Browsing by Subject "DISTRICT"

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  • Hassan, Badal A; Glover, Edinam K.; Luukkanen, Olavi; Kanninen, Markku; Jamnadass, Ramni (2019)
    The dryland vegetation and particularly the Acacia-Commiphora woodlands support the livelihoods of approximately 52 million rural households in the Horn of Africa. Aromatic resins are valuable non-wood forest products (NWFPs) derived from Boswellia and Commiphora species in the drylands of this region. The study seeks to answer the following main questions: “What are the ecological and livelihood roles of resin producing species, and the role that people have in either degrading or restoring these ecosystems?” “Who are the participants in frankincense and myrrh production, processing, and trade, and how do these people interact?” “What is the current and potential future economic impact of frankincense and myrrh production and trade at the household level?” “What are the barriers to enhanced economic outcomes?” The study involves the use of PRISMA method—a systematic methodology to identify, select and analyze the recent literature on aromatic resins in relation to such factors as socio-economic situation, livelihood security, value chain, climate change adaptation, ecology and sustainable development in the Horn of Africa. Systematic identification of publications was conducted using several sources, including but not limited to electronic databases for literature search. Web of Science, Social Science Citation Index and Google Scholar and various scientific journals were investigated using search terms and restrictions. A total of 991 references were retrieved, but literature only published between 2003 to 2017 was selected, which led to the use of 51 works for full-text assessment. The results indicate that of the 51 selected studies, 45% focused on ecology and sustainable management, 31% on economic contribution and livelihood security, 20% on production and value chain development, and 4% on climate change adaptation and mitigation. It could be concluded that farmers’ adoption of Boswellia and Commiphora species as economic tree crops in the Horn of Africa has a distinct role in biodiversity conservation and climate change adaptation by contributing to the sustainability of ecosystem functioning as well as improving household incomes and the rural livelihood security in general, and thereby facilitating poverty alleviation.
  • Tripathi, Shankar; Subedi, Rajan; Adhikari, Hari (2020)
    An account of widespread degradation and deforestation in Nepal has been noticed in various literature sources. Although the contribution of community forests (CF) on the improvement of forest cover and condition in the Mid-hill of Nepal is positive, detailed study to understand the current situation seems important. The study area (Tanahun District) lies in the Gandaki Province of western Nepal. The objective of this study was to estimate the forest cover change over the specified period and to identify factors influencing the change. We used Landsat images from the years 1976, 1991, and 2015 to classify land use and land cover. We considered community perception in addition to the forest cover map to understand the different causes of forest cover change. Forest cover decreased from 1976 to 1991 annually at a rate of 0.96%. After 1991, the forest increased annually at a rate of 0.63%. The overall forest cover in the district regained its original status. Factors related to increasing forest cover were emigration, occupation shift, agroforestry practices, as well as particularly by plantation on barren lands, awareness among forest users, and conservation activities conducted by local inhabitants after the government forest was handed over to community members as a community forest management system.
  • Arvola, Anne; Malkamäki, Arttu; Penttilä, Juho; Toppinen, Anne (2019)
    In the rapidly growing Tanzanian economy, increasing demand for timber and limited wood supply from industrial plantations and natural forests have opened a new livelihood opportunity for smallholder farmers in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, which is undergoing a tree-growing boom. In the absence of support services, research and statistics, the magnitude of the phenomena has remained unclear, along with the farmers’ capability to meet market demands, access the markets, and negotiate prices. Primary qualitative data were collected to clarify the role of smallholder tree growers in the forest transition process and wood value chain using 60 semi-structured tree farmer interviews in four villages, and through interviews of timber buyers and processors. The findings indicate that the strong market demand has created dual markets, where higher quality industrial plantations mainly supply larger industries, whereas micro and small enterprises source wood from lower quality smallholder plantations. While the markets’ quality criteria are expected to tighten, capacity building is needed to improve smallholder wood quality to ensure the long-run tree-growing livelihood and competitiveness of small-scale producers in the markets.