Browsing by Subject "DNA damage"

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  • Aho, Joonas; Helenius, Mikko; Vattulainen-Collanus, Sanna; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Koskenvuo, Juha (2016)
    Cell damage can lead to rapid release of ATP to extracellular space resulting in dramatic change in local ATP concentration. Evolutionary, this has been considered as a danger signal leading to adaptive responses in adjacent cells. Our aim was to demonstrate that elevated extracellular ATP or inhibition of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1/CD39) activity could be used to increase tolerance against DNA-damaging conditions. Human endothelial cells, with increased extracellular ATP concentration in cell proximity, were more resistant to irradiation or chemically induced DNA damage evaluated with the DNA damage markers gamma H2AX and phosphorylated p53. In our rat models of DNA damage, inhibiting CD39-driven ATP hydrolysis with POM-1 protected the heart and lung tissues against chemically induced DNA damage. Interestingly, the phenomenon could not be replicated in cancer cells. Our results show that transient increase in extracellular ATP can promote resistance to DNA damage.
  • Nava, Michele M.; Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A.; Biggs, Leah C.; Whitefield, Daniel B.; Metge, Franziska; Boucas, Jorge; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Li, Xinping; García Arcos, Juan Manuel; Hoffmann, Bernd; Merkel, Rudolf; Niessen, Carien M.; Dahl, Kris Noel; Wickström, Sara A. (2020)
    Summary Tissue homeostasis requires maintenance of functional integrity under stress. A central source of stress is mechanical force that acts on cells, their nuclei, and chromatin, but how the genome is protected against mechanical stress is unclear. We show that mechanical stretch deforms the nucleus, which cells initially counteract via a calcium-dependent nuclear softening driven by loss of H3K9me3-marked heterochromatin. The resulting changes in chromatin rheology and architecture are required to insulate genetic material from mechanical force. Failure to mount this nuclear mechanoresponse results in DNA damage. Persistent, high-amplitude stretch induces supracellular alignment of tissue to redistribute mechanical energy before it reaches the nucleus. This tissue-scale mechanoadaptation functions through a separate pathway mediated by cell-cell contacts and allows cells/tissues to switch off nuclear mechanotransduction to restore initial chromatin state. Our work identifies an unconventional role of chromatin in altering its own mechanical state to maintain genome integrity in response to deformation.
  • Bhattarai, Niina; Korhonen, Eveliina; Mysore, Yashavanthi; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu (2021)
    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a retinal disease leading to impaired vision. Cigarette smoke increases the risk for developing AMD by causing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and damage in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We have previously shown that the cigarette tar component hydroquinone causes oxidative stress in human RPE cells. In the present study, we investigated the propensity of hydroquinone to induce the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-18. The activation of these cytokines is usually regulated by the Nucleotide-binding domain, Leucine-rich repeat, and Pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. ARPE-19 cells were exposed to hydroquinone, and cell viability was monitored using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide salt (MTT) assays. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to measure the levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-18 as well as NLRP3, caspase-1, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Hydroquinone did not change IL-1 beta release but significantly increased the secretion of IL-18. Cytoplasmic NLRP3 levels increased after the hydroquinone treatment of IL-1 alpha-primed RPE cells, but IL-18 was equally released from primed and nonprimed cells. Hydroquinone reduced the intracellular levels of PARP, which were restored by treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). NAC concurrently reduced the NLRP3 levels but had no effect on IL-18 release. In contrast, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) reduced the release of IL-18 but had no effect on the NLRP3 levels. Collectively, hydroquinone caused DNA damage seen as reduced intracellular PARP levels and induced NLRP3-independent IL-18 secretion in human RPE cells.
  • Lukaszewicz, German; Iturburu, Fernando G.; Garanzini, Daniela S.; Menone, Mirta L.; Pflugmacher, Stephan (2019)
    Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid insecticide widely used in agricultural activities all around the world. This compound is transported from croplands to surrounding freshwater ecosystems, producing adverse effects on non-target organisms. Because of the relevance of aquatic macrophytes in the above-mentioned environments and the lack of studies of potential effects of IMI on them, this work aimed to assess the mitotic process and potential genotoxicity in the aquatic macrophyte Bidens laevis L. Although the analysis of the Mitotic Index (MI) showed that IMI was not cytotoxic, the Cell Proliferation Kinetics (CPK) frequencies evidenced modifications in the kinetics of the mitotic process. Indeed, the anaphases ratio decreased at 10 and 100 mu g/L IMI, while at 1000 mu g/L an increase of prophases ratio and a decrease of metaphases ratio were observed. Regarding genotoxicity, IMI produced an increase of the abnormal metaphases frequency from 10 mu g/L to 1000 mu g/L as well as an increase in clastogenic anaphases-telophases frequency at 100 and 1000 mu g/L. In addition, aneugenic anaphases-telophases and C-mitosis frequencies also increased at 1000 mu g/L, confirming the effects on the mitotic spindle. Considering the genotoxic effects on B. laevis through two different mechanisms (aneugenic and clastogenic) and the wide spread use of IMI in agriculture, these mechanisms of toxicity on macrophytes should be considered among other recognized effects of this insecticide on aquatic biota.
  • Pampanini, Valentina; Wagner, Magdalena; Asadi-Azarbaijani, Babak; Oskam, Irma C.; Sheikhi, Mona; Sjödin, Marcus O. D.; Lindberg, Johan; Hovatta, Outi; Sahlin, Lena; Bjorvang, Richelle D.; Otala, Marjut; Damdimopoulou, Pauliina; Jahnukainen, Kirsi (2019)
    STUDY QUESTION: Does first-line chemotherapy affect the quality of ovarian pre-antral follicles and stromal tissue in a population of young patients? SUMMARY ANSWER: Exposure to first-line chemotherapy significantly impacts follicle viability, size of residual intact follicles, steroid secretion in culture and quality of the stromal compartment. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: First-line chemotherapy is considered to have a low gonadotoxic potential, and as such, does not represent an indication for fertility preservation. Studies investigating the effects of chemotherapy on the quality of ovarian tissue stored for fertility preservation in young patients are limited and the results sometimes contradictory. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including young patients referred to three centers (Helsinki, Oslo and Tampere) to perform ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation between 2003 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: A total of 43 patients (age 1-24 years) were included in the study. A total of 25 were exposed to first-line chemotherapy before cryopreservation, whereas 18 patients were not. Density and size of follicles divided by developmental stages, prevalence of atretic follicles, health of the stromal compartment and functionality of the tissue in culture were evaluated and related to age and chemotherapy exposure. Activation of dormant follicles and DNA damage were also assessed. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Patients exposed to first-line chemotherapy showed a significantly higher density of atretic primordial and intermediary follicles than untreated patients. The intact primordial and intermediary follicles were significantly smaller in size in patients exposed to chemotherapy. Production of steroids in culture was also significantly impaired and a higher content of collagen and DNA damage was observed in the stromal compartment of treated patients. Collectively, these observations may indicate reduced quality and developmental capacity of follicles as a consequence of first-line chemotherapy exposure. Neither increased activation of dormant follicles nor elevated levels of DNA damage in oocyte nuclei were found in patients exposed to chemotherapy. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The two groups were not homogeneous in terms of age and the patients were exposed to different treatments, which did not allow us to distinguish the effect of specific agents. The limited material availability did not allow us to perform all the analyses on the entire set of patients. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS: This study provides for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the effects of first-line chemotherapy on the health, density and functionality of follicles categorized according to the developmental stage in patients under 24 years of age. When exposed to these treatments, patients were considered at low/medium risk of infertility. Our data suggest a profound impact of these relatively safe therapies on ovarian health and encourages further exploration of this effect in follow-up studies in order to optimize fertility preservation for young cancer patients.
  • Gondane, Aishwarya; Girmay, Samuel; Helevä, Alma; Pallasaho, Satu; Loda, Massimo; Itkonen, Harri M. (2022)
    Background: Transcription, metabolism and DNA damage response are tightly regulated to preserve the genomic integrity, and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is positioned to connect the three. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and androgen-ablation therapy halts disease progression. However, a significant number of prostate cancer patients develop resistance against anti-androgens, and this incurable disease is termed castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We have shown that combined inhibition of OGT and the transcription elongation kinase CDK9 induce CRPC-selective anti-proliferative effects. Here, we explain the functional basis for these combinatorial effects. Methods: We used comprehensive mass spectrometry profiling of short-term CDK9 inhibitor effects on O-GlcNAcylated proteins in an isogenic cell line system that models transition from PC to CRPC. In addition, we used both ChIP-seq and RNA-seq profiling, and pulldown experiments in multiple CRPC models. Finally, we validated our findings in prostate cancer patient samples. Results: Inhibition of CDK9 results in an OGT-dependent remodeling of the proteome in prostate cancer cells. More specifically, the activity of the DNA damage repair protein MRE11 is regulated in response to CDK9 inhibition in an OGT-dependent manner. MRE11 is enriched at the O-GlcNAc-marked loci. CDK9 inhibition does not decrease the expression of mRNAs whose genes are bound by both O-GlcNAc and MRE11. Combined inhibition of CDK9 and OGT or MRE11 further decreases RNA polymerase II activity, induces DNA damage signaling, and blocks the survival of prostate cancer cells. These effects are seen in CRPC cells but not in normal prostate cells. Mechanistically, OGT activity is required for MRE11 chromatin-loading in cells treated with CDK9 inhibitor. Finally, we show that MRE11 and O-GlcNAc are enriched at the prostate cancer-specific small nucleotide polymorphic sites, and the loss of MRE11 activity results in a hyper-mutator phenotype in patient tumors. Conclusions: Both OGT and MRE11 are essential for the repair of CDK9 inhibitor-induced DNA damage. Our study raises the possibility of targeting CDK9 to elicit DNA damage in CRPC setting as an adjuvant to other treatments.
  • Korhonen, Eveliina; Piippo, Niina; Hytti, Maria; Hyttinen, Juha M. T.; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu (2020)
    Abstract DNA damage accumulates in aged postmitotic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, a phenomenon associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we have experimentally induced DNA damage by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in interleukin-1α (IL-1α)-primed ARPE-19 cells and examined inflammasome-mediated signaling. To reveal the mechanisms of inflammasome activation, cells were additionally exposed to high levels of extracellular potassium chloride, n-acetyl-cysteine, or mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO, prior to UVB irradiation. Levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1? mRNAs were detected with qRT-PCR and secreted amounts of IL-1?, IL-18, and caspase-1 were measured with ELISA. The role of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin containing protein 3 (NLRP3) in UVB-induced inflammasome activation was verified by using the NLRP3-specific siRNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured immediately after UVB exposure using the cell-permeant 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) indicator, the levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers were assayed by cell-based ELISA, and the extracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) determined using a commercial bioluminescence assay. We found that pro-IL-18 was constitutively expressed by ARPE-19 cells, whereas the expression of pro-IL-1? was inducible by IL-1α priming. UVB induced the release of mature IL-18 and IL-1? but NLRP3 contributed only to the secretion of IL-1?. At the mechanistic level, the release of IL-1? was regulated by K+ efflux, whereas the secretion of IL-18 was dependent on ROS production. As well as K+ efflux, the cells released ATP following UVB exposure. Collectively, our data suggest that UVB clearly stimulates the secretion of mature IL-18 as a result of ROS induction, and this response is associated with DNA damage. Moreover, in human RPE cells, K+ efflux mediates the UVB-activated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, leading to the processing of IL-1?.
  • Liu, Wei; Lu, Xiangyi; He, Guangyang; Gao, Xiang; Xu, Maonian; Zhang, Jingkai; Li, Meiling; Wang, Lifeng; Li, Zhenjing; Wang, Likui; Luo, Cheng (2013)
  • Bolck, Hella A.; Przetocka, Sara; Meier, Roger; von Aesch, Christine; Zurfluh, Christina; Haenggi, Kay; Spegg, Vincent; Altmeyer, Matthias; Stebler, Michael; Norrelykke, Simon F.; Horvath, Peter; Sartori, Alessandro A.; Porro, Antonio (2022)
    Human CtIP is best known for its role in DNA end resection to initiate DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination. Recently, CtIP has also been shown to protect reversed replication forks from nucleolytic degradation upon DNA replication stress. However, still little is known about the DNA damage response (DDR) networks that preserve genome integrity and sustain cell survival in the context of CtIP insufficiency. Here, to reveal such potential buffering relationships, we screened a DDR siRNA library in CtIP-deficient cells to identify candidate genes that induce synthetic sickness/lethality (SSL). Our analyses unveil a negative genetic interaction between CtIP and BARD1, the heterodimeric binding partner of BRCA1. We found that simultaneous disruption of CtIP and BARD1 triggers enhanced apoptosis due to persistent replication stress-induced DNA lesions giving rise to chromosomal abnormalities. Moreover, we observed that the genetic interaction between CtIP and BARD1 occurs independently of the BRCA1-BARD1 complex formation and might be, therefore, therapeutical relevant for the treatment of BRCA-defective tumors.
  • Ciparyte, Auguste (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Diabetic ovarian cancer patients who take metformin as part of their anti-diabetic medication generally respond better to DNA-damaging cancer treatment. The molecular mechanisms of the anti-cancer effects of metformin are currently being investigated, but they remain poorly elucidated. Not much is understood about the metformin effect on DNA damage in ovarian cancer cells, where it is of particular importance. When chemotherapy-induced double-stranded DNA breaks are unrepaired, cells reach a point when they cannot tolerate the accumulated DNA damage and die. However, some ovarian cancer cells efficiently employ DNA repair mechanisms, the most prominent being homologous recombination (HR), to overcome DNA damage. Efficient HR causes chemoresistance. An important question is whether metformin has the ability to induce the HR-deficient state in cancer cells, thereby sensitizing them to treatment. This study did not examine HR directly, but it assessed HR indirectly by observing the effect of metformin on recovery from DNA damage in two ovarian cancer cell lines: OVCAR4 (HR-proficient) and Kuramochi (HR-deficient). Additionally, this study evaluated the metformin effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. OVCAR4 and Kuramochi cells were exposed to varying metformin concentrations (0,5 mM, 5 mM, 10 mM, 15 mM, 20 mM and 25 mM) and for varying durations (24 hours and 48 hours). This study also tested how metformin pretreatment affected the cells’ ability to repair externally (ionizing irradiation) induced DNA damage. The cells were imaged with a high-content imaging system, and percentages of nuclei that were positive for markers for different cellular processes (i.e., DNA damage, proliferation, and apoptosis) were calculated. The study found that only high metformin concentrations, such as 20 mM were able to increase DNA damage and reduce cell proliferation in HR-proficient OVCAR4 cells, both non-irradiated and irradiated. The HR-deficient Kuramochi cell line was generally more sensitive to metformin, particularly with regards to DNA damage, which increased using metformin concentrations < 20 mM. However, 20 mM concentration resulted in the most significant effects. Similarly, only high metformin concentration (25 mM) increased apoptosis, although data were obtained only for a limited number of Kuramochi cells. More experiments on apoptosis would be beneficial. Also, more extensive experiments for the irradiation part are needed to validate these preliminary findings, as well as examining whether high metformin concentrations (> 20 mM) affect specifically the HR-mediated DNA repair pathway.