Browsing by Subject "DISTRIBUTIONS"

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  • Leinonen, Jussi; Moisseev, Dmitri; Leskinen, Matti; Petersen, Walter A. (2012)
    To improve the understanding of high-latitude rain microphysics and its implications for the remote sensing of rainfall by ground-based and spaceborne radars, raindrop size measurements have been analyzed that were collected over five years with a Joss–Waldvogel disdrometer located in Järvenpää, Finland. The analysis shows that the regional climate is characterized by light rain and small drop size with narrow size distributions and that the mutual relations of drop size distribution parameters differ from those reported at lower latitudes. Radar parameters computed from the distributions demonstrate that the high latitudes are a challenging target for weather radar observations, particularly those employing polarimetric and dual-frequency techniques. Nevertheless, the findings imply that polarimetric ground radars can produce reliable “ground truth” estimates for space observations and identify dual-frequency radars utilizing a W-band channel as promising tools for observing rainfall in the high-latitude climate.
  • Grythe, Henrik; Kristiansen, Nina I.; Zwaaftink, Christine D. Groot; Eckhardt, Sabine; Strom, Johan; Tunved, Peter; Krejci, Radovan; Stohl, Andreas (2017)
    A new, more physically based wet removal scheme for aerosols has been implemented in the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. It uses three-dimensional cloud water fields from the European Centre for MediumRange Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) to determine cloud extent and distinguishes between in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging. The new in-cloud nucleation scavenging depends on cloud water phase (liquid, ice or mixed-phase), based on the aerosol's prescribed efficiency to serve as ice crystal nuclei and liquid water nuclei, respectively. The impaction scavenging scheme now parameterizes below-cloud removal as a function of aerosol particle size and precipitation type (snow or rain) and intensity. Sensitivity tests with the new scavenging scheme and comparisons with observational data were conducted for three distinct types of primary aerosols, which pose different challenges for modeling wet scavenging due to their differences in solubility, volatility and size distribution: (1) Cs-137 released during the Fukushima nuclear accident attached mainly to highly soluble sulphate aerosol particles, (2) black carbon (BC) aerosol particles, and (3) mineral dust. Calculated e-folding lifetimes of accumulation mode aerosols for these three aerosol types were 11.7, 16.0, and 31.6 days respectively, when well mixed in the atmosphere. These are longer lifetimes than those obtained by the previous removal schem, and, for mineral dust in particular, primarily result from very slow in-cloud removal, which globally is the primary removal mechanism for these accumulation mode particles. Calculated e-folding lifetimes in FLEXPART also have a strong size dependence, with the longest lifetimes found for the accumulation-mode aerosols. For example, for dust particles emitted at the surface the lifetimes were 13.8 days for particles with 1 aem diameter and a few hours for 10 aem particles. A strong size dependence in below-cloud scavenging, combined with increased dry removal, is the primary reason for the shorter lifetimes of the larger particles. The most frequent removal is in-cloud scavenging (85% of all scavenging events) but it occurs primarily in the free troposphere, while below-cloud removal is more frequent below 1000m (52% of all events) and can be important for the initial fate of species emitted at the surface, such as those examined here. For assumed realistic in-cloud removal efficiencies, both BC and sulphate have a slight overestimation of observed atmospheric concentrations (a factor of 1.6 and 1.2 respectively). However, this overestimation is largest close to the sources and thus appears more related to overestimated emissions rather than underestimated removal. The new aerosol wet removal scheme of FLEXPART incorporates more realistic information about clouds and aerosol properties and it compares better with both observed lifetimes and concentration than the old scheme.
  • Wilson, Samuel T.; Bange, Hermann W.; Arevalo-Martinez, Damian L.; Barnes, Jonathan; Borges, Alberto; Brown, Ian; Bullister, John L.; Burgos, Macarena; Capelle, David W.; Casso, Michael; de la Paz, Mercedes; Farias, Laura; Fenwick, Lindsay; Ferron, Sara; Garcia, Gerardo; Glockzin, Michael; Karl, David M.; Kock, Annette; Laperriere, Sarah; Law, Cliff S.; Manning, Cara C.; Marriner, Andrew; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Pohlman, John W.; Rees, Andrew P.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Wisegarver, David P.; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Rehder, Gregor (2018)
    Large-scale climatic forcing is impacting oceanic biogeochemical cycles and is expected to influence the water-column distribution of trace gases, including methane and nitrous oxide. Our ability as a scientific community to evaluate changes in the water-column inventories of methane and nitrous oxide depends largely on our capacity to obtain robust and accurate concentration measurements that can be validated across different laboratory groups. This study represents the first formal international intercomparison of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements whereby participating laboratories received batches of seawater samples from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Additionally, compressed gas standards from the same calibration scale were distributed to the majority of participating laboratories to improve the analytical accuracy of the gas measurements. The computations used by each laboratory to derive the dissolved gas concentrations were also evaluated for inconsistencies (e.g., pressure and temperature corrections, solubility constants). The results from the intercomparison and intercalibration provided invaluable insights into methane and nitrous oxide measurements. It was observed that analyses of seawater samples with the lowest concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide had the lowest precisions. In comparison, while the analytical precision for samples with the highest concentrations of trace gases was better, the variability between the different laboratories was higher: 36 % for methane and 27 % for nitrous oxide. In addition, the comparison of different batches of seawater samples with methane and nitrous oxide concentrations that ranged over an order of magnitude revealed the ramifications of different calibration procedures for each trace gas. Finally, this study builds upon the intercomparison results to develop recommendations for improving oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements, with the aim of precluding future analytical discrepancies between laboratories.
  • Simola, Umberto; Cisewski-Kehe, Jessi; Wolpert, Robert L. (2020)
    Finite mixture models are used in statistics and other disciplines, but inference for mixture models is challenging due, in part, to the multimodality of the likelihood function and the so-called label switching problem. We propose extensions of the Approximate Bayesian Computation?Population Monte Carlo (ABC?PMC) algorithm as an alternative framework for inference on finite mixture models. There are several decisions to make when implementing an ABC?PMC algorithm for finite mixture models, including the selection of the kernels used for moving the particles through the iterations, how to address the label switching problem and the choice of informative summary statistics. Examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed ABC?PMC algorithm for mixture modelling. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated in a simulation study and for the popular recessional velocity galaxy data.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    We present measurements of the azimuthal dependence of charged jet production in central and semi-central root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the second harmonic event plane, quantified as nu(ch)(2) (jet). Jet finding is performed employing the anti-k(T) algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.2 using charged tracks from the ALICE tracking system. The contribution of the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying event is taken into account event-by-event. The remaining (statistical) region-to-region fluctuations are removed on an ensemble basis by unfolding the jet spectra for different event plane orientations independently. Significant non-zero nu(ch)(2) (jet) is observed in semi-central collisions (30-50% centrality) for 20 <p(T)(ch) (jet) <90 GeV/c. The azimuthal dependence of the charged jet production is similar to the dependence observed for jets comprising both charged and neutral fragments, and compatible with measurements of the nu(2) of single charged particles at high p(T). Good agreement between the data and predictions from JEWEL, an event generator simulating parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium, is found in semi-central collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The Fourier coefficients v(2) and v(3) characterizing the anisotropy of the azimuthal distribution of charged particles produced in PbPb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV are measured with data collected by the CMS experiment. The measurements cover a broad transverse momentum range, 1 <p(T) <100 GeV/c. The analysis focuses on the p(T) > 10 GeV/c range, where anisotropic azimuthal distributions should reflect the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in the created medium. Results are presented in several bins of PbPb collision centrality, spanning the 60% most central events. The v(2) coefficient is measured with the scalar product and the multiparticle cumulant methods, which have different sensitivities to initial-state fluctuations. The values from both methods remain positive up to p(T) similar to 60-80 GeV/c, in all examined centrality classes. The v(3) coefficient, only measured with the scalar product method, tends to zero for p(T) greater than or similar to 20 GeV/c. Comparisons between theoretical calculations and data provide new constraints on the path-length dependence of parton energy loss in heavy ion collisions and highlight the importance of the initial-state fluctuations. (C) 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Momigliano, Paolo; Florin, Ann-Britt; Merilä, Juha (2021)
    Testing among competing demographic models of divergence has become an important component of evolutionary research in model and non-model organisms. However, the effect of unaccounted demographic events on model choice and parameter estimation remains largely unexplored. Using extensive simulations, we demonstrate that under realistic divergence scenarios, failure to account for population size (N-e) changes in daughter and ancestral populations leads to strong biases in divergence time estimates as well as model choice. We illustrate these issues reconstructing the recent demographic history of North Sea and Baltic Sea turbots (Scophthalmus maximus) by testing 16 isolation with migration (IM) and 16 secondary contact (SC) scenarios, modeling changes in N-e as well as the effects of linked selection and barrier loci. Failure to account for changes in N-e resulted in selecting SC models with long periods of strict isolation and divergence times preceding the formation of the Baltic Sea. In contrast, models accounting for N-e changes suggest recent (
  • Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Jukar, Advait M.; Toth, Aniko B.; Fraser, Danielle; Du, Andrew; Barr, W. Andrew; Amatangelo, Kathryn L.; Balk, Meghan A.; Behrensmeyer, Anna K.; Blois, Jessica; Davis, Matt; Eronen, Jussi T.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Looy, Cindy; Miller, Joshua H.; Shupinski, Alexandria B.; Soul, Laura C.; Villasenor, Amelia; Wing, Scott; Lyons, S. Kathleen (2021)
    The late Quaternary of North America was marked by prominent ecological changes, including the end-Pleistocene megafaunal extinction, the spread of human settlements and the rise of agriculture. Here we examine the mechanistic reasons for temporal changes in mammal species association and body size during this time period. Building upon the co-occurrence results from Lyons et al. (2016) - wherein each species pair was classified as spatially aggregated, segregated or random - we examined body mass differences (BMD) between each species pair for each association type and time period (Late Pleistocene: 40 000(14)C-11 700(14)C ybp, Holocene: 11 700(14)C-50 ybp and Modern: 50-0 yr). In the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, the BMD of both aggregated and segregated species pairs was significantly smaller than the BMD of random pairs. These results are consistent with environmental filtering and competition as important drivers of community structure in both time periods. Modern assemblages showed a breakdown between BMD and co-occurrence patterns: the average BMD of aggregated, segregated and random species pairs did not differ from each other. Collectively, these results indicate that the late Quaternary mammalian extinctions not only eliminated many large-bodied species but were followed by a re-organization of communities that altered patterns of species coexistence and associated differences in body size.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Kral, J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Rasanen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2015)
    We present a measurement of inclusive J/psi production in p-Pb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV as a function of the centrality of the collision, as estimated from the energy deposited in the Zero Degree Calorimeters. The measurement is performed with the ALICE detector down to zero transverse momentum, p(T), in the backward (-4.46 <y(cms) <-2.96) and forward (2.03 <y(cms) <3.53) rapidity intervals in the dimuon decay channel and in the mid-rapidity region (-1.37 <y(cms) <0.43) in the dielectron decay channel. The backward and forward rapidity intervals correspond to the Pb-going and p-going direction, respectively. The p(T)-differential J/psi production cross section at backward and forward rapidity is measured for several centrality classes, together with the corresponding average p(T) and p(T)(2) values. The nuclear modification factor is presented as a function of centrality for the three rapidity intervals, and as a function of p(T) for several centrality classes at backward and forward rapidity. At mid-and forward rapidity, the J/psi yield is suppressed up to 40% compared to that in pp interactions scaled by the number of binary collisions. The degree of suppression increases towards central p-Pb collisions at forward rapidity, and with decreasing p(T) of the J/psi. At backward rapidity, the nuclear modification factor is compatible with unity within the total uncertainties, with an increasing trend from peripheral to central p-Pb collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    The pseudorapidity density of charged particles, dN(ch)/d eta, in p-Pb collisions has been measured at a centre of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair of root S-NN = 8.16 TeV at mid-pseudorapidity for non-single-diffractive events. The results cover 3.6 units of pseudorapidity, vertical bar eta vertical bar < 1.8. The dN(ch)/d eta value is 19.1 +/- 0.7 at vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.5. This quantity divided by < N-part >/2 is 4.73 +/- 0.20, where < N-part > is the average number of participating nucleons, is 9.5% higher than the corresponding value for p-Pb collisions at root S-NN = 5.02 TeV. Measurements are compared with models based on different mechanisms for particle production. All models agree within uncertainties with data in the Pb-going side, while HIJING overestimates, showing a symmetric behaviour, and EPOS underestimates the p-going side of the dN(ch)/d eta distribution. Saturation-based models reproduce the distributions well for eta > -1.3. The dN(ch)/d eta is also measured for different centrality estimators, based both on the charged particle multiplicity and on the energy deposited in the Zero Degree Calorimeters. A study of the implications of the large multiplicity fluctuations due to the small number of participants for systems like p-Pb in the centrality calculation for multiplicity-based estimators is discussed, demonstrating the advantages of determining the centrality with energy deposited near beam rapidity.
  • Liao, Ziyan; Zhang, Lin; Nobis, Michael P.; Wu, Xiaogang; Pan, Kaiwen; Wang, Keqing; Dakhil, Mohammed A.; Du, Mingxi; Xiong, Qinli; Pandey, Bikram; Tian, Xianglin (2020)
    Aim As a prominent geographical distribution centre for the dark coniferous forests, mountains of Southwest China (MSWC) is experiencing an unprecedented warming trend, posing severe challenges to the survival of dominant fir (Abies) species. Although plant's migration ability is a prerequisite for its survival in changing environments, it has often been ignored in species distribution models (SDMs). This study aimed to quantify the magnitude and direction of range changes by the year 2080 for six dominant fir species, that is Abies recurvata, Abies faxoniana, Abies squamata, Abies ernestii, Abies forrestii and Abies georgei, with an emphasis on exploring the relationship between migration ability and projected distributions. Location The mountains of Southwest China. Methods We applied the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) algorithm to calibrate ecological niche models and to project the climatically suitable areas (CSAs) of each species under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Additionally, we delimited future species ranges by three migration scenarios (full-, no- and partial-migration scenarios). Results The simulations showed the distinctive responses of the six fir species to anthropogenic climate change (ACC). By 2080, the distribution areas of Abies recurvata were projected to decline only in the no-migration scenario but increase under the full- and partial-migration scenarios, while the other five species were projected to decline in the majority of emission x migration scenarios. Fir species in the southern region were predicted to be more vulnerable to ACC due to the larger losses in CSAs and a stronger effect of the partial-migration scenario on the newly colonized areas of this group. The studied species showed a simulated migration trend (northward and westward) to the interior Qinghai-Tibet Plateau under ACC. Main conclusions Benefits or losses for species under ACC depended on the geographical location, their ecological niches and migration abilities, which provide essential insights for a spatial conservation assessment of biodiversity hotspots in the future.
  • Galbrun, Esther; Tang, Hui; Fortelius, Mikael; Zliobaite, Indre (2018)
    As organisms are adapted to their environments, assemblages of taxa can be used to describe environments in the present and in the past. Here, we use a data mining method, namely redescription mining, to discover and analyze patterns of association between large herbivorous mammals and their environments via their functional traits. We focus on functional properties of animal teeth, characterized using a recently developed dental trait scoring scheme. The teeth of herbivorous mammals serve as an interface to obtain energy from food, and are therefore expected to match the types of plant food available in their environment. Hence, dental traits are expected to carry a signal of environmental conditions. We analyze a global compilation of occurrences of large herbivorous mammals and of bioclimatic conditions. We identify common patterns of association between dental traits distributions and bioclimatic conditions and discuss their implications. Each pattern can be considered as a computational biome. Our analysis distinguishes three global zones, which we refer to as the boreal-temperate moist zone, the tropical moist zone and the tropical-subtropical dry zone. The boreal-temperate moist zone is mainly characterized by seasonal cold temperatures, a lack of hypsodonty and a high share of species with obtuse lophs. The tropical moist zone is mainly characterized by high temperatures, high isothermality, abundant precipitation and a high share of species with acute rather than obtuse lophs. Finally, the tropical dry zone is mainly characterized by a high seasonality of temperatures and precipitation, as well as high hypsodonty and horizodonty. We find that the dental traits signature of African rain forests is quite different from the signature of climatically similar sites in North America and Asia, where hypsodont species and species with obtuse lophs are mostly absent. In terms of climate and dental signatures, the African seasonal tropics share many similarities with Central-South Asian sites. Interestingly, the Tibetan plateau is covered both by redescriptions from the tropical-subtropical dry group and by redescriptions from the boreal-temperate moist group, suggesting a combination of features from both zones in its dental traits and climate.
  • d'Enterria, David; Eskola, Kari J.; Helenius, Ilkka; Paukkunen, Hannu (2014)
  • Kivekäs, Niku; Carpman, Jimmie; Roldin, Pontus; Leppa, Johannes; O'Connor, Ewan; Kristensson, Adam; Asmi, Eija (2016)
    Field observations of new particle formation and the subsequent particle growth are typically only possible at a fixed measurement location, and hence do not follow the temporal evolution of an air parcel in a Lagrangian sense. Standard analysis for determining formation and growth rates requires that the time-dependent formation rate and growth rate of the particles are spatially invariant; air parcel advection means that the observed temporal evolution of the particle size distribution at a fixed measurement location may not represent the true evolution if there are spatial variations in the formation and growth rates. Here we present a zero-dimensional aerosol box model coupled with one-dimensional atmospheric flow to describe the impact of advection on the evolution of simulated new particle formation events. Wind speed, particle formation rates and growth rates are input parameters that can vary as a function of time and location, using wind speed to connect location to time. The output simulates measurements at a fixed location; formation and growth rates of the particle mode can then be calculated from the simulated observations at a stationary point for different scenarios and be compared with the 'true' input parameters. Hence, we can investigate how spatial variations in the formation and growth rates of new particles would appear in observations of particle number size distributions at a fixed measurement site. We show that the particle size distribution and growth rate at a fixed location is dependent on the formation and growth parameters upwind, even if local conditions do not vary. We also show that different input parameters used may result in very similar simulated measurements. Erroneous interpretation of observations in terms of particle formation and growth rates, and the time span and areal extent of new particle formation, is possible if the spatial effects are not accounted for.
  • Barrera Vargas, Gerardo; Pardo, Juan Carlos (2020)
    In this paper, we study the cut-off phenomenon under the total variation distance of d-dimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes which are driven by Lévy processes. That is to say, under the total variation distance, there is an abrupt convergence of the aforementioned process to its equilibrium, i.e. limiting distribution. Despite that the limiting distribution is not explicit, its distributional properties allow us to deduce that a profile function always exists in the reversible cases and it may exist in the non-reversible cases under suitable conditions on the limiting distribution. The cut-off phenomena for the average and superposition processes are also determined.
  • Saine, Sonja; Ovaskainen, Otso; Somervuo, Panu; Abrego, Nerea (2020)
    Inferring interspecific interactions indirectly from community data is of central interest in community ecology. Data on species communities can be surveyed using different methods, each of which may differ in the amount and type of species detected, and thus produce varying information on interaction networks. Since fruit bodies reflect only a fraction of the wood-inhabiting fungal diversity, there is an ongoing debate in fungal ecology on whether fruit body?based surveys are a valid method for studying fungal community dynamics compared to surveys based on DNA metabarcoding. In this paper, we focus on species-to-species associations and ask whether the associations inferred from data collected by fruit-body surveys reflect the ones found from data collected by DNA-based surveys. We estimate and compare the association networks resulting from different survey methods using a joint species distribution model. We recorded both raw and residual associations that respectively do not and do correct for the influence of the abiotic predictors when estimating the species-to-species associations. The analyses of the DNA data yielded a larger number of species-to-species associations than the analyses of the fruit body?based data as expected. Yet, we estimated unique associations also from the fruit-body data. Our results show that the directions of estimated residual associations were consistent between the data types, whereas the raw associations were much less consistent, highlighting the need to account for the influence of relevant environmental covariates when estimating association networks. We conclude that even though DNA-based survey methods are more informative about the total number of interacting species, fruit-body surveys are also an adequate method for inferring association networks in wood-inhabiting fungi. Since the DNA and fruit-body data carry on complementary information on fungal communities, the most comprehensive insights are obtained by combining the two survey methods. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Martin-Roy, Raphael; Nygard, Elisa; Nouhaud, Pierre; Kulmuni, Jonna (2021)
    Genetic variability is essential for adaptation and could be acquired via hybridization with a closely related lineage. We use ants to investigate thermal adaptation and the link between temperature and genetic variation arising from hybridization. We test for differences in cold and heat tolerance between Finnish Formica polyctena and Formica aquilonia wood ants and their naturally occurring hybrids. Using workers, we find that the parental individuals differ in both cold and heat tolerances and express thermal limits that reflect their global distributions. Hybrids, however, cannot combine thermal tolerance of parental species as they have the same heat tolerance as F. polyctena but not the same cold tolerance as F. aquilonia. We then focus on a single hybrid population to investigate the relationship between temperature variation and genetic variation across 16 years using reproductive individuals. On the basis of the thermal tolerance results, we expected the frequency of putative F. polyctena alleles to increase in warm years and F. aquilonia alleles to increase in cold years. We find support for this in hybrid males but not in hybrid females. These results contribute to understanding the outcomes of hybridization, which may be sex specific or depend on the environment. Furthermore, genetic variability resulting from hybridization could help hybrid wood ants cope with changing thermal conditions.
  • Mac Lennan, Eric Michael; Toliou, Athanasia; Granvik, Mikael (2021)
    The near-Earth objects (NEOs) (3200) Phaethon and (155140) 2005 UD are thought to share a common origin, with the former exhibiting dust activity at perihelion that is thought to directly supply the Geminid meteor stream. Both of these objects currently have very small perihelion distances (0.140 au and 0.163 au for Phaethon and 2005 UD, respectively), which results in them having perihelion temperatures around 1000 K. A comparison between NEO population models to discovery statistics suggests that low-perihelion objects are destroyed over time by a, possibly temperature-dependent, mechanism that is efficient at heliocentric distances less than 0.3 au. By implication, the current activity from Phaethon is linked to the destruction mechanism of NEOs close to the Sun. We model the past thermal characteristics of Phaethon and 2005 UD using a combination of a thermophysical model (TPM) and orbital integrations of each object. Temperature characteristics such as maximum daily temperature, maximum thermal gradient, and temperature at different depths are extracted from the model, which is run for a predefined set of semi-major axis and eccentricity values. Next, dynamical integrations of orbital clones of Phaethon and 2005 UD are used to estimate the past orbital elements of each object. These dynamical results are then combined with the temperature characteristics to model the past evolution of thermal characteristics such as maximum (and minimum) surface temperature and thermal gradient. The orbital histories of Phaethon and 2005 UD are characterized by cyclic changes in.., resulting in perihelia values periodically shifting between present-day values and 0.3 au. Currently, Phaethon is experiencing relatively large degrees of heating when compared to the recent 20, 000 yr. We find that the subsurface temperatures are too large over this timescale for water ice to be stable, unless actively supplied somehow. The near-surface thermal gradients strongly suggest that thermal fracturing may be very effective at breaking down and ejecting dust particles. Observations by the DESTINY+ flyby mission will provide important constraints on the mechanics of dust-loss from Phaethon and, potentially, reveal signs of activity from 2005 UD. In addition to simulating the recent dynamical evolution of these objects, we use orbital integrations that start from the Main Belt to assess their early dynamical evolution (origin and delivery mechanism). We find that dwarf planet (2) Pallas is unlikely to be the parent body for Phaethon and 2005 UD, and it is more likely that the source is in the inner part of the asteroid belt in the families of, e.g., (329) Svea or (142) Polana.
  • Huitu, Katri; Rao, Kumar; Rindani, Saurabh D.; Sharma, Pankaj (2016)
    We consider the possibility of new physics giving rise to effective interactions of the form e(+) e(-) Hf (f) over bar, where f represents a charged lepton l or a (light) quark q, and H the recently discovered Higgs boson. Such vertices would give contributions beyond the standard model to the Higgs production processes e+ e-. H l(+) l(-) and e(+) e(-) -> Hq (q) over bar qat a future e(+) e(-) collider. We write the most general form for these vertices allowed by Lorentz symmetry. Assuming that such interactions contribute in addition to the standard model production processes, where the final-state fermion pair comes from the decay of the Z boson, we obtain the differential cross section for the processes e(+) e(-) -> H l(+) l(-) and e(+) e(-) -> Hq (q) over bar to linear order in the effective interactions. We propose several observables with differing CP and T properties which, if measured, can be used to constrain the couplings occurring in interaction vertices. We derive possible limits on these couplings that may be obtained at a collider with centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV and an integrated luminosity of 500 fb(-1). We also carry out the analysis assuming that both the electron and positron beams can be longitudinally polarized, and find that the sensitivity to the couplings can be improved by a factor of 2-4 by a specific choice of the signs of the polarizations of both the electron and positron beams for the same integrated luminosity. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license.