Browsing by Subject "DISSECTION"

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  • Kemppainen, Petri; Husby, Arild (2018)
    A fundamental assumption in quantitative genetics is that traits are controlled by many loci of small effect. Using genomic data, this assumption can be tested using chromosome partitioning analyses, where the proportion of genetic variance for a trait explained by each chromosome (h(c)(2)), is regressed on its size. However, as h(c)(2)-estimates are necessarily positive (censoring) and the variance increases with chromosome size (heteroscedasticity), two fundamental assumptions of ordinary least squares (OLS) regression are violated. Using simulated and empirical data we demonstrate that these violations lead to incorrect inference of genetic architecture. The degree of bias depends mainly on the number of chromosomes and their size distribution and is therefore specific to the species; using published data across many different species we estimate that not accounting for this effect overall resulted in 28% false positives. We introduce a new and computationally efficient resampling method that corrects for inflation caused by heteroscedasticity and censoring and that works under a large range of dataset sizes and genetic architectures in empirical datasets. Our new method substantially improves the robustness of inferences from chromosome partitioning analyses.
  • Renkonen, Suvi; Linden, Riikka; Bäck, Leif; Silen, Robert; Mäenpää, Hanna; Tapiovaara, Laura; Aro, Katri (2017)
    Primary treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with lateral lymph node metastasis is surgery, but the extent of lateral neck dissection remains undefined. Preoperative imaging is used to guide the extent of surgery, although its sensitivity and specificity for defining the number and level of affected lymph nodes on the lateral neck is relatively modest. Our aim was to assess the role of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting the requisite levels of neck dissection in patients with regionally metastatic PTC, with a focus on Levels II and V. All patients with PTC and lateral neck metastasis who had undergone neck dissection at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland from 2013 to 2016 and had a preoperative MRI available were retrospectively reviewed. A head and neck radiologist re-evaluated all MRIs, and the imaging findings were compared with histopathology after neck dissection. In the cohort of 39 patients, preoperative MRI showed concordance with histopathology for Levels II and V as follows: sensitivity of 94 and 67%, specificity of 20 and 91%, positive predictive value of 56 and 75%, and negative predictive value of 75 and 87%, respectively. In PTC, MRI demonstrated fairly high specificity and negative predictive value for Level V metastasis, and future studies are needed to verify our results to omit prophylactic dissection of this level. Routine dissection of Level II in patients with regionally metastatic PTC needs to be considered, as MRI showed low specificity.
  • Hagens, Eliza R. C.; Henegouwen, Mark I. van Berge; van Sandick, Johanna W.; Cuesta, Miguel A.; van der Peet, Donald L.; Heisterkamp, Joos; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A. P.; Rosman, Camiel; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Sosef, Meindert N.; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Nilsson, Magnus; Räsänen, Jari; Nafteux, Philippe; Pattyn, Piet; Hoelscher, Arnulf H.; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Schneider, Paul M.; Mariette, Christophe; Castoro, Carlo; Bonavina, Luigi; Rosati, Riccardo; de Manzoni, Giovanni; Mattioli, Sandro; Roig Garcia, Josep; Pera, Manuel; Griffin, Michael; Wilkerson, Paul; Chaudry, M. Asif; Sgromo, Bruno; Tucker, Olga; Cheong, Edward; Moorthy, Krishna; Walsh, Thomas N.; Reynolds, John; Tachimori, Yuji; Inoue, Haruhiro; Matsubara, Hisahiro; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Chen, Haiquan; Law, Simon Y. K.; Pramesh, C. S.; Puntambekar, Shailesh P.; Murthy, Sudish; Linden, Philip; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Kuppusamy, Madhan K.; Shen, K. Robert; Darling, Gail E.; Sabino, Flavio D.; Grimminger, Peter P.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Mearadji, Banafsche; Bennink, Roel J.; Annema, Jouke T.; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Gisbertz, Suzanne S. (2019)
    BackgroundAn important parameter for survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma is lymph node status. The distribution of lymph node metastases depends on tumor characteristics such as tumor location, histology, invasion depth, and on neoadjuvant treatment. The exact distribution is unknown. Neoadjuvant treatment and surgical strategy depends on the distribution pattern of nodal metastases but consensus on the extent of lymphadenectomy has not been reached. The aim of this study is to determine the distribution of lymph node metastases in patients with resectable esophageal or gastro-esophageal junction carcinoma in whom a transthoracic esophagectomy with a 2- or 3-field lymphadenectomy is performed. This can be the foundation for a uniform worldwide staging system and establishment of the optimal surgical strategy for esophageal cancer patients.MethodsThe TIGER study is an international observational cohort study with 50 participating centers. Patients with a resectable esophageal or gastro-esophageal junction carcinoma in whom a transthoracic esophagectomy with a 2- or 3-field lymphadenectomy is performed in participating centers will be included. All lymph node stations will be excised and separately individually analyzed by pathological examination. The aim is to include 5000 patients. The primary endpoint is the distribution of lymph node metastases in esophageal and esophago-gastric junction carcinoma specimens following transthoracic esophagectomy with at least 2-field lymphadenectomy in relation to tumor histology, tumor location, invasion depth, number of lymph nodes and lymph node metastases, pre-operative diagnostics, neo-adjuvant therapy and (disease free) survival.DiscussionThe TIGER study will provide a roadmap of the location of lymph node metastases in relation to tumor histology, tumor location, invasion depth, number of lymph nodes and lymph node metastases, pre-operative diagnostics, neo-adjuvant therapy and survival. Patient-tailored treatment can be developed based on these results, such as the optimal radiation field and extent of lymphadenectomy based on the primary tumor characteristics.Trial registrationNCT03222895, date of registration: July 19th, 2017.
  • Sanabria, Alvaro; Shah, Jatin P.; Medina, Jesus E.; Olsen, Kerry D.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Silver, Carl E.; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Suarez, Carlos; Coca-Pelaz, Andres; Shaha, Ashok R.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; de Bree, Remco; Strojan, Primoz; Hamoir, Marc; Takes, Robert P.; Sjogren, Elisabeth V.; Cannon, Trinitia; Kowalski, Luiz P.; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Background: Larynx cancer is a common site for tumors of the upper aerodigestive tract. In cases with a clinically negative neck, the indications for an elective neck treatment are still debated. The objective is to define the prevalence of occult metastasis based on the subsite of the primary tumor, T classification and neck node levels involved. Methods: All studies included provided the rate of occult metastases in cN0 larynx squamous cell carcinoma patients. The main outcome was the incidence of occult metastasis. The pooled incidence was calculated with random effects analysis. Results: 36 studies with 3803 patients fulfilled the criteria. The incidence of lymph node metastases for supraglottic and glottic tumors was 19.9% (95% CI 16.4-23.4) and 8.0% (95% CI 2.7-13.3), respectively. The incidence of occult metastasis for level I, level IV and level V was 2.4% (95% CI 0-6.1%), 2.0% (95% CI 0.9-3.1) and 0.4% (95% CI 0-1.0%), respectively. For all tumors, the incidence for sublevel IIB was 0.5% (95% CI 0-1.3). Conclusions: The incidence of occult lymph node metastasis is higher in supraglottic and T3-4 tumors. Level I and V and sublevel IIB should not be routinely included in the elective neck treatment of cN0 laryngeal cancer and, in addition, level IV should not be routinely included in cases of supraglottic tumors.
  • Stewart, J. A.; Ilkka, V. H.; Jokinen, J. J.; Vakkuri, A. P.; Suojaranta, R. T.; Wennervirta, J.; Salminen, U. -S. (2018)
    Background and Aims: Hypothermic circulatory arrest carries a high risk of mortality and neurological complications. An important part of assessing surgical treatment is the evaluation of long-term survival and postoperative health-related quality of life. Material and Methods: In this prospective study, 30 patients undergoing hypothermic circulatory arrest during surgery of the thoracic aorta, and 31 comparison patients undergoing elective coronary artery surgery without hypothermic circulatory arrest were evaluated for long-term survival and health-related quality of life, using the RAND 36-Item Health Survey questionnaire. The results were compared to national age- and sex-matched reference populations of the chronically ill and healthy adults. Results: After 4.6-8.0 years, available study (88%) and comparison (59%) patients were interviewed. The life expectancy was similar with 4- and 8-year survival of 90%, and 87% for the study group, and 94%, and 94% for the comparison group, respectively (log rank test, p = 0.62). The RAND-36 scores for study and comparison groups were congruent in all dimensions, describing physical, mental, and social domains. The study patients' health-related quality of life results were similar to the national reference population with chronic illnesses. Conclusion: After hypothermic circulatory arrest, patients undergoing surgery of the thoracic aorta achieve a similar long-term life expectancy and health-related quality of life as do patients undergoing coronary surgery without hypothermic circulatory arrest, and a health-related quality of life similar to the national reference population with chronic illnesses. These results justify operative treatment in this high-risk patient population.
  • Siironen, Päivi; Hagstrom, Jaana; Maenpaa, Hanna O.; Louhimo, Johanna; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj (2016)
    Background Total thyroidectomy is the treatment of choice for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), but the extent of neck dissection is controversial. Lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and old age are known predictors of poor survival. Patients Patients treated for primary MTC at Helsinki University Hospital from 1990 to 2009 were included (n = 54). Their clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome were analysed retrospectively, these patients were followed until death or their last follow-up date. Results At last follow-up (3.4-23 years), of 54 MTC patients, 19 (35%) were disease-free, 17 (32%) were alive with disease, and 12 (22%) had died of MTC; six patients died of unrelated causes (11%). All disease-free patients were node negative and had normal postoperative calcitonin level. Of 19 disease-free patients, only four (21%) had undergone lymph node dissection. All patients who died of MTC were Stage IV at diagnosis and died with distant metastases. Disease-specific five-and 10-year survival was 84% and 76.2%. Advanced T-stage (p = 0.004), lymph node metastases (p <0.001), distant metastases (p <0.001), stage (p <0.001), and elevated postoperative calcitonin (p <0.001) significantly associated with survival. Conclusions Lymph node metastasis and elevated postoperative calcitonin are important prognostic factors. Patients with lymph node metastasis and/or elevated postoperative calcitonin with present treatments cannot become disease-free, but most of them can live a long life with metastasis.
  • Vehviläinen, Juho; Brinck, Tuomas; Lindfors, Matias; Numminen, Jussi; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) and cervical spinal injuries (CSIs) are not uncommon injuries in patients with severe head injury and may affect patient recovery. We aimed to assess the independent relationship between BCVI, CSI, and outcome in patients with severe head injury. Methods We identified patients with severe head injury from the Helsinki Trauma Registry treated during 2015-2017 in a large level 1 trauma hospital. We assessed the association between BCVI and SCI using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for injury severity. Our primary outcome was functional outcome at 6 months, and our secondary outcome was 6-month mortality. Results Of 255 patients with a cervical spine CT, 26 patients (10%) had a CSI, and of 194 patients with cervical CT angiography, 16 patients (8%) had a BCVI. Four of the 16 BCVI patients had a BCVI-related brain infarction, and four of the CSI patients had some form of spinal cord injury. After adjusting for injury severity in multivariable logistic regression analysis, BCVI associated with poor functional outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0, 95% CI [confidence intervals] = 1.4-26.5) and mortality (OR = 7.9, 95% CI 2.0-31.4). We did not find any association between CSI and outcome. Conclusions We found that BCVI with concomitant head injury was an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with severe head injury, but we found no association between CSI and outcome after severe head injury. Whether the association between BCVI and poor outcome is an indirect marker of a more severe injury or a result of treatment needs further investigations.
  • Aro, Katri; Korpi, Jarkko; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo (2020)
    Background: The nature of parotid tumors often remains unknown preoperatively and final histopathology may reveal unexpected malignancy. Still, the use of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and imaging varies in the management of these tumors. Methods: We evaluated the preoperative examinations and management of all 195 parotid gland tumors diagnosed within our catchment area of 1.6 million people during 2015. Results: Altogether 171 (88%) tumors were classified as true salivary gland neoplasms. FNAC showed no false malignant findings, but it was false benign in 5 (2.6%) cases. Preoperative MRI was utilized in 48 patients (25%). Twenty (10%) malignancies included 16 salivary gland carcinomas. Pleomorphic adenomas accounted for 52% of all adenomas. For 24 (40%) Warthin tumors, surgery was omitted. Conclusion: The proportion of malignancies was lower than generally presented. Our proposed guidelines include ultrasound-guided FNAC with certain limitations. MRI is warranted in selected cases, but seems unnecessary routinely.
  • Mustonen, L.; Vollert, J.; Rice, A. S. C.; Kalso, E.; Harno, H. (2020)
    Purpose We performed a detailed analysis of sensory function in patients with chronic post-surgical neuropathic pain (NP) after breast cancer treatments by quantitative sensory testing (QST) with DFNS (German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain) protocol and bed side examination (BE). The nature of sensory changes in peripheral NP may reflect distinct pathophysiological backgrounds that can guide the treatment choices. NP with sensory gain (i.e., hyperesthesia, hyperalgesia, allodynia) has been shown to respond to Na+-channel blockers (e.g., oxcarbazepine). Methods 104 patients with at least "probable" NP in the surgical area were included. All patients had been treated for breast cancer 4-9 years ago and the handling of the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) was verified by the surgeon. QST was conducted at the site of NP in the surgical or nearby area and the corresponding contralateral area. BE covered the upper body and sensory abnormalities were marked on body maps and digitalized for area calculation. The outcomes of BE and QST were compared to assess the value of QST in the sensory examination of this patient group. Results Loss of function in both small and large fibers was a prominent feature in QST in the area of post-surgical NP. QST profiles did not differ between spared and resected ICBN. In BE, hypoesthesia on multiple modalities was highly prevalent. The presence of sensory gain in BE was associated with more intense pain. Conclusions Extensive sensory loss is characteristic for chronic post-surgical NP several years after treatment for breast cancer. These patients are unlikely to respond to Na+-channel blockers.
  • Palve, Johanna; Ylitalo, Leea; Luukkaala, Tiina; Jernman, Juha; Korhonen, Niina (2020)
    Recent data have demonstrated no survival benefit to immediate completion lymph node dissection (CLND) for positive sentinel node (SN) disease in melanoma. It is important to identify parameters in positive SNs, which predict prognosis in melanoma patients. These might provide prognostic value in staging systems and risk models by guiding high-risk patients' adjuvant therapy in clinical practice. In this retrospective study of university hospital melanoma database we analyzed tumor burden and prognosis in patients with positive SNs. Patients were stratified by the diameter of tumor deposit, distribution of metastatic focus in SN, ulceration and number of metastatic SNs. These were incorporated in Cox proportional hazard regression models. Predictive ability was assessed using Akaike information criterion and Harrell's concordance index. A total of 110 patients had positive SN and 104 underwent CLND. Twenty-two (21%) patients had non-SN metastatic disease on CLND. The 5-year melanoma specific survival for CLND-negative patients was 5.00 years (IQR 3.23-5.00, range 0.72-5.00) compared to 3.69 (IQR 2.28-4.72, range 1.01-5.00) years in CLND-positive patients (HR 2.82 (95% CI 1.17-6.76, p = 0.020).The models incorporating distribution of metastatic focus and the largest tumor deposit in SN had highest predictive ability. According to Cox proportional hazard regression models, information criterions and c-index, the diameter of tumor deposit > 4 mm with multifocal location in SN despite of number of metastatic SN were the most important parameters. According to the diameter of tumor deposit and distribution of metastatic focus in SN, adequate stratification of positive SN patients was possible and risk classes for patients were identified.
  • Ruohoalho, Johanna; Ostvoll, Eirik; Bratt, Mette; Bugten, Vegard; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti; Ovesen, Therese; Stalfors, Joacim (2018)
    Surgical quality registers provide tools to measure and improve the outcome of surgery. International register collaboration creates an opportunity to assess and critically evaluate national practices, and increases the size of available datasets. Even though millions of yearly tonsillectomies and tonsillotomies are performed worldwide, clinical practices are variable and inconsistency of evidence regarding the best clinical practice exists. The need for quality improvement actions is evident. We aimed to systematically investigate the existing tonsil surgery quality registers found in the literature, and to provide a thorough presentation of the planned Nordic Tonsil Surgery Register Collaboration. A systematic literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (from January 1990 to December 2016) was conducted to identify registers, databases, quality improvement programs or comprehensive audit programs addressing tonsil surgery. We identified two active registers and three completed audit programs focusing on tonsil surgery quality registration. Recorded variables were fairly similar, but considerable variation in coverage, number of operations included and length of time period for inclusion was discovered. Considering tonsillectomies and tonsillotomies being among the most commonly performed surgical procedures in otorhinolaryngology, it is surprising that only two active registers could be identified. We present a Nordic Tonsil Surgery Register Collaboration-an international tonsil surgery quality register project aiming to provide accurate benchmarks and enhance the quality of tonsil surgery in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
  • Tervo, Sanni; Seppala, Miia; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Salo, Tuula; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Kuopio, Teijo; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Tommola, Satu; Paavonen, Timo; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna (2020)
    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint receptor which plays an important role in a patient's immune responses to microbial and cancer antigens. It is expressed in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) with many different malignancies. The aim of the study was to evaluate PD-1 expression and its prognostic value in tongue cancer. The data of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients (N = 81) treated in Tampere University Hospital between 1999 and 2013 were used. Control data consisted of patients with non-malignant tongue mucous membrane lesions (N = 48). The formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples were stained immunohistochemically and scanned via digital microscope. The staining of PD-1 was examined semi-quantitatively. The density and intensity of PD-1 + cells were significantly higher in TSCC than in control samples. The expression of PD-1 correlated with better survival. The expression of PD-1 could be a potential prognostic marker in TSCC. Further research using larger sample size is needed.
  • Ojala, Kaisu; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mattson, Johanna; Salminen-Peltola, Paivi; Leutola, Suvi; Berggren, Marianne; Leidenius, Marjut H. K. (2016)
    Background and objectives: This study aims to clarify quality of breast cancer surgery in population-based setting. We aim to elucidate factors influencing waiting periods, and to evaluate the effect of hospital volume on surgical treatment policies. Special interest was given to diagnostic and surgical processes and their impact on waiting times. Methods: All 1307 patients having primary breast cancer surgery at the Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District during 2010 were included in this retrospective study. Results: Median waiting time for primary surgery was 24 days and significantly affected by additional imaging and diagnostic biopsies as well as hospital volume. Final rate of breast conserving surgery was surprisingly low, 51%, not affected by hospital volume, p = 0.781. Oncoplastic resection and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) were performed more often in high volume units, p <0.001. Quality of axillary surgery varied with unit size. Multiple operations, IBR and high volume unit were factors prolonging initiation of adjuvant treatment. Conclusion: Quality of preoperative diagnostics play a crucial role in minimizing the need of repeated imaging and biopsies as well as multiple operations. Positive impact of high-volume hospitals becomes evident when analyzing procedures requiring advanced surgical techniques. High-volume hospitals achieved better quality in axillary surgery. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Seppänen, H.; Juuti, A.; Mustonen, H.; Haapamaki, C.; Nordling, S.; Carpelan-Holmstrom, M.; Sirén, J.; Luettges, J.; Haglund, C.; Kiviluoto, T. (2017)
    Objectives: Since the early 1990s, low long-term survival rates following pancreatic surgery for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have challenged us to improve treatment. In this series, we aim to show improved survival from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma during the era of centralized pancreatic surgery. Methods: Analysis of all pancreatic resections performed at Helsinki University Hospital and survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients during 2000-2013 were included. Post-operative complications such as fistulas, reoperations, and mortality rates were recorded. Patient and tumor characteristics were compared with survival data. Results: Of the 853 patients undergoing pancreatic surgery, 581 (68%) were pancreaticoduodenectomies, 195 (21%) distal resections, 28 (3%) total pancreatectomies, and 49 (6%) other procedures. Mortality after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 2.1%. The clinically relevant B/C fistula rate was 7% after pancreaticoduodenectomy and 13% after distal resection, and the re-operation rate was 5%. The 5- and 10-year survival rates for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were 22% and 14%; for T1-2, N0 and R0 tumors, the corresponding survival rates were 49% and 31%. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 >75 kU/L, carcinoembryonic antigen >5 mu g/L, N1, lymph-node ratio >20%, R1, and lack of adjuvant therapy were independent risk factors for decreased survival. Conclusion: After centralization of pancreatic surgery in southern Finland, we have managed to enable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients to survive markedly longer than in the early 1990s. Based on a 1.7-million population in our clinic, mortality rates are equal to those of other high-volume centers and long-term survival rates for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma have now risen to some of the highest reported.
  • Aro, Katri; Back, L.; Loimu, V.; Saarilahti, K.; Rogers, S.; Sintonen, H.; Roine, Risto Paavo Antero; Makitie, Antti (2016)
    Management of head and neck cancer influences both physical and mental wellbeing. Measuring the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important, as various treatment modalities are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this prospective cohort study, we tested the feasibility of the generic 15D HRQoL instrument in 214 head and neck cancer patients managed with surgery, definitive (chemo)radiotherapy, or with combined modality treatment. HRQoL was assessed at baseline and three times after treatment onset during 1 year, and compared with that of general population standardized for age and sex. At baseline, the patients' mean 15D score was significantly worse compared with general population. Overall HRQoL was at lowest at 3 months after treatment onset, it gradually improved towards 12 months but never reached baseline levels. The dimensions "vitality", "distress", "depression" and "sexual activity" showed marked deterioration at 3 months after the treatment onset, but improved gradually during 12 months. The 15D instrument seems useful for evaluation of HRQoL of head and neck cancer patients. Dimensions reflecting mental wellbeing improved gradually after 3 months, but they seldom reached baseline levels. The support for patients at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and recovery is emphasized.