Browsing by Subject "DOGS"

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  • Frischknecht, Mirjam; Niehof-Oellers, Helena; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Droegemueller, Cord; Dietschi, Elisabeth; Dolf, Gaudenz; Tellhelm, Bernd; Lang, Johann; Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes; Leeb, Tosso (2013)
  • Aromaa, M.; Rajamäki, M. M.; Lilja-Maula, L. (2021)
    To promote successful breeding against brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS), it is important to assess how BOAS signs progress during young adulthood and how evaluation age and ageing affect the results of chosen breeding selection tools. The aims of this study were to assess how veterinary-assessed and owner-reported BOAS signs and exercise test results change when dogs age. Eight English Bulldogs, 25 French Bulldogs, and 31 Pugs that had undergone previous evaluation were re-examined 2- 3 years later. An owner questionnaire regarding BOAS signs, a veterinary assessment of BOAS severity, and exercise, ie walk tests were re-performed. In Pugs, both 6-min walking distance and 1,000-m time worsened and the initial evaluation age had a significant effect on the 1,000-m time. No significant changes were seen in the results of the French Bulldogs but a negative effect on the 1,000-m time was seen with weight gain. Exercise test statistics were not performed with regard to English Bulldogs due to low sample size. The veterinary-assessed BOAS severity class remained the same in the majority of dogs and the BOAS grade worsened mostly in those dogs that were initially evaluated at less than two years of age. Most owners reported no major changes in BOAS severity. BOAS grading and walk tests were easy to repeat and results remained relatively constant in dogs initially evaluated at over two years of age, supporting the use of these breeding selection tools. However, further, large-scale offspring studies are still needed.
  • Piirila, Päivi L.; Nordman, Henrik; Korhonen, Olli; Winblad, Ilkka (1996)
    Objectives In 1977, nine men were accidentally exposed to sulfur dioxide in an explosion in a pyrite mine. The lung function of seven men was followed after the accident. A four-year follow-up has been published previously. The greatest decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1.0)), and maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) was observed one week after the accident, after which all these parameters improved without reaching the preaccident level. Reversible bronchial obstruction was still present in three patients, and a positive reaction In the histamine challenge test was found for four. In the present paper, the lung function follow-up 13 years after the accident is reported for six men. Methods The patients' clinical condition, chest X-ray, spirometry, and histamine challenge test were studied 13 years after the incident. Results Spirometry was normal in one worker, two displayed obstruction, and three had a combined obstructive and restrictive, mainly obstructive, ventilatory impairment. In the histamine challenge test, four patients showed bronchial hyperreactivity, one with a nearly significant reaction. Because of bronchial obstruction one patient could not perform the challenge test. Conclusions This 13-year follow-up showed that acute inflammatory obstruction caused by exposure to sulfur dioxide left, as sequelae, obstructive impairment of ventilatory function and permanent bronchial hyperreactivity. The clinical picture displayed by these patients was named the ''reactive airways dysfunction syndrome'' (RADS) in 1985. Four of the patients also showed symptoms of chronic bronchitis.
  • Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; Seppala, Eija H.; Weissl, Jutta; Jokinen, Tarja S.; Viitmaa, Ranno; Hanninen, Reetta L.; Quignon, Pascale; Fischer, Andrea; Andre, Catherine; Lohi, Hannes (2017)
    Background: Idiopathic or genetic adult-onset epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in domestic dogs. Genetic association has been reported only with ADAM23 on CFA 37 in few breeds. To identify novel epilepsy genes, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) analyses in four new breeds, and investigated the association of the previously reported ADAM23 haplotype with the epilepsy phenotype in eight breeds. Results: GWA analysis did not reveal new epilepsy loci. ADAM23 association (p <0.05) was identified in five breeds. Combined analysis of all eight breeds showed significant association (p = 4.6e(-6), OR 1.9). Conclusions: Our results further support the role of ADAM23 in multiple breeds as a common risk gene for epilepsy with low penetrance. The lack of findings in the GWA analyses points towards inefficient capture of genetic variation by the current SNP arrays, causal variant(s) with low penetrance and possible phenocopies. Future work will include studies on ADAM23 function and expression in canine neurons, as well as whole-genome sequencing in order to identify additional IE genes.
  • Saellstrom, Sara; Sadeghi, Arian; Eriksson, Emma; Segall, Thomas; Dimopoulou, Maria; Korsgren, Olle; Loskog, Angelica SI.; Totterman, Thomas H.; Hemminki, Akseli; Ronnberg, Henrik (2021)
    Malignant melanoma is a serious disease in both humans and dogs, and the high metastatic potential results in poor prognosis for many patients. Its similarities with human melanoma make spontaneous canine melanoma an excellent model for comparative studies of novel therapies and tumor biology. Gene therapy using adenoviruses encoding the immunostimulatory gene CD40L (AdCD40L) has shown promise in initial clinical trials enrolling human patients with various malignancies including melanoma. We report a study of local AdCD40L treatment in 32 cases of canine melanoma (23 oral, 5 cutaneous, 3 ungual and 1 conjunctival). Eight patients were World Health Organization (WHO) stage I, 9 were stage II, 12 stage III, and 3 stage IV. One to six intratumoral injections of AdCD40L were given every seven days, combined with cytoreductive surgery in 20 cases and only immunotherapy in 12 cases. Tumor tissue was infiltrated with T and B lymphocytes after treatment, suggesting immune stimulation. The best overall response based on result of immunotherapy included 7 complete responses, 5 partial responses, 5 stable and 2 progressive disease statuses according to the World Health Organization response criteria. Median survival was 285 days (range 20-3435 d). Our results suggest that local AdCD40L therapy is safe and could have beneficial effects in dogs, supporting further treatment development. Clinical translation to human patients is ongoing.
  • Blomqvist, Kim Juhani; Dudek, Katarzyna; Viisanen, Hanna; Mätlik, Kert; Ahlström, Fredrik Harry Gustav; Laitila, Jouko; Kalso, Eija Anneli; Rauhala, Pekka Veli; Lilius, Tuomas Olavi (2022)
    Opioids are effective analgesics in the management of severe pain. However, tolerance, leading to dose escalation and adverse effects are significant limiting factors in their use. The role of peripheral opioid receptors in analgesia has been discussed especially under inflammatory conditions. The results from pharmacological and conditional knockout studies together do not provide a clear picture of the contribution of peripheral opioid receptors on antinociceptive tolerance and this needs to be evaluated. Therefore, we studied whether the peripherally restricted opioid receptor antagonist, methylnaltrexone (MNTX), could prevent morphine tolerance without attenuating the antinociceptive effect of morphine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 7 days with increasing subcutaneous doses of morphine (5-30 mg/kg) and were coadministered saline, MNTX (0.5 or 2 mg/kg), or naltrexone (NTX; 2 mg/kg). Nociception was assessed with tail-flick, hotplate, and von Frey tests. Morphine, MNTX, and NTX concentrations in the plasma, brain, and spinal cord were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In acute coadministration, NTX, but not MNTX, abolished the acute antinociceptive effects of morphine in all nociceptive tests. The antinociceptive tolerance after repeated morphine administration was also prevented by NTX but not by MNTX. MNTX penetrated to the spinal cord and the brain to some extent after repeated administration. The results do not support the use of MNTX for preventing opioid tolerance and also suggest that morphine tolerance is mediated by central rather than peripheral opioid receptors in the rat.
  • Grönthal, Thomas; Eklund, Marjut; Thomson, Katariina; Piiparinen, Heli; Sironen, Tarja; Rantala, Merja (2017)
    Objectives: To investigate antimicrobial susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and the occurrence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP), to explore the molecular structure of the MRSP population and to analyse risk factors for MRSP. Methods: Susceptibility data for clinical S. pseudintermedius isolates in 2011-15 were analysed using WHONET. All MRSP isolates in 2010-14 (n = 362) were typed using PFGE. Representative isolates (n = 87) of clusters were analysed using MLST and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing. Risk factors were analysed using logistic regression. Results: Of the clinical S. pseudintermedius (n-1958; 98% from dogs), 14% were MRSP. Resistance to other antimicrobials varied between 12% and 39%. No trends were observed over time. Among clinical specimens (from infection sites) and screening specimens (from potential carriers), respectively, 2.5% (267/10813) and 9% (211/2434) revealed MRSP. MLST revealed 42 different STs, including 19 new ones. Clonal complexes 71, 45 and 258 were the most common, but the MRSP population diversified over the years. A clinical S. pseudintermedius isolate was more likely to be MRSP if the patient was on antimicrobials at the time of sampling or was male. The presence of MRSP in screening specimens was more likely if the patient was on multiple antimicrobials at the time of sampling. Specimens from private clinics (versus the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki) had a higher likelihood of MRSP in both analyses. Conclusions: Resistance to antimicrobials among S. pseudintermedius in Finland is high, emphasizing the importance of infection control measures and susceptibility testing prior to therapy. The diverse MRSP population indicates non-clonal spread.
  • Aromaa, M.; Lilja-Maula, L.; Rajamäki, M. M. (2019)
    Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) is a major welfare problem in short-nosed breeds, such as the French Bulldog and Pug. In addition to respiratory difficulties, exercise intolerance and impaired recovery are major signs of BOAS. To select healthier breeding animals, exercise tolerance tests, such as the 1,000-m walk test, are already used in several countries for brachycephalic dogs, although evidence supporting their use is still scarce. The aims of this study were to assess the daily welfare of young, breeding-age French Bulldogs (n = 44) and Pugs (n = 51) using an owner questionnaire, and to evaluate 6-min walk test (6MWT) and 1,000-m walk test usability for differentiation between non-or mildly BOAS-affected dogs and more severely affected dogs. Only four out of 95 French Bulldog and Pug owners reported that the BOAS signs limited the daily activities of their dogs. However, according to the physical, examination-based veterinary BOAS grading, 31/95 of the dogs had moderate to severe BOAS signs. In both breeds, the more severely affected dogs performed both exercise tests more poorly than those with no or mild BOAS signs. The longer exercise, namely the 1,000-m test, seemed slightly better able at differentiating between affected dogs and less affected ones. The results of this study further support the use of exercise tests as an important part of the breeding selection in French Bulldogs and Pugs. By influencing the breed standards set by Kennel Clubs and by using breeding selection tools, the harmful impacts of brachycephaly can be diminished.
  • Kaimio, Mirja L. M.; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Rahmani, Vahideh; Männikkö, Sofia; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M. (2020)
    Otitis externa and otitis media are common in American Cocker Spaniels, however breed-specific aural CT descriptions are currently lacking. This prospective and retrospective, observational, analytical study aimed to describe quantitative CT characteristics of the horizontal ear canal and the tympanic bulla in American Cocker Spaniels versus similar-sized mesaticephalic dogs. We prospectively performed clinical examinations and aural CT scanning for 38 American Cocker Spaniels. Computed tomographic transverse area of the osseous horizontal ear canal (TA1), transverse area of the widest air-filled part of the cartilaginous horizontal ear canal (TA2), tympanic bulla volume, and tympanic bulla wall thickness were measured. The TA1 and TA2 measurements were compared with those of 23 retrospectively recruited, similar-sized mesaticephalic dogs that had undergone CT-scanning of the head for non-ear-related reasons. The TA1 and TA2 did not differ for healthy American Cocker Spaniels and mesaticephalic dogs. Severely affected American Cocker Spaniels had significantly smaller TA2 (P <.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver and interobserver repeatability was 0.972 and 0.983 for TA1 and 0.994 and 0.998 for TA2, respectively. Variation between individuals was subjectively noted in healthy and affected American Cocker Spaniels, but mean tympanic bulla volume was slightly smaller in relation to body weight, and the tympanic bulla wall was thicker than in previous reports for mesaticephalic dogs. The tympanic bulla wall appeared thicker rostro-ventrally than caudo-ventrally in 44% of the dogs. Our results imply that a relatively thick tympanic bulla wall may be a normal CT variation and should be interpreted cautiously in this breed.
  • Salonen, Milla; Vapalahti, Katariina; Tiira, Katriina; Mäki-Tanila, Asko; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Cat domestication and selective breeding have resulted in tens of breeds with major morphological differences. These breeds may also show distinctive behaviour differences; which, however, have been poorly studied. To improve the understanding of feline behaviour, we examined whether behavioural differences exist among cat breeds and whether behaviour is heritable. For these aims, we utilized our extensive health and behaviour questionnaire directed to cat owners and collected a survey data of 5726 cats. Firstly, for studying breed differences, we utilized logistic regression models with multiple environmental factors and discovered behaviour differences in 19 breeds and breed groups in ten different behaviour traits. Secondly, the studied cat breeds grouped into four clusters, with the Turkish Van and Angora cats alone forming one of them. These findings indicate that cat breeds have diverged not only morphologically but also behaviourally. Thirdly, we estimated heritability in three breeds and obtained moderate heritability estimates in seven studied traits, varying from 0.4 to 0.53, as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations for several trait pairs. Our results show that it is possible to partition the observed variation in behaviour traits into genetic and environmental components, and that substantial genetic variation exists within breed populations.
  • Candido, Marcus Vinicius; Syrjä, Pernilla; Kilpinen, Susanne; Spillmann, Thomas (2018)
    Background: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a rather rare pathological finding in dogs, with the exception of some breeds which seem predisposed. The etiopathogenesis is largely unknown in dogs, whereas in humans GC often develops from gastric mucosal metaplasia and dysplasia. This study investigates whether dogs of certain breeds are more often subject to gastroduodenoscopy (GDS), and diagnosed with GC, mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A retrospective clinical database search was performed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The following inclusion criteria were applied to estimate relative risk for metaplasia/dysplasia and GC: dogs from pure breeds with at least five individuals subject to GDS with histopathology of gastric biopsies. Results: Between 2006 and 2016, from a total of 54945 canine patients presented, 423 dogs underwent GDS. Inclusion criteria were met in 180 dogs of 20 different pure breeds. Eight dogs had GCs (mean age = 9.8 +/- 1.7 years): Belgian Tervuren (n = 4), Collie (n = 2), Golden Retriever (n = 1) and Jack Russel Terrier (n = 1). Fourteen dogs of eight breeds had gastric mucosal metaplasia or dysplasia. A log-binomial statistical model revealed that dogs in the following breeds had a significantly higher probability to undergo GDS than the others in the study population: Australian Terrier, Belgian Tervuren, Cairn Terrier, Collie and Siberian Husky. Belgian Tervuren was found at higher risk to be diagnosed with GC [RR = 19 (5.7-63.9; P <0.0001)], as well as mucosal metaplasia/dysplasia [RR (7.6; 2.95-19.58; P <0.0001)], as compared to the other breeds included. Shetland Sheepdog had an increased RR (5.83; 1.75-19.45; P = 0.0041) for metaplasia. Conclusions: The results indicate a very low incidence of GC in dogs. The Belgian Tervuren, however, appears as predisposed. The histopathologic descriptions of mucosal changes such as metaplasia and dysplasia were also rare, but were more frequent in the Belgian Tervuren. Previous reports of these changes in dogs are very scarce, but they might be presumably related to GC in dogs, as they are in humans. Future research should investigate the possible role of metaplasia and dysplasia in the development of GC in dogs, especially those of predisposed breeds.
  • Pakkanen, Soile Anja Eliisa; de Vries, Annemarie; Raekallio, Marja Riitta; Mykkänen, Anna Kristina; Palviainen, Mari Johanna; Sankari, Satu Marja; Vainio, Outi Maritta (2018)
    Background: Romifidine, an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a widely-used sedative in equine medicine. Besides the desired sedative and analgesic actions, alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists have side effects like alterations of plasma concentrations of glucose and certain stress-related hormones and metabolites in various species. Vatinoxan (previously known as MK-467), in turn, is an antagonist of alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Because vatinoxan does not cross the blood brain barrier in significant amounts, it has only minor effect on sedation induced by alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. Previously, vatinoxan is shown to prevent the hyperglycaemia, increase of plasma lactate concentration and the decrease of insulin and non-esterified free fatty acids (FFAs) caused by alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in different species. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of intravenous romifidine and vatinoxan, alone and combined, on plasma concentrations of glucose and some stress-related hormones and metabolites in horses. Results: Plasma glucose concentration differed between all intravenous treatments: romifidine (80 mu g/kg; ROM), vatinoxan (200 mu g/kg; V) and the combination of these (ROM+V). Glucose concentration was the highest after ROM and the lowest after V. Serum FFA concentration was higher after V than after ROM or ROM+V. The baseline serum concentration of insulin varied widely between the individual horses. No differences were detected in serum insulin, cortisol or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations between the treatments. Plasma lactate, serum triglyceride or blood sodium and chloride concentrations did not differ from baseline or between the treatments. Compared with baseline, plasma glucose concentration increased after ROM and ROM+V, serum cortisol, FFA and base excess increased after all treatments and plasma ACTH concentration increased after V. Serum insulin concentration decreased after V and blood potassium decreased after all treatments. Conclusions: Romifidine induced hyperglycaemia, which vatinoxan partially prevented despite of the variations in baseline levels of serum insulin. The effects of romifidine and vatinoxan on the insulin concentration in horses need further investigation.
  • Kaimio, Mirja; Malkamäki, Sanna; Kaukonen, Maria; Ahonen, Saija; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Rantala, Merja; Lohi, Hannes; Saijonmaa-Koulumies, Leena; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2021)
    American Cocker Spaniels (ACSs) develop aural ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia more often than dogs of other breeds. Data on the cause and development of these breed characteristic histopathological changes are lacking. We performed video-otoscopic examinations and dermatological work-up on 28 ACSs, obtained aural biopsies from each dog and assessed the statistical associations between the presence of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia and disease history, clinical or microbiological findings and underlying cause of otitis externa (OE). Histological lesions of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia were observed in aural biopsies from 6/13 clinically healthy ears and 13/15 ears with OE from 19/28 examined dogs. Nine of 28 dogs had histologically normal ceruminous glands (odds ratio [OR] 6.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-36.6). Bacterial growth in microbiological culture of aural exudate (OR 14.1, 95% CI 2.1-95.3) was associated with ceruminous glandular changes, whereas previous history of OE, cutaneous findings or underlying allergies were not. Pedigree analysis and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) were performed on 18 affected and eight unaffected dogs based on histopathological diagnosis. While the GWAS indicated a tentative, but not statistically significant, association of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia with chromosome 31, a larger cohort is needed to confirm this preliminary result. Based on our results, ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia may also precede clinical signs of OE in ACSs and a genetic aetiological component is likely Further studies with larger cohorts are warranted to verify our preliminary results. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • 99 Lives Cat Genome Consortium; Jaffey, Jared A.; Reading, N. Scott; Giger, Urs; Abdulmalik, Osheiza; Buckley, Ruben M.; Johnstone, Sophie; Lyons, Leslie A.; Lohi, Hannes (2019)
    Two non-pedigreed male castrated cats had persistent cyanosis over a 3-year observation period. Clinical cardiopulmonary evaluations did not reveal abnormalities, but the blood remained dark after exposure to air. Erythrocytic methemoglobin concentrations were high (40% of hemoglobin) and cytochrome b(5) reductase (CYB5R) activities in erythrocytes were low (A missense variant (B4:137967506) and a c.232-1G>C splice acceptor variant (B4:137970815) in CYB5R3, respectively, which were absent in 193 unaffected additional cats. The p.Gly209Ser missense variant likely disrupts a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-binding domain, while the splicing error occurs at the acceptor site for exon 4, which likely affects downstream translation of the protein. The 2 novel CYB5R3 variants were associated with methemoglobinemia using clinical, biochemical, genomics, and in silico protein studies. The variant prevalence is unknown in the cat population.
  • Mustikka, Minna P.; Pietilä, Elina M.; Mykkanen, Anna K.; Gronthal, Thomas S. C. (2020)
    Objective: To obtain a reference range for evaluation of intraocular pressure (IOP) in horses using Tonovet Plus (R), to compare the IOP readings obtained with Tonovet (R) and Tonovet Plus (R), and to evaluate the repeatability of readings. Animals studied and Procedures: Intraocular pressure of 30 client-owned horses (60 eyes) with no signs of illness or ocular disease was evaluated using Tonovet (R) and Tonovet Plus (R) rebound tonometers. Horses' mean age was 10.7 (range 6-17) years. Triplicate measurements were performed without using sedatives or local anesthetics, with minimal restraint. Results: Calculated reference intervals (the CLSI robust method) were 14.4-27.2 mmHg for Tonovet (R) and 16.0-26.1 mmHg for Tonovet Plus (R). Mean values (+/- standard deviation, SD [+/- coefficient of variation, CV]) obtained with Tonovet Plus (R)(21.6 +/- 2.45 mmHg [11.3%]) were on average 0.6 mmHg higher than with Tonovet (R)(21.0 +/- 3.14 mmHg [15.0%]), and a negligible statistical difference between the devices was found using the paired sample t test (P = .049). The correlation coefficient for the averaged triplicate measurements was 0.73. The average CV was 4.6% and 4.4% for Tonovet (R) and Tonovet Plus (R), respectively. Conclusions: The repeatability of measurements was very good with both devices. The readings between the two devices differed statistically significantly, but the correlation was considered good and the variation was numerically small, and thus, the difference was considered clinically irrelevant. When monitoring disease process or treatment response in an individual patient, repeated readings are best performed using a similar device to avoid false interpretation of results.
  • Sivén, M.; Savolainen, S.; Räntilä, Sanna; Männikkö, Sofia; Vainionpää, M.; Airaksinen, S.; Raekallio, M.; Vainio, O.; Juppo, A. M. (2017)
    The purpose here was to determine the problems cat owners encounter in medicating their cats with orally administered drugs at home. The study was carried out as an open e-questionnaire survey addressed to cat owners in which the authors focused on the oral administration route. A total of 46 completed questionnaires were included in the survey. In the study, 46 cats received 67 orally administered drugs. Approximately half of the drugs were registered for use in cats by the European Medicines Agency (54 per cent), and there were also off-label drugs registered for human (36 per cent) and canine medication (7.4 per cent) and an ex tempore drug (3.0 per cent). The owners were unable to give the doses as prescribed for their cats for one-fourth of the medications (16/67). Drugs that were registered for feline medication were significantly more palatable than drugs registered for other species (odds ratio (OR) 4.9), and liquid formulations were significantly more palatable than solid formulations (OR 4.8). However, most of the owners (22/38) preferred a solid dosage form, while few (4/38) chose a liquid formulation. The results indicate that there is still a need for more palatable and easily administered oral drugs for cats.
  • Adam, Magdy; Linden, Jere; Raekallio, Marja; Meller, Anna; Mannerström, Bettina; Abu-Shahba, Ahmed; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Salla, Kati (2022)
    It was hypothesized that premedication with vatinoxan, a peripheral alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, would mitigate xylazine-induced pulmonary alterations in sheep. Fourteen adult sheep were allotted into two equal groups and premedicated with either vatinoxan (750 mu g/kg IV) or saline and sedated 10 min later with xylazine (500 mu g/kg IV). Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) was measured and respiratory rate (RR) counted at intervals. The sheep were euthanized with IV pentobarbital 10 min after xylazine administration. The severity of pulmonary parenchymal alterations was assessed and graded grossly and histologically and correlations of the morphological changes with SpO(2) evaluated. Following xylazine injection, SpO(2) was significantly higher and RR significantly lower with vatinoxan than with saline and the sheep administered vatinoxan exhibited significantly smaller quantities of tracheal foam than those receiving saline. No significant differences in macroscopic oedema scores were detected between treatments. In contrast, the vatinoxan-treated animals exhibited significantly graver microscopic interstitial alveolar oedema and haemorrhage than saline-treated animals. The histological severity scores did not correlate with changes in SpO(2). In conclusion, xylazine induced a marked reduction in SpO(2) which was abolished by the prior administration of vatinoxan. The histologically detected alterations after pentobarbital euthanasia with vatinoxan premedication need to be studied further.
  • Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Mäki, Katariina; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2015)
    Background: Intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is a hereditary condition particularly common in Dachshunds. The breed is predisposed to early intervertebral disc degeneration and intervertebral disc calcification (IDC). When calcified, these severely degenerated discs are visible in spinal radiographs. Since the number of calcified discs (NCD) is associated with IDD, spinal radiography can be utilized in screening programmes in attempts to diminish the incidence of IDD in Dachshunds. Our aims were to estimate the heritability and genetic trend of NCD in Dachshunds in Finland and to explore the effect of age at the time of radiographic screening. Since the NCD has a highly skewed distribution, a log-transformed NCD (lnNCD) was also used as an analysed trait. The variance components for both traits were estimated, using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The fixed effects of breed variant, sex, as well as year of screening and the random effects of litter and animal were included in the model. The genetic trends in the NCD and lnNCD were assessed from the estimated breeding values (EBVs) of individual dogs by comparing the mean EBV of dogs born in different years. The breeding values were estimated, using the best linear unbiased prediction animal model. The pedigree in the genetic analyses included a total of 9027 dogs, of which 1567 showed results for NCDs. Results: The heritability estimates of the NCD and lnNCD in Dachshunds were high (0.53 and 0.45, respectively). Small genetic improvements were seen as the mean EBVs increased from 100 to 104 and 105 over a 15-year period. The gain in the entire Dachshund population in Finland may differ from that observed, since less than 10 % of the Dachshunds registered have a screening result for NCD. Age at the time of the screening did not significantly affect the NCD or lnNCD. Conclusions: We recommend systematic radiographic screening for IDC in Dachshunds and adopting EBVs as a tool for selecting breeding dogs. Age at the time of the radiographic screening may not be as important as previously suggested.
  • Virtanen, Juhani; Somppi, Sanni; Tornqvist, Heini; Jeyhani, Vala; Fiedler, Patrique; Gizatdinova, Yulia; Majaranta, Päivi; Väätäjä, Heli; Cardo, Anna Valldeoriola; Lekkala, Jukka; Tuukkanen, Sampo; Surakka, Veikko; Vainio, Outi; Vehkaoja, Antti (2018)
    The functionality of three dry electrocardiogram electrode constructions was evaluated by measuring canine heart rate during four different behaviors: Standing, sitting, lying and walking. The testing was repeated (n = 9) in each of the 36 scenarios with three dogs. Two of the electrodes were constructed with spring-loaded test pins while the third electrode was a molded polymer electrode with Ag/AgCl coating. During the measurement, a specifically designed harness was used to attach the electrodes to the dogs. The performance of the electrodes was evaluated and compared in terms of heartbeat detection coverage. The effect on the respective heart rate coverage was studied by computing the heart rate coverage from the measured electrocardiogram signal using a pattern-matching algorithm to extract the R-peaks and further the beat-to-beat heart rate. The results show that the overall coverage ratios regarding the electrodes varied between 45-95% in four different activity modes. The lowest coverage was for lying and walking and the highest was for standing and sitting.
  • Mikkola, Lea; Holopainen, Saila; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Lappalainen, Anu K.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Iivanainen, Antti (2019)
    Background Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis continue to be prevalent problems in veterinary and human medicine. Canine hip dysplasia is particularly problematic as it massively affects several large-sized breeds and can cause a severe impairment of the quality of life. In Finland, the complex condition is categorized to five classes from normal to severe dysplasia, but the categorization includes several sub-traits: congruity of the joint, Norberg angle, subluxation degree of the joint, shape and depth of the acetabulum, and osteoarthritis. Hip dysplasia and osteoarthritis have been proposed to have separate genetic etiologies. Results Using Federation Cynologique Internationale -standardized ventrodorsal radiographs, German shepherds were rigorously phenotyped for osteoarthritis, and for joint incongruity by Norberg angle and femoral head center position in relation to dorsal acetabular edge. The affected dogs were categorized into mild, moderate and severe dysplastic phenotypes using official hip scores. Three different genome-wide significant loci were uncovered. The strongest candidate genes for hip joint incongruity were noggin (NOG), a bone and joint developmental gene on chromosome 9, and nanos C2HC-type zinc finger 1 (NANOS1), a regulator of matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) on chromosome 28. Osteoarthritis mapped to a long intergenic region on chromosome 1, between genes encoding for NADPH oxidase 3 (NOX3), an intriguing candidate for articular cartilage degradation, and AT-rich interactive domain 1B (ARID1B) that has been previously linked to joint laxity. Conclusions Our findings highlight the complexity of canine hip dysplasia phenotypes. In particular, the results of this study point to the potential involvement of specific and partially distinct loci and genes or pathways in the development of incongruity, mild dysplasia, moderate-to-severe dysplasia and osteoarthritis of canine hip joints. Further studies should unravel the unique and common mechanisms for the various sub-traits.