern was observed frequently, suggesting interdependent ecological relationships among species or similar response to an underlying environmental gradient across sites. A quasi-nested clumped species loss pattern was also observed, which suggests nested habitat specialization. Species richness declined with depth (from 0.5 to 44.8m). We argue that sensitive species may survive in shallower water, which are more stable with regard to oxygen conditions and present greater habitat complexity, in contrast to deeper waters, which may experience periodic disturbance due to hypoxia. Future studies should better integrate disturbance in terms of temporal dynamics and dispersal rates in the EMS approach. We highlight that shallow water sites may act as sources of recruitment to deeper water sites that are relatively more prone to periodic disturbances due to hypoxia. However, these shallow sites are not currently monitored and should be better prioritized in future conservation strategies in marine systems.
  • Korhonen, Aku; Seelan, Jaya Seelan Sathiya; Miettinen, Otto (2018)
    We propose a taxonomic revision of the two closely related white-rot polypore species, Skeletocutis nivea (Jungh.) Jean Keller and S. ochroalba Niemela (Incrustoporiaceae, Basidiomycota), based on phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and translation elongation factor EF-1 alpha sequences. We show that prevailing morphological species concepts of S. nivea and S. ochroalba are non-monophyletic and we delineate new species boundaries based on phylogenetic inference. We recognise eleven species within the prevailing species concept of S. nivea (S. calida sp. nov., S. coprosmae comb. nov., S. futilis sp. nov., S. impervia sp. nov., S. ipuletii sp. nov., S. lepida sp. nov., S. nemonzlis sp. nov., S. nivea sensu typi, S. semipileata comb. nov., S. unguina sp. nov. and S. yuchengii sp. nov.) and assign new sequenced epitypes for S. nivea and S. semipileata. The traditional concept of S. ochroalba comprises two independent lineages embedded within the S. nivea species complex. The Eurasian conifer-dwelling species S. cummata sp. nov. is recognised as separate from the North American S. ochroalba sensu stricto. Despite comprehensive microscopic examination, the majority of the recognised species are left without stable diagnostic character combinations that would enable species identification based solely on morphology and ecology.
  • Goncalves, Vitor; Ritter, Catarina; Marques, Helena; Teixeira, Dinarte Nuno; Raposeiro, Pedro M. (2021)
    Background Freshwater diversity, and diatoms in particular, from Desertas Islands (Madeira Archipelago, Portugal) is poorly known, although the Islands are protected and became a Natural Reserve in 1995. During two field expeditions in 2013 and 2014 to Deserta Grande Island, several freshwater and terrestrial habitats were sampled. The analysis of these samples aims to contribute to the biodiversity assessment of the freshwater biota present in Deserta Grande Island. Here, we present the diatom diversity in Deserta Grande Island resulting from that survey. This study contributes to improve the knowledge of Madeira Archipelago freshwater diversity, particularly in the Desertas sub-archipelago. New information To our knowledge, we present the first diatom data for the Desertas sub-archipelago. This work resulted in a list of 60 diatom taxa for Deserta Grande, from which 57 were identified to species level. From the 60 new records for Desertas sub-archipelago, 30 of them were also new records for Madeira Archipelago. Several specimens could not be assigned to a known species and may be new diatom species not yet described.
  • Woestmann, Luisa; Kvist, Jouni Antero; Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina (2017)
    Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). We were able to confirm previous findings of flight-induced immune gene expression, but still observed substantially stronger effects on both gene expression levels and life span due to bacterial infection compared to flight treatment. Even though gene expression levels of some immunity-related genes were elevated due to flight, these individuals did not show increased survival of bacterial infection, indicating that flight-induced immune activation does not completely protect them from the negative effects of bacterial infection. Finally, an interaction between flight and immune treatment indicated a potential trade-off: flight treatment increased immune gene expression in naive individuals only, whereas in infected individuals no increase in immune gene expression was induced by flight. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of immune genes upon flight is based on a general stress response rather than reflecting an adaptive response to cope with potential infections during flight or in new habitats.
  • Ramos, Danielle Leal; Pizo, Marco Aurelio; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Cruz, Rafael Souza; Morales, Juan Manuel; Ovaskainen, Otso (2020)
    In a rapidly changing world, it is important to understand how environmental modifications by humans affect species behavior. This is not a simple task, since we need to deal with a multitude of species and the different external contexts that affect their behavior. Here, we investigate how interpatch short-distance movements of 73 common forest bird species can be predicted by forest cover and forest isolation. We modeled bird movement as a function of environmental covariates, species traits - body mass and feeding habit - and phylogenetic relationships using Joint Species Movement Models. We used field data collected in forest edges and open pastures of six 600 x 600 m plots in the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspot. We found that birds fly larger distances and visit more forest patches and remnant trees with decreasing forest cover. Increasing landscape isolation results in larger flight distances, and it increases the use of trees as stepping-stones for most species. Our results show that birds can adjust their behavior as a response to spatial modification in resource distribution and landscape connectivity. These adjusted behaviors can potentially contribute to ecosystem responses to habitat modification.
  • Biersma, E. M.; Jackson, J. A.; Hyvonen, J.; Koskinen, S.; Linse, K.; Griffiths, H.; Convey, P. (2017)
    A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlyingmechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting patterns, for three species were of Holarctic origin, with subsequent dispersal to the SH, while one, currently a particularly common species in the Holarctic (Polytrichum juniperinum), diversified in the Antarctic region and from here colonized both the Holarctic and other SH regions. Our findings suggest long-distance dispersal as the driver of bipolar disjunctions. We find such inter-hemispheric dispersals are rare, occurring on multi-million-year timescales. High-altitude tropical populations did not act as trans-equatorial 'steppingstones', but rather were derived from later dispersal events. All arrivals to the Antarctic region occurred well before the Last Glacial Maximum and previous glaciations, suggesting that, despite the harsh climate during these past glacial maxima, plants have had a much longer presence in this southern region than previously thought.
  • Aarnio, Sonja; Teittinen, Anette; Soininen, Janne (2019)
    Different metacommunity perspectives have been developed to describe the relationship between environmental and spatial factors and their relative roles for local communities. However, only little is known about temporal variation in metacommunities and their underlying drivers. We examined temporal variation in the relative roles of environmental and spatial factors for diatom community composition among brackish-watered rock pools on the Baltic Sea coast over a 3-month period. We used a combination of direct ordination, variation partition, and Mantel tests to investigate the metacommunity patterns. The studied communities housed a mixture of freshwater, brackish, and marine species, with a decreasing share of salinity tolerant species along both temporal and spatial gradients. The community composition was explained by both environmental and spatial variables (especially conductivity and distance from the sea) in each month; the joint effect of these factors was consistently larger than the pure effects of either variable group. Community similarity was related to both environmental and spatial distance between the pools even when the other variable group was controlled for. The relative influence of environmental factors increased with time, accounting for the largest share of the variation in species composition and distance decay of similarity in July. Metacommunity organization in the studied rock pools was probably largely explained by a combination of species sorting and mass effect given the small spatial study scale. The found strong distance decay of community similarity indicates spatially highly heterogeneous diatom communities mainly driven by temporally varying conductivity gradient at the marine-freshwater transition zone.
  • de Mendoza, Guillermo; Kaivosoja, Riikka; Grönroos, Mira; Hjort, Jan; Ilmonen, Jari; Kärnä, Olli-Matti; Paasivirta, Lauri; Tokola, Laura; Heino, Jani (2018)
    1. Metacommunity theory focuses on assembly patterns in ecological communities, originally exemplified through four different, yet non-exclusive, perspectives: patch dynamics, species sorting, source-sink dynamics, and neutral theory. More recently, three exclusive components have been proposed to describe a different metacommunity framework: habitat heterogeneity, species equivalence, and dispersal. Here, we aim at evaluating the insect metacommunity of a subarctic stream network under these two different frameworks. 2. We first modelled the presence/absence of 47 stream insects in northernmost Finland, using binomial generalised linear models (GLMs). The deviance explained by pure local environmental (E), spatial (S), and climatic variables (C) was then analysed across species using beta regression. In this comparative analysis, site occupancy, as well as taxonomic and biological trait vectors obtained from principal coordinate analysis, were used as predictor variables. 3. Single-species distributions were better explained by in-stream environmental and spatial factors than by climatic forcing, but in a highly variable fashion. This variability was difficult to relate to the taxonomic relatedness among species or their biological trait similarity. Site occupancy, however, was related to model performance of the binomial GLMs based on spatial effects: as populations are likely to be better connected for common species due to their near ubiquity, spatial factors may also explain better their distributions. 4. According to the classical four-perspective framework, the observation of both environmental and spatial effects suggests a role for either mass effects or species sorting constrained by dispersal limitation, or both. Taxonomic and biological traits, including the different dispersal capability of species, were scarcely important, which undermines the patch dynamics perspective, based on differences in dispersal ability between species. The highly variable performance of models makes the reliance on an entirely neutral framework unrealistic as well. According to the three-component framework, our results suggest that the stream insect metacommunity is shaped by the effect of habitat heterogeneity (supporting both species-sorting and mass effects), rather than species equivalence or dispersal limitation. 5. While the relative importance of the source-sink dynamics perspective or the species-sorting paradigm cannot be deciphered with the data at our disposal, we can conclude that habitat heterogeneity is an important driver shaping species distributions and insect assemblages in subarctic stream metacommunities. These results exemplify that the use of the three-component metacommunity framework may be more useful than the classical four perspective paradigm in analysing metacommunities. Our findings also provide support for conservation strategies based on the preservation of heterogeneous habitats in a metacommunity context.
  • Opedal, Oystein H.; Ovaskainen, Otso; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Laine, Anna-Liisa; Nouhuys, Saskya (2020)
    The dynamics of ecological communities depend partly on species interactions within and among trophic levels. Experimental work has demonstrated the impact of species interactions on the species involved, but it remains unclear whether these effects can also be detected in long-term time series across heterogeneous landscapes. We analyzed a 19-year time series of patch occupancy by the Glanville fritillary butterflyMelitaea cinxia, its specialist parasitoid waspCotesia melitaearum, and the specialist fungal pathogenPodosphaera plantaginisinfectingPlantago lanceolata,a host plant of the Glanville fritillary. These species share a network of more than 4,000 habitat patches in the angstrom land islands, providing a metacommunity data set of unique spatial and temporal resolution. To assess the influence of interactions among the butterfly, parasitoid, and mildew on metacommunity dynamics, we modeled local colonization and extinction rates of each species while including or excluding the presence of potentially interacting species in the previous year as predictors. The metapopulation dynamics of all focal species varied both along a gradient in host plant abundance, and spatially as indicated by strong effects of local connectivity. Colonization and to a lesser extent extinction rates depended also on the presence of interacting species within patches. However, the directions of most effects differed from expectations based on previous experimental and modeling work, and the inferred influence of species interactions on observed metacommunity dynamics was limited. These results suggest that although local interactions among the butterfly, parasitoid, and mildew occur, their roles in metacommunity spatiotemporal dynamics are relatively weak. Instead, all species respond to variation in plant abundance, which may in turn fluctuate in response to variation in climate, land use, or other environmental factors.
  • Gladstone-Gallagher, Rebecca V.; Hewitt, Judi E.; Thrush, Simon F.; Brustolin, Marco C.; Villnäs, Anna; Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Alf (2021)
    Despite a long history of disturbance–recovery research, we still lack a generalizable understanding of the attributes that drive community recovery potential in seafloor ecosystems. Marine soft‐sediment ecosystems encompass a range of heterogeneity from simple low‐diversity habitats with limited biogenic structure, to species‐rich systems with complex biogenic habitat structure. These differences in biological heterogeneity are a product of natural conditions and disturbance regimes. To search for unifying attributes, we explore whether a set of simple traits can characterize community disturbance–recovery potential using seafloor patch‐disturbance experiments conducted in two different soft‐sediment landscapes. The two landscapes represent two ends of a spectrum of landscape biotic heterogeneity in order to consider multi‐scale disturbance–recovery processes. We consider traits at different levels of biological organization, from the biological traits of individual species, to the traits of species at the landscape scale associated with their occurrence across the landscape and their ability to be dominant. We show that in a biotically heterogeneous landscape (Kawau Bay, New Zealand), seafloor community recovery is stochastic, there is high species turnover, and the landscape‐scale traits are good predictors of recovery. In contrast, in a biotically homogeneous landscape (Baltic Sea), the options for recovery are constrained, the recovery pathway is thus more deterministic and the scale of recovery traits important for determining recovery switches to the individual species biological traits within the disturbed patch. Our results imply that these simple, yet sophisticated, traits can be effectively used to characterize community recovery potential and highlight the role of landscapes in providing resilience to patch‐scale disturbances.
  • Lynch, Robert; Lummaa, Virpi; Panchanathan, Karthik; Middleton, Kevin; Rotkirch, Anna; Danielsbacka, Mirkka; O'Brien, David; Loehr, John (2019)
    Understanding how refugees integrate into host societies has broad implications for researchers interested in intergroup conflict and for governments concerned with promoting social cohesion. Using detailed records tracking the movements and life histories of Finnish evacuees during World War II, we find that evacuees who intermarry are more likely to be educated, work in professional occupations, marry someone higher in social status and remain in the host community. Evacuees who intermarry before the war have fewer children, whereas those who marry into their host community after the war have more children. These results indicate that life-history and assimilation outcomes depend on key differences between pre-war environments—when migrants are living in their own communities—and post-war environments—when migrants are living in the host community. Overall, this suggests that integration involves a trade-off between reproduction and status such that evacuees who integrate gain social status, whereas those who maintain stronger bonds with their natal communities have higher fertility. We discuss these results within the framework of social capital, intergroup conflict and life-history theory and suggest how they can inform our understanding of evolutionary adaptations that affect tribalism.
  • Garcia, Raquel A.; Araujo, Miguel B.; Burgess, Neil D.; Foden, Wendy B.; Gutsche, Alexander; Rahbek, Carsten; Cabeza, Mar (2014)
  • Murillo Ramos, Leidys Del Carmen; Chazot, Nicolas; Sihvonen, Pasi; Õunap, Erki; Jiang, Nan; Han, Hongxiang; Clarke, John T.; Davis, Robert B.; Tammaru, Toomas; Wahlberg, Niklas (2021)
    Understanding how and why some groups have become more species-rich than others, and how past biogeography may have shaped their current distribution, are questions that evolutionary biologists have long attempted to answer. We investigated diversification patterns and historical biogeography of a hyperdiverse lineage of Lepidoptera, the geometrid moths, by studying its most species-rich tribe Boarmiini, which comprises ca. 200 genera and ca. known 3000 species. We inferred the evolutionary relationships of Boarmiini based on a dataset of 346 taxa, with up to eight genetic markers under a maximum likelihood approach. The monophyly of Boarmiiniis strongly supported. However, the phylogenetic position of many taxa does not agree with current taxonomy, although the monophyly of most major genera within the tribe is supported after minor adjustments. Three genera are synonymized, one new combination is proposed, and four species are placed in incertae sedis within Boarmiini. Our results support the idea of a rapid initial diversification of Boarmiini, which also implies that no major taxonomic subdivisions of the group can currently be proposed. A time-calibrated tree and biogeographical analyses suggest that boarmiines appeared in Laurasia ca. 52 Mya, followed by dispersal events throughout the Australasian, African and Neotropical regions. Most of the transcontinental dispersal events occurred in the Eocene, a period of intense geological activity and rapid climate change. Diversification analyses showed a relatively constant diversification rate for all Boarmiini, except in one clade containing the species-rich genus Cleora. The present work represents a substantial contribution towards understanding the evolutionary origin of Boarmiini moths. Our results, inevitably biased by taxon sampling, highlight the difficulties with working on species-rich groups that have not received much attention outside of Europe. Specifically, poor knowledge of the natural history of geometrids (particularly in tropical clades) limits our ability to identify key innovations underlying the diversification of boarmiines.