Browsing by Subject "DOCETAXEL"

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  • de Boo, Leonora W.; Jozwiak, Katarzyna; Joensuu, Heikki; Lindman, Henrik; Lauttia, Susanna; Opdam, Mark; van Steenis, Charlaine; Brugman, Wim; Kluin, Roelof J. C.; Schouten, Philip C.; Kok, Marleen; Nederlof, Petra M.; Hauptmann, Michael; Linn, Sabine C. (2022)
    Background The addition of adjuvant capecitabine to standard chemotherapy of early-stage triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients has improved survival in a few randomised trials and in meta-analyses. However, many patients did not benefit. We evaluated the BRCA1-like DNA copy number signature, indicative of homologous recombination deficiency, as a predictive biomarker for capecitabine benefit in the TNBC subgroup of the FinXX trial. Methods Early-stage TNBC patients were randomised between adjuvant capecitabine-containing (TX + CEX: capecitabine-docetaxel, followed by cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-capecitabine) and conventional chemotherapy (T + CEF: docetaxel, followed by cyclophosphamide-epirubicin-fluorouracil). Tumour BRCA1-like status was determined on low-coverage, whole genome next-generation sequencing data using an established DNA comparative genomic hybridisation algorithm. Results For 129/202 (63.9%) patients the BRCA1-like status could be determined, mostly due to lack of tissue. During a median follow-up of 10.7 years, 35 recurrences and 32 deaths occurred. Addition of capecitabine appears to improve recurrence-free survival more among 61 (47.3%) patients with non-BRCA1-like tumours (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.08-0.70) compared to 68 (52.7%) patients with BRCA1-like tumours (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.24-1.81) (P-interaction = 0.17). Conclusion Based on our data, patients with non-BRCA1-like TNBC appear to benefit from the addition of capecitabine to adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with BRCA1-like TNBC may also benefit. Additional research is needed to define the subgroup within BRCA1-like TNBC patients who may not benefit from adjuvant capecitabine.
  • Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sihto, Harri; Isola, Jorma; Heikkila, Paivi; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Auvinen, Paivi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Jyrkkio, Sirkku; Lakis, Sotiris; Schlombs, Kornelia; Laible, Mark; Weber, Stefan; Eidt, Sebastian; Sahin, Ugur; Joensuu, Heikki (2016)
    The biological subtype of breast cancer influences the selection of systemic therapy. Distinction between luminal A and B cancers depends on consistent assessment of Ki-67, but substantial intra-observer and inter-observer variability exists when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. We compared RT-qPCR with IHC in the assessment of Ki-67 and other standard factors used in breast cancer subtyping. RNA was extracted from archival breast tumour tissue of 769 women randomly assigned to the FinHer trial. Cancer ESR1, PGR, ERBB2 and MKI67 mRNA content was quantitated with an RT-qPCR assay. Local pathologists assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression using IHC. HER2 amplification was identified with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) centrally. The results were correlated with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). qPCR-based and IHC-based assessments of ER and PgR showed good concordance. Both low tumour MKI67 mRNA (RT-qPCR) and Ki-67 protein (IHC) levels were prognostic for favourable DDFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95 % CI 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001; and HR 0.56, 0.37-0.84, P = 0.005, respectively] and OS. In multivariable analyses, cancer MKI67 mRNA content had independent influence on DDFS (adjusted HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89, P = 0.019) while Ki-67 protein expression had not any influence (P = 0.266) whereas both assessments influenced independently OS. Luminal B patients treated with docetaxel-FEC had more favourable DDFS and OS than those treated with vinorelbine-FEC when the subtype was defined by RT-qPCR (for DDFS, HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.94, P = 0.031), but not when defined using IHC. Breast cancer subtypes approximated with RT-qPCR and IHC show good concordance, but cancer MKI67 mRNA content correlated slightly better with DDFS than Ki-67 expression. The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC.
  • Murtojärvi, Mika; Halkola, Anni S.; Airola, Antti; Laajala, Teemu D.; Mirtti, Tuomas; Aittokallio, Tero; Pahikkala, Tapio (2020)
    Introduction Predictive survival modeling offers systematic tools for clinical decision-making and individualized tailoring of treatment strategies to improve patient outcomes while reducing overall healthcare costs. In 2015, a number of machine learning and statistical models were benchmarked in the DREAM 9.5 Prostate Cancer Challenge, based on open clinical trial data for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, applying these models into clinical practice poses a practical challenge due to the inclusion of a large number of model variables, some of which are not routinely monitored or are expensive to measure. Objectives To develop cost-specified variable selection algorithms for constructing cost-effective prognostic models of overall survival that still preserve sufficient model performance for clinical decision making. Methods Penalized Cox regression models were used for the survival prediction. For the variable selection, we implemented two algorithms: (i) LASSO regularization approach; and (ii) a greedy cost-specified variable selection algorithm. The models were compared in three cohorts of mCRPC patients from randomized clinical trials (RCT), as well as in a real-world cohort (RWC) of advanced prostate cancer patients treated at the Turku University Hospital. Hospital laboratory expenses were utilized as a reference for computing the costs of introducing new variables into the models. Results Compared to measuring the full set of clinical variables, economic costs could be reduced by half without a significant loss of model performance. The greedy algorithm outperformed the LASSO-based variable selection with the lowest tested budgets. The overall top performance was higher with the LASSO algorithm. Conclusion The cost-specified variable selection offers significant budget optimization capability for the real-world survival prediction without compromising the predictive power of the model.
  • Giri, Anil K.; Aittokallio, Tero (2019)
    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi) decitabine and azacytidine are approved therapies for myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia, and their combinations with other anticancer agents are being tested as therapeutic options for multiple solid cancers such as colon, ovarian, and lung cancer. However, the current therapeutic challenges of DNMTis include development of resistance, severe side effects and no or partial treatment responses, as observed in more than half of the patients. Therefore, there is a critical need to better understand the mechanisms of action of these drugs. In order to discover molecular targets of DNMTi therapy, we identified 638 novel CpGs with an increased methylation in response to decitabine treatment in HCT116 cell lines and validated the findings in multiple cancer types (e.g., bladder, ovarian, breast, and lymphoma) cell lines, bone marrow mononuclear cells from primary leukemia patients, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ascites from platinum resistance epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Azacytidine treatment also increased methylation of these CpGs in colon, ovarian, breast, and lymphoma cancer cell lines. Methylation at 166 identified CpGs strongly correlated (vertical bar r vertical bar >= 0.80) with corresponding gene expression in HCT116 cell line. Differences in methylation at some of the identified CpGs and expression changes of the corresponding genes was observed in TCGA colon cancer tissue as compared to adjacent healthy tissue. Our analysis revealed that hypermethylated CpGs are involved in cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis by P53 and olfactory receptor pathways, hence influencing DNMTi responses. In conclusion, we showed hypermethylation of CpGs as a novel mechanism of action for DNMTi agents and identified 638 hypermethylated molecular targets (CpGs) common to decitabine and azacytidine therapy. These novel results suggest that hypermethylation of CpGs should be considered when predicting the DNMTi responses and side effects in cancer patients.
  • Joensuu, Heikki; Fraser, Judith; Wildiers, Hans; Huovinen, Riikka; Auvinen, Päivi; Utriainen, Meri; Nyandoto, Paul; Villman, Kenneth K.; Halonen, Päivi; Granstam-Björneklett, Helena; Lundgren, Lotta; Sailas, Liisa; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Tanner, Minna; Yachnin, Jeffrey; Ritchie, Diana; Johansson, Oskar; Huttunen, Teppo; Neven, Patrick; Canney, Peter; Harvey, Vernon J.; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Lindman, Henrik (2018)
    IMPORTANCE Trastuzumab plus chemotherapy is the standard adjuvant treatment for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. While the standard duration of trastuzumab treatment is 12 months, the benefits and harms of trastuzumab continued beyond the chemotherapy are unclear. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant trastuzumab continued beyond chemotherapy in women treated with up-front chemotherapy containing a taxane and trastuzumab. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Open-label, randomized (1: 1) clinical trial including women with HER2-positive breast cancer. Chemotherapy was identical in the 2 groups, consisting of 3 cycles of 3-weekly docetaxel (either 80 or 100 mg/m(2)) plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide. Thereafter, no trastuzumab was administered in the 9-week group, whereas controls received trastuzumab to complete 1 year of administration. Disease-free survival (DFS) was compared between the groups using a Cox model and the noninferiority approach. The estimated sample size was 2168 patients (1-sided testing, with a relative noninferiority margin of 1.3). From January 3, 2008, to December 16, 2014, 2176 patients were accrued from 7 countries. INTERVENTION Docetaxel plus trastuzumab for 9 weeks, followed by 3 cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide in both groups. Controls continued trastuzumab to 1 year. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary objectivewas DFS; secondary objectives included distant disease-free survival, overall survival, cardiac DFS, and safety. RESULTS In the 2174 women analyzed, median age was 56 (interquartile range [IQR], 48-64) years. The median follow-up was 5.2 (IQR, 3.8-6.7) years. Noninferiority of the 9-week treatment could not be demonstrated for DFS (hazard ratio, 1.39; 2-sided 90% CI, 1.12-1.72). Distant disease-free survival and overall survival did not differ substantially between the groups. Thirty-six (3%) and 21 (2%) patients in the 1-year and the 9-week groups, respectively, had cardiac failure; the left ventricle ejection fraction was better maintained in the 9-week group. An interaction was detected between the docetaxel dose and DFS; patients in the 9-week group treated with 80 mg/m(2) had inferior and those treated with 100 mg/m(2) had similar DFS as patients in the 1-year group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Nine weeks of trastuzumab was not noninferior to 1 year of trastuzumab when given with similar chemotherapy. Cardiac safety was better in the 9-week group. The docetaxel dosing with trastuzumab requires further study.
  • Iivanainen, Sanna; Ahvonen, Jarkko; Knuuttila, Aija; Tiainen, Satu; Koivunen, Jussi Pekka (2019)
    Background Anti-PD-(L)1 agents are standard of care treatments in various cancers but predictive factors for therapy selection are limited. We hypothesised that markers of systemic inflammation would predict adverse outcomes in multiple cancers treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Material and methods Discovery cohort consisted of patients who were treated with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) agents for advanced melanoma (MEL), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or renal and bladder cancers (GU) at Oulu University Hospital and had pretreatment C reactive protein (CRP), or neutrophil/lymphocyte values available. As a validation cohort, we collected patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents from three other hospitals in Finland. Results In the discovery cohort (n=56, MEL n=23, GU n=17, NSCLC n=16), elevated CRP over the upper limit of normal (ULN) (>10mg/mL) indicated poor progression-free (PFS; p=0.005) and overall survival (OS; p=0.000004) in the whole population and in MEL subgroup. Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (>2.65) also indicated inferior PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p=0.009). In the validation cohort (n=107,MEL n=44, NSCLC n=42, GU n=17, other n=4), CRP over ULN also was a strong indicator for poor PFS (p=0.0000008), and OS (p=0.000006) in the whole population, and in MEL and NSCLC also. Conclusions Systemic inflammation suggested by elevated CRP is a very strong indicator for adverse prognosis on patients treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents and has a potential negative predictive value for treatment with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Prospective trials should investigate whether patients with elevated CRP gain any significant benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy.
  • Antonia, Scott J.; Lopez-Martin, Jose A.; Bendell, Johanna; Ott, Patrick A.; Taylor, Matthew; Eder, Joseph Paul; Jaeger, Dirk; Pietanza, M. Catherine; Le, Dung T.; de Braud, Filippo; Morse, Michael A.; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Horn, Leora; Amin, Asim; Pillai, Rathi N.; Evans, Jeffry; Chau, Ian; Bono, Petri; Atmaca, Akin; Sharma, Padmanee; Harbison, Christopher T.; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Christensen, Olaf; Calvo, Emiliano (2016)
    Background Treatments for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy are limited. We assessed safety and activity of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with SCLC who progressed after one or more previous regimens. Methods The SCLC cohort of this phase 1/2 multicentre, multi-arm, open-label trial was conducted at 23 sites (academic centres and hospitals) in six countries. Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older, had limited-stage or extensive-stage SCLC, and had disease progression after at least one previous platinum-containing regimen. Patients received nivolumab (3 mg/kg bodyweight intravenously) every 2 weeks (given until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity), or nivolumab plus ipilimumab (1 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg plus 3 mg/kg, or 3 mg/kg plus 1 mg/kg, intravenously) every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients were either assigned to nivolumab monotherapy or assessed in a dose-escalating safety phase for the nivolumab/ipilimumab combination beginning at nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Depending on tolerability, patients were then assigned to nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg or nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. The primary endpoint was objective response by investigator assessment. All analyses included patients who were enrolled at least 90 days before database lock. This trial is ongoing; here, we report an interim analysis of the SCLC cohort. This study is registered with, number NCT01928394. Findings Between Nov 18, 2013, and July 28, 2015, 216 patients were enrolled and treated (98 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg, three with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 61 with nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and 54 with nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg). At database lock on Nov 6, 2015, median follow-up for patients continuing in the study (including those who had died or discontinued treatment) was 198.5 days (IQR 163.0-464.0) for nivolumab 3 mg/kg, 302 days (IQR not calculable) for nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 361.0 days (273.0-470.0) for nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and 260.5 days (248.0-288.0) for nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. An objective response was achieved in ten (10%) of 98 patients receiving nivolumab 3 mg/kg, one (33%) of three patients receiving nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg, 14 (23%) of 61 receiving nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg, and ten (19%) of 54 receiving nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13 (13%) patients in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg cohort, 18 (30%) in the nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg cohort, and ten (19%) in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg cohort; the most commonly reported grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were increased lipase (none vs 5 [8%] vs none) and diarrhoea (none vs 3 [5%] vs 1 [2%]). No patients in the nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg cohort had a grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse event. Six (6%) patients in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg group, seven (11%) in the nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg group, and four (7%) in the nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg group discontinued treatment due to treatment-related adverse events. Two patients who received nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg died from treatment-related adverse events (myasthenia gravis and worsening of renal failure), and one patient who received nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg died from treatment-related pneumonitis. Interpretation Nivolumab monotherapy and nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed antitumour activity with durable responses and manageable safety profiles in previously treated patients with SCLC. These data suggest a potential new treatment approach for a population of patients with limited treatment options and support the evaluation of nivolumab and nivolumab plus ipilimumab in phase 3 randomised controlled trials in SCLC.
  • Mroueh, R.; Haapaniemi, A.; Saarto, T.; Grönholm, L.; Grénman, R.; Salo, T.; Mäkitie, A. A. (2019)
    PurposeLate-stage OTSCC is associated with poor overall survival (OS). Non-curative treatment approach aims to improve quality of life and prolong survival of patients deemed incurable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the used non-curative treatment modalities for OTSSC and patient survival.MethodsAll patients diagnosed with OTSCC and treated with non-curative intent at the HUS Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) during the 12-year period of 2005-2016 were included. Survival analysis after the non-curative treatment decision was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method in this population-based study.ResultsEighty-two patients were identified. A non-curative treatment decision was made at presentation without any previous treatment in 26 patients (7% of all patients diagnosed with OTSCC during the study period). Palliative radiotherapy was administered to 24% of all patients. The average survival time after the non-curative treatment decision was 3.7months (median 2 and range 0-26).ConclusionsDue to the short mean survival time after decision for treatment with non-curative intent, and the notable symptom burden in this patient population, a prompt initiation of all non-curative measures is warranted.
  • Pasanen, Annukka; Ahvenainen, Terhi; Pellinen, Teijo; Vahteristo, Pia; Loukovaara, Mikko; Bützow, Ralf (2020)
    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a biomarker that may predict the response to anti-programmed death 1/PD-L1 immunotherapy. We evaluated the expression of PD-L1 in carcinoma cells (Ca) and immune cells (ICs) across histopathologic and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) molecular subgroups of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Our study included 842 patients with EC. Direct sequencing of polymerase epsilon (POLE) exonuclease domain hot spots and conventional immunohistochemistry (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6, p53) were conducted to identify TCGA classification-based molecular subgroups of EC: POLE-mutated, mismatch repair deficient, no specific molecular profile, and p53 aberrant. Multiplex immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate PD-L1 expression in Ca and tumor-infiltrating ICs. PD-L1 expression in Ca and in ICs was detected in 8.6% and 27.7% of the cases, respectively. A combined positive score (CPS) was >= 1% in 19.4% of the samples. PD-L1 positivity in Ca and ICs, and CPS correlated with tumor T-cell density (P= 1% (P=0.037) positivity compared with early disease. In conclusion, PD-L1 expression profiles differ between molecular subclasses, histologic subtypes, and disease stage of EC. Prospective studies are needed to explore the predictive value of various PD-L1 scoring systems within the subgroups of EC. CPS presents methodological advantages over cell type-specific scoring systems.
  • KEYNOTE-189 Investigators; Gandhi, L.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2018)
    BACKGROUND First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial. METHODS In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2: 1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebocombination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group. CONCLUSIONS In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone.
  • Guinney, Justin; Wang, Tao; Laajala, Teemu D.; Winner, Kimberly Kanigel; Bare, J. Christopher; Neto, Elias Chaibub; Khan, Suleiman A.; Peddinti, Gopal; Airola, Antti; Pahikkala, Tapio; Mirtti, Tuomas; Yu, Thomas; Bot, Brian M.; Shen, Liji; Abdallah, Kald; Norman, Thea; Friend, Stephen; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Soule, Howard; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Ryan, Charles J.; Scher, Howard I.; Sartor, Oliver; Xie, Yang; Aittokallio, Tero; Zhou, Fang Liz; Costello, James C.; Prostate Canc Challenge DREAM Comm (2017)
    Background Improvements to prognostic models in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have the potential to augment clinical trial design and guide treatment strategies. In partnership with Project Data Sphere, a not-for-profit initiative allowing data from cancer clinical trials to be shared broadly with researchers, we designed an open-data, crowdsourced, DREAM (Dialogue for Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods) challenge to not only identify a better prognostic model for prediction of survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer but also engage a community of international data scientists to study this disease. Methods Data from the comparator arms of four phase 3 clinical trials in first-line metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were obtained from Project Data Sphere, comprising 476 patients treated with docetaxel and prednisone from the ASCENT2 trial, 526 patients treated with docetaxel, prednisone, and placebo in the MAINSAIL trial, 598 patients treated with docetaxel, prednisone or prednisolone, and placebo in the VENICE trial, and 470 patients treated with docetaxel and placebo in the ENTHUSE 33 trial. Datasets consisting of more than 150 clinical variables were curated centrally, including demographics, laboratory values, medical history, lesion sites, and previous treatments. Data from ASCENT2, MAINSAIL, and VENICE were released publicly to be used as training data to predict the outcome of interest-namely, overall survival. Clinical data were also released for ENTHUSE 33, but data for outcome variables (overall survival and event status) were hidden from the challenge participants so that ENTHUSE 33 could be used for independent validation. Methods were evaluated using the integrated time-dependent area under the curve (iAUC). The reference model, based on eight clinical variables and a penalised Cox proportional-hazards model, was used to compare method performance. Further validation was done using data from a fifth trial-ENTHUSE M1-in which 266 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were treated with placebo alone. Findings 50 independent methods were developed to predict overall survival and were evaluated through the DREAM challenge. The top performer was based on an ensemble of penalised Cox regression models (ePCR), which uniquely identified predictive interaction effects with immune biomarkers and markers of hepatic and renal function. Overall, ePCR outperformed all other methods (iAUC 0.791; Bayes factor >5) and surpassed the reference model (iAUC 0.743; Bayes factor >20). Both the ePCR model and reference models stratified patients in the ENTHUSE 33 trial into high-risk and low-risk groups with significantly different overall survival (ePCR: hazard ratio 3.32, 95% CI 2.39-4.62, p Interpretation Novel prognostic factors were delineated, and the assessment of 50 methods developed by independent international teams establishes a benchmark for development of methods in the future. The results of this effort show that data-sharing, when combined with a crowdsourced challenge, is a robust and powerful framework to develop new prognostic models in advanced prostate cancer.
  • Schmidt, Marcus; Edlund, Karolina; Hengstler, Jan G.; Heimes, Anne-Sophie; Almstedt, Katrin; Lebrecht, Antje; Krajnak, Slavomir; Battista, Marco J.; Brenner, Walburgis; Hasenburg, Annette; Rahnenfuehrer, Joerg; Gehrmann, Mathias; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Joensuu, Heikki (2021)
    Simple Summary We examined the relevance of immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC), an important part of the humoral immune system, in early breast cancer. To our knowledge, our results confirm for the first time previous retrospective findings of a cancer recurrence protective role of IGKC in a large cohort of early breast cancer patients who were treated in the prospective, randomized FinHer clinical trial. We show that an increased amount of IGKC in the tumor is linked to longer distant metastasis-free survival, especially in patients whose breast cancer does not express hormone receptors or human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This type of breast cancer often has poor prognosis. Since an improved outcome is associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating IGKC expressing immune cells, this may be a further argument for the use of immunotherapies in these patients. We studied the prognostic impact of tumor immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) mRNA expression as a marker of the humoral immune system in the FinHer trial patient population, where 1010 patients with early breast cancer were randomly allocated to either docetaxel-containing or vinorelbine-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. HER2-positive patients were additionally allocated to either trastuzumab or no trastuzumab. Hormone receptor-positive patients received tamoxifen. IGKC was evaluated in 909 tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the influence on distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was examined using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates. Interactions were analyzed using Cox regression. IGKC expression, included as continuous variable, was independently associated with DDFS in a multivariable analysis also including age, molecular subtype, grade, and pT and pN stage (HR 0.930, 95% CI 0.870-0.995, p = 0.034). An independent association with DDFS was also found in a subset analysis of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (HR 0.843, 95% CI 0.724-0.983, p = 0.029), but not in luminal (HR 0.957, 95% CI 0.867-1.056, p = 0.383) or HER2-positive (HR 0.933, 95% CI 0.826-1.055, p = 0.271) cancers. No significant interaction between IGKC and chemotherapy or trastuzumab administration was detected (P-interaction = 0.855 and 0.684, respectively). These results show that humoral immunity beneficially influences the DDFS of patients with early TNBC.