Browsing by Subject "DNA-DAMAGE RESPONSE"

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  • Gu, Yuexi; Helenius, Mikko; Vaananen, Kristiina; Bulanova, Daria; Saarela, Jani; Sokolenko, Anna; Martens, John; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Sergey (2016)
    Germ-line or somatic inactivation of BRCA1 is a defining feature for a portion of human breast cancers. Here we evaluated the anti-proliferative activity of 198 FDA-approved and experimental drugs against four BRCA1-mutant (HCC1937, MDA-MB-436, SUM1315MO2, and SUM149PT) and four BRCA1-wild-type (MDA-MB-231, SUM229PE, MCF10A, and MCF7) breast cancer cell lines. We found that all BRCA1-mutant cell lines were insensitive to inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) Selumetinib and Pimasertib in contrast to BRCA1-wildtype control cell lines. However, unexpectedly, only two BRCA1-mutant cell lines, HCC1937 and MDA-MB-436, were hypersensitive to a nucleotide analogue 6-thioguanine (6-TG). SUM149PT cells readily formed radiation-induced RAD51-positive nuclear foci indicating a functional homologous recombination, which may explain their resistance to 6-TG. However, the reason underlying 6-TG resistance of SUM1315MO2 cells remains unclear. Our data reveal a remarkable heterogeneity among BRCA1-mutant cell lines and provide a reference for future studies.
  • Cascone, Annunziata; Bruelle, Celine; Lindholm, Dan; Bernardi, Paolo; Eriksson-Rosenberg, Ove (2012)
  • Gramolelli, Silvia; Ojala, Päivi M. (2017)
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial tumor causally linked to Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. At early stages of KS, inflammation and aberrant neoangiogenesis are predominant, while at late stages the disease is characterized by the proliferation of KSHV-infected spindle cells (SC). Since KSHV infection modifies the endothelial cell (EC) identity, the origin of SCs remains elusive. Yet, pieces of evidence indicate the lymphatic origin. KSHV-infected ECs display increased proliferative, angiogenic and migratory capacities which account for KS oncogenesis. Here we propose a model in which KSHV reprograms the EC identity, induces DNA damage and establishes a dysregulated gene expression program involving interplay of latent and lytic genes allowing continuous. reinfection of ECs attracted to the tumor by the secretion of virus-induced cellular factors.
  • Peurala, Hanna; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Kaur, Sippy; Bartkova, Jirina; Jamshidi, Maral; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Heikkilä, Päivi; Bartek, Jiri; Blomqvist, Carl; Butzow, Ralf; Nevanlinna, Heli (2011)
  • Awad, Shady Adnan; Kankainen, Matti; Ojala, Teija; Koskenvesa, Perttu; Eldfors, Samuli; Ghimire, Bishwa; Kumar, Ashwini; Kytölä, Soili; Kamel, Mahmoud M.; Heckman, Caroline A.; Porkka, Kimmo; Mustjoki, Satu (2020)
    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm accounting for similar to 15% of all leukemia. Progress of the disease from an indolent chronic phase to the more aggressive accelerated phase or blast phase (BP) occurs in a minority of cases and is associated with an accumulation of somatic mutations. We performed genetic profiling of 85 samples and transcriptome profiling of 12 samples from 59 CML patients. We identified recurrent somatic mutations in ABL1 (37%), ASXL1 (26%), RUNX1 (16%), and BCOR (16%) in the BP and observed that mutation signatures in the BP resembled those of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that mutation load differed between the indolent and aggressive phases and that nonoptimal responders had more nonsilent mutations than did optimal responders at the time of diagnosis, as well as in follow-up. Using RNA sequencing, we identified other than BCR-ABL1 cancer-associated hybrid genes in 6 of the 7 BP samples. Uncovered expression alterations were in turn associated with mechanisms and pathways that could be targeted in CML management and by which somatic alterations may emerge in CML. Last, we showed the value of genetic data in CML management in a personalized medicine setting.
  • Lippert, Timothy P.; Marzec, Paulina; Idilli, Aurora I.; Sarek, Grzegorz; Vancevska, Aleksandra; Bower, Mark; Farrell, Paul J.; Ojala, Päivi M.; Feldhahn, Niklas; Boulton, Simon J. (2021)
    To achieve replicative immortality, cancer cells must activate telomere maintenance mechanisms to prevent telomere shortening. similar to 85% of cancers circumvent telomeric attrition by re-expressing telomerase, while the remaining similar to 15% of cancers induce alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), which relies on break-induced replication (BIR) and telomere recombination. Although ALT tumours were first reported over 20 years ago, the mechanism of ALT induction remains unclear and no study to date has described a cell-based model that permits the induction of ALT. Here, we demonstrate that infection with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) induces sustained acquisition of ALT-like features in previously non-ALT cell lines. KSHV-infected cells acquire hallmarks of ALT activity that are also observed in KSHV-associated tumour biopsies. Down-regulating BIR impairs KSHV latency, suggesting that KSHV co-opts ALT for viral functionality. This study uncovers KSHV infection as a means to study telomere maintenance by ALT and reveals features of ALT in KSHV-associated tumours. similar to 15% of cancers induce alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to activate telomere maintenance. Here, the authors reveal that infection with Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) induces acquisition of ALT-like features in previously non-ALT cell lines.
  • Bolck, Hella A.; Przetocka, Sara; Meier, Roger; von Aesch, Christine; Zurfluh, Christina; Haenggi, Kay; Spegg, Vincent; Altmeyer, Matthias; Stebler, Michael; Norrelykke, Simon F.; Horvath, Peter; Sartori, Alessandro A.; Porro, Antonio (2022)
    Human CtIP is best known for its role in DNA end resection to initiate DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination. Recently, CtIP has also been shown to protect reversed replication forks from nucleolytic degradation upon DNA replication stress. However, still little is known about the DNA damage response (DDR) networks that preserve genome integrity and sustain cell survival in the context of CtIP insufficiency. Here, to reveal such potential buffering relationships, we screened a DDR siRNA library in CtIP-deficient cells to identify candidate genes that induce synthetic sickness/lethality (SSL). Our analyses unveil a negative genetic interaction between CtIP and BARD1, the heterodimeric binding partner of BRCA1. We found that simultaneous disruption of CtIP and BARD1 triggers enhanced apoptosis due to persistent replication stress-induced DNA lesions giving rise to chromosomal abnormalities. Moreover, we observed that the genetic interaction between CtIP and BARD1 occurs independently of the BRCA1-BARD1 complex formation and might be, therefore, therapeutical relevant for the treatment of BRCA-defective tumors.