Browsing by Subject "DISPERSION"

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  • Grythe, Henrik; Kristiansen, Nina I.; Zwaaftink, Christine D. Groot; Eckhardt, Sabine; Strom, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Krejci, Radovan; Stohl, Andreas (2017)
    A new, more physically based wet removal scheme for aerosols has been implemented in the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. It uses three-dimensional cloud water fields from the European Centre for MediumRange Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to determine cloud extent and distinguishes between in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging. The new in-cloud nucleation scavenging depends on cloud water phase (liquid, ice or mixed-phase), based on the aerosol's prescribed efficiency to serve as ice crystal nuclei and liquid water nuclei, respectively. The impaction scavenging scheme now parameterizes below-cloud removal as a function of aerosol particle size and precipitation type (snow or rain) and intensity. Sensitivity tests with the new scavenging scheme and comparisons with observational data were conducted for three distinct types of primary aerosols, which pose different challenges for modeling wet scavenging due to their differences in solubility, volatility and size distribution: (1) Cs-137 released during the Fukushima nuclear accident attached mainly to highly soluble sulphate aerosol particles, (2) black carbon (BC) aerosol particles, and (3) mineral dust. Calculated e-folding lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosols for these three aerosol types were 11.7, 16.0, and 31.6 days respectively, when well mixed in the atmosphere. These are longer lifetimes than those obtained by the previous removal schem, and, for mineral dust in particular, primarily result from very slow in-cloud removal, which globally is the primary removal mechanism for these accumulation mode particles. Calculated e-folding lifetimes in FLEXPART also have a strong size dependence, with the longest lifetimes found for the accumulation-mode aerosols. For example, for dust particles emitted at the surface the lifetimes were 13.8 days for particles with 1 aem diameter and a few hours for 10 aem particles. A strong size dependence in below-cloud scavenging, combined with increased dry removal, is the primary reason for the shorter lifetimes of the larger particles. The most frequent removal is in-cloud scavenging (85% of all scavenging events) but it occurs primarily in the free troposphere, while below-cloud removal is more frequent below 1000m (52% of all events) and can be important for the initial fate of species emitted at the surface, such as those examined here. For assumed realistic in-cloud removal efficiencies, both BC and sulphate have a slight overestimation of observed atmospheric concentrations (a factor of 1.6 and 1.2 respectively). However, this overestimation is largest close to the sources and thus appears more related to overestimated emissions rather than underestimated removal. The new aerosol wet removal scheme of FLEXPART incorporates more realistic information about clouds and aerosol properties and it compares better with both observed lifetimes and concentration than the old scheme.
  • Byggmästar, Jesper Johan André; Nagel, Morten Jesper; Albe, Karsten; Henriksson, Krister Olof Edvin; Nordlund, Kai Henrik (2019)
    We present an analytical bond-order potential for the Fe-O system, capable of reproducing the basic properties of wustite as well as the energetics of oxygen impurities in alpha-iron. The potential predicts binding energies of various small oxygen-vacancy clusters in alpha-iron in good agreement with density functional theory results, and is therefore suitable for simulations of oxygen-based defects in iron. We apply the potential in simulations of the stability and structure of Fe/FeO interfaces and FeO precipitates in iron, and observe that the shape of FeO precipitates can change due to formation of well-defined Fe/FeO interfaces. The interface with crystalline Fe also ensures that the precipitates never become fully amorphous, no matter how small they are.
  • Kotze, D. Johan; O'Hara, Robert B.; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2012)
  • Ruppel, Meri M.; Soares, Joana; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Martma, Tonu; Svensson, Jonas; Kohler, Jack; Pedersen, Christina A.; Manninen, Sirkku; Korhola, Atte; Strom, Johan (2017)
    The climate impact of black carbon (BC) is notably amplified in the Arctic by its deposition, which causes albedo decrease and subsequent earlier snow and ice spring melt. To comprehensively assess the climate impact of BC in the Arctic, information on both atmospheric BC concentrations and deposition is essential. Currently, Arctic BC deposition data are very scarce, while atmospheric BC concentrations have been shown to generally decrease since the 1990s. However, a 300-year Svalbard ice core showed a distinct increase in EC (elemental carbon, proxy for BC) deposition from 1970 to 2004 contradicting atmospheric measurements and modelling studies. Here, our objective was to decipher whether this increase has continued in the 21st century and to investigate the drivers of the observed EC deposition trends. For this, a shallow firn core was collected from the same Svalbard glacier, and a regional-to-meso-scale chemical transport model (SILAM) was run from 1980 to 2015. The ice and firn core data indicate peaking EC deposition values at the end of the 1990s and lower values thereafter. The modelled BC deposition results generally support the observed glacier EC variations. However, the ice and firn core results clearly deviate from both measured and modelled atmospheric BC concentration trends, and the modelled BC deposition trend shows variations seemingly independent from BC emission or atmospheric BC concentration trends. wet-deposited at this Svalbard glacier, indicating that meteorological processes such as precipitation and scavenging efficiency have most likely a stronger influence on the BC deposition trend than BC emission or atmospheric concentration trends. BC emission source sectors contribute differently to the modelled atmospheric BC concentrations and BC deposition, which further supports our conclusion that different processes affect atmospheric BC concentration and deposition trends. Consequently, Arctic BC deposition trends should not directly be inferred based on atmospheric BC measurements, and more observational BC deposition data are required to assess the climate impact of BC in Arctic snow.
  • Afonso, Marco Martins; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo; Gama, Silvio M. A.; Mazzino, Andrea (2018)
    We investigate the large-scale transport properties of quasi-neutrally-buoyant inertial particles carried by incompressible zero-mean periodic or steady ergodic flows. We show howto compute large-scale indicators such as the inertial-particle terminal velocity and eddy diffusivity from first principles in a perturbative expansion around the limit of added-mass factor close to unity. Physically, this limit corresponds to the case where the mass density of the particles is constant and close in value to the mass density of the fluid, which is also constant. Our approach differs from the usual over-damped expansion inasmuch as we do not assume a separation of time scales between thermalization and small-scale convection effects. For a general flow in the class of incompressible zero-mean periodic velocity fields, we derive closed-form cell equations for the auxiliary quantities determining the terminal velocity and effective diffusivity. In the special case of parallel flows these equations admit explicit analytic solution. We use parallel flows to show that our approach sheds light onto the behavior of terminal velocity and effective diffusivity for Stokes numbers of the order of unity.
  • Viippola, Viljami; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa; Järvi, Leena; Kulmala, Markku; Setälä, Heikki (2020)
    Trees and other vegetation have been advocated as a mitigation measure for urban air pollution mainly due to the fact that they passively filter particles from the air. However, mounting evidence suggests that vegetation may also worsen air quality by slowing the dispersion of pollutants and by producing volatile organic compounds that contribute to formation of ozone and other secondary pollutants. We monitored nanoparticle (>10 nm) counts along distance gradients away from major roads along paired transects across open and forested landscapes in Baltimore (USA), Helsinki (Finland) and Shenyang (China) − i.e. sites in three biomes with different pollution levels − using condensation particle counters. Mean particle number concentrations averaged across all sampling sites were clearly reduced (15 %) by the presence of forest cover only in Helsinki. For Baltimore and Shenyang, levels showed no significant difference between the open and forested transects at any of the sampling distances. This suggests that nanoparticle deposition on trees is often counterbalanced by other factors, including differing flow fields and aerosol processes under varying meteorological conditions. Similarly, consistent differences in high frequency data patterns between the transects were detected only in Helsinki. No correlations between nanoparticle concentrations and solar radiation or local wind speed as affecting nanoparticle abundances were found, but they were to some extent associated with canopy closure. These data add to the accumulating evidence according to which trees do not necessarily improve air quality in near-road environments.
  • Jalanko, Mikko; Väänänen, Heikki; Tarkiainen, Mika; Sipola, Petri; Jääskeläinen, Pertti; Lauerma, Kirsi; Laitinen, Tiina; Laitinen, Tomi; Laine, Mika; Heliö, Tiina; Kuusisto, Johanna; Viitasalo, Matti (2018)
    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by ventricular repolarization abnormalities and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. Our aim was to study the association between the phenotype and ventricular repolarization dynamics in HCM patients. Methods Results HCM patients with either the MYBPC3-Q1061X or TPM1-D175N mutation (n = 46) and control subjects without mutation and hypertrophy (n = 35) were studied with 24-hr ambulatory ECG recordings by measuring time intervals of rate-adapted QT (QTe), maximal QT, and T-wave apex to wave end (TPE) intervals and the QTe/RR slope. Findings were correlated to specified echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) findings. Rate-adapted QTe interval was progressively longer in HCM patients with decreasing heart rates compared to control subjects (p = 0.020). The degree of hypertrophy correlated with measured QTe values. HCM patients with maximal wall thickness higher than the mean (20.6 mm) had longer maximum QTe and median TPE intervals compared to control subjects and HCM patients with milder hypertrophy (p p = 0.014, respectively). HCM patients with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on CMRI had steeper QTe/RR slopes compared to HCM patients without LGE and control subjects (p = 0.044 and p = 0.001, respectively). LGE was an independent predictor of QTe/RR slope (p = 0.023, B = 0.043). Conclusion Dynamics of ventricular repolarization in HCM are affected by hypertrophy and fibrosis. LGE may confer an independent effect on QT dynamics which may increase the arrhythmogenic potential in HCM.
  • Glazunov, Andrey; Rannik, Ullar; Stepanenko, Victor; Lykosov, Vasily; Auvinen, Mikko; Vesala, Timo; Mammarella, Ivan (2016)
    Large-eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian stochastic modeling of passive particle dispersion were applied to the scalar flux footprint determination in the stable atmospheric boundary layer. The sensitivity of the LES results to the spatial resolution and to the parameterizations of small-scale turbulence was investigated. It was shown that the resolved and partially resolved ("subfilter-scale") eddies are mainly responsible for particle dispersion in LES, implying that substantial improvement may be achieved by using recovering of small-scale velocity fluctuations. In LES with the explicit filtering, this recovering consists of the application of the known inverse filter operator. The footprint functions obtained in LES were compared with the functions calculated with the use of first-order single-particle Lagrangian stochastic models (LSMs) and zeroth-order Lagrangian stochastic models - the random displacement models (RDMs). According to the presented LES, the source area and footprints in the stable boundary layer can be substantially more extended than those predicted by the modern LSMs.
  • Vuorinen, Ville; Aarnio, Mia; Alava, Mikko; Alopaeus, Ville; Atanasova, Nina; Auvinen, Mikko; Balasubramanian, Nallannan; Bordbar, Hadi; Erasto, Panu; Grande, Rafael; Hayward, Nick; Hellsten, Antti; Hostikka, Simo; Hokkanen, Jyrki; Kaario, Ossi; Karvinen, Aku; Kivisto, Ilkka; Korhonen, Marko; Kosonen, Risto; Kuusela, Janne; Lestinen, Sami; Laurila, Erkki; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Peltonen, Petteri; Pokki, Juho; Puisto, Antti; Raback, Peter; Salmenjoki, Henri; Sironen, Tarja; Osterberg, Monika (2020)
    We provide research findings on the physics of aerosol and droplet dispersion relevant to the hypothesized aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic. We utilize physics-based modeling at different levels of complexity, along with previous literature on coronaviruses, to investigate the possibility of airborne transmission. The previous literature, our 0D-3D simulations by various physics-based models, and theoretical calculations, indicate that the typical size range of speech and cough originated droplets (d
  • Planck Collaboration; Aghanim, N.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    Observations of the submillimetre emission from Galactic dust, in both total intensity I and polarization, have received tremendous interest thanks to the Planck full-sky maps. In this paper we make use of such full-sky maps of dust polarized emission produced from the third public release of Planck data. As the basis for expanding on astrophysical studies of the polarized thermal emission from Galactic dust, we present full-sky maps of the dust polarization fraction p, polarization angle psi, and dispersion function of polarization angles ?. The joint distribution (one-point statistics) of p and N-H confirms that the mean and maximum polarization fractions decrease with increasing N-H. The uncertainty on the maximum observed polarization fraction, (max) = 22.0(-1.4)(+3.5) p max = 22 . 0 - 1.4 + 3.5 % at 353 GHz and 80 ' resolution, is dominated by the uncertainty on the Galactic emission zero level in total intensity, in particular towards diffuse lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes. Furthermore, the inverse behaviour between p and ? found earlier is seen to be present at high latitudes. This follows the ?proportional to p(-1) relationship expected from models of the polarized sky (including numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamical turbulence) that include effects from only the topology of the turbulent magnetic field, but otherwise have uniform alignment and dust properties. Thus, the statistical properties of p, psi, and ? for the most part reflect the structure of the Galactic magnetic field. Nevertheless, we search for potential signatures of varying grain alignment and dust properties. First, we analyse the product map ?xp, looking for residual trends. While the polarization fraction p decreases by a factor of 3-4 between N-H=10(20) cm(-2) and N-H=2x10(22) cm(-2), out of the Galactic plane, this product ?xp only decreases by about 25%. Because ? is independent of the grain alignment efficiency, this demonstrates that the systematic decrease in p with N-H is determined mostly by the magnetic-field structure and not by a drop in grain alignment. This systematic trend is observed both in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) and in molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. Second, we look for a dependence of polarization properties on the dust temperature, as we would expect from the radiative alignment torque (RAT) theory. We find no systematic trend of ?xp with the dust temperature T-d, whether in the diffuse ISM or in the molecular clouds of the Gould Belt. In the diffuse ISM, lines of sight with high polarization fraction p and low polarization angle dispersion ? tend, on the contrary, to have colder dust than lines of sight with low p and high ?. We also compare the Planck thermal dust polarization with starlight polarization data in the visible at high Galactic latitudes. The agreement in polarization angles is remarkable, and is consistent with what we expect from the noise and the observed dispersion of polarization angles in the visible on the scale of the Planck beam. The two polarization emission-to-extinction ratios, R-P/p and R-S/V, which primarily characterize dust optical properties, have only a weak dependence on the column density, and converge towards the values previously determined for translucent lines of sight. We also determine an upper limit for the polarization fraction in extinction, p(V)/E(B-V), of 13% at high Galactic latitude, compatible with the polarization fraction p approximate to 20% observed at 353 GHz. Taken together, these results provide strong constraints for models of Galactic dust in diffuse gas.
  • Salo, Raimo A.; Belevich, Ilya; Manninen, Eppu; Jokitalo, Eija; Gröhn, Olli; Sierra, Alejandra (2018)
    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) reveals microstructural features of grey and white matter non-invasively. The contrast produced by DTI, however, is not fully understood and requires further validation. We used serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) to acquire tissue metrics, i.e., anisotropy and orientation, using three-dimensional Fourier transform-based (3D-FT) analysis, to correlate with fractional anisotropy and orientation in DTI. SBEM produces high-resolution 3D data at the mesoscopic scale with good contrast of cellular membranes. We analysed selected samples from cingulum, corpus callosum, and perilesional cortex of sham-operated and traumatic brain injury (TBI) rats. Principal orientations produced by DTI and 3D-FT in all samples were in good agreement. Anisotropy values showed similar patterns of change in corresponding DTI and 3D-FT parameters in sham-operated and TBI rats. While DTI and 3D-FT anisotropy values were similar in grey matter, 3D-FT anisotropy values were consistently lower than fractional anisotropy values from DTI in white matter. We also evaluated the effect of resolution in 3D-FT analysis. Despite small angular differences in grey matter samples, lower resolution datasets provided reliable results, allowing for analysis of larger fields of view. Overall, 3D SBEM allows for more sophisticated validation studies of diffusion imaging contrast from a tissue microstructural perspective.
  • Stadigh, Anni; Puska, Paivi; Vesti, Eija; Ristimaki, Ari; Turunen, Joni A.; Kivela, Tero T. (2017)
    A 19-year-old man noticed blurred vision in his right eye. He had an intraocular pressure of 60 versus 12 mmHg in the fellow eye. He was initially diagnosed with an atypical, advanced pigmentary glaucoma. The intraocular pressure did not respond to maximal medication, deep sclerectomy, goniopuncture, and 2 cyclophotocoagulations. Sixteen months after presentation, malignancy was first suspected, and the eye was enucleated. A ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle was confirmed by the histopathologic examination. Normal nuclear staining for breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1)-associated protein 1 suggested that the tumor was likely of disomy 3 type with a favorable prognosis. No local or systemic recurrence has developed within 4 years. A literature review of this rare type of minimal volume diffuse uveal melanoma identified 18 additional patients. The initial diagnosis in 18 of the 19 patients with a ring melanoma of the anterior chamber angle was unilateral glaucoma with a median intraocular pressure of 40 mmHg and an age range of 16-76 years. Liver metastasis developed in 5 of 12 patients older than 45 years. This rare subtype is estimated to account for 0.05%-0.16% of all uveal melanomas. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Moreau, Ludovic; Boué, Pierre; Serripierri, Agathe; Weiss, Jérôme; Hollis, Dan; Pondaven, Ildut; Vial, Benjamin; Garambois, Stéphane; Larose, Éric; Helmstetter, Agnès; Stehly, Laurent; Hillers, Gregor; Gilbert, Olivier (2020)
    Field data are needed for a better understanding of sea ice decline in the context of climate change. The rapid technological and methodological advances of the last decade have led to a reconsideration of seismic methods in this matter. In particular, passive seismology has filled an important gap by removing the need to use active sources. We present a seismic experiment where an array of 247 geophones was deployed on sea ice, in the Van Mijen fjord near Sveagruva (Svalbard). The array is a mix of 1C and 3C stations with sampling frequencies of 500 and 1000 Hz. They recorded continuously the ambient seismic field in sea ice between 28 February and 26 March 2019. Data also include active acquisitions on 1 and 26 March with a radar antenna, a shaker unit, impulsive sources, and artificial sources of seismic noise. This data set is of unprecedented quality regarding sea ice seismic monitoring, as it also includes thousands of microseismic events recorded each day. By combining passive seismology approaches with specific array processing methods, we demonstrate that the multimodal dispersion curves of sea ice can be calculated without an active source and then used to infer sea ice properties. We calculated an ice thickness, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio with values h=543 cm, E=3.90.15 GPa, and nu=0.340.02 on 1 March, and h=583 cm, E=4.4 +/- 0.15 GPa, and nu=0.32 +/- 0.02 on 5 March. These values are consistent with in situ field measurements and observations.
  • Kurppa, Mona; Roldin, Pontus; Strömberg, Jani Juhani; Balling, Anna; Karttunen, Sasu; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Pirjola, Liisa; Rönkkö, Topi; Timonen, Hilkka; Hellsten, Antti; Järvi, Leena (2020)
    High-resolution modelling is needed to understand urban air quality and pollutant dispersion in detail. Recently, the PALM model system 6.0, which is based on large-eddy simulation (LES), was extended with the detailed Sectional Aerosol module for Large Scale Applications (SALSA) v2.0 to enable studying the complex interactions between the turbulent flow field and aerosol dynamic processes. This study represents an extensive evaluation of the modelling system against the horizontal and vertical distributions of aerosol particles measured using a mobile laboratory and a drone in an urban neighbourhood in Helsinki, Finland. Specific emphasis is on the model sensitivity of aerosol particle concentrations, size distributions and chemical compositions to boundary conditions of meteorological variables and aerosol background concentrations. The meteorological boundary conditions are taken from both a numerical weather prediction model and observations, which occasionally differ strongly. Yet, the model shows good agreement with measurements (fractional bias <0.67, normalised mean squared error <6, fraction of the data within a factor of 2 > 0.3, normalised mean bias factor <0.25 and normalised mean absolute error factor <0.35) with respect to both horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol particles, their size distribution and chemical composition. The horizontal distribution is most sensitive to the wind speed and atmospheric stratification, and vertical distribution to the wind direction. The aerosol number size distribution is mainly governed by the flow field along the main street with high traffic rates and in its surroundings by the background concentrations. The results emphasise the importance of correct meteorological and aerosol background boundary conditions, in addition to accurate emission estimates and detailed model physics, in quantitative high-resolution air pollution modelling and future urban LES studies.
  • Auvinen, Mikko; Boi, Simone; Hellsten, Antti; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Jarvi, Leena (2020)
    This study examines the statistical predictability of local wind conditions in a real urban environment under realistic atmospheric boundary layer conditions by means of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The computational domain features a highly detailed description of a densely built coastal downtown area, which includes vegetation. A multi-scale nested LES modelling approach is utilized to achieve a setup where a fully developed boundary layer flow, which is also allowed to form and evolve very large-scale turbulent motions, becomes incident with the urban surface. Under these nonideal conditions, the local scale predictability and result sensitivity to central modelling choices are scrutinized via comparative techniques. Joint time-frequency analysis with wavelets is exploited to aid targeted filtering of the problematic large-scale motions, while concepts of information entropy and divergence are exploited to perform a deep probing comparison of local urban canopy turbulence signals. The study demonstrates the utility of wavelet analysis and information theory in urban turbulence research while emphasizing the importance of grid resolution when local scale predictability, particularly close to the pedestrian level, is sought. In densely built urban environments, the level of detail of vegetation drag modelling description is deemed most significant in the immediate vicinity of the trees.