Browsing by Subject "DOMESTIC PIGS"

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  • Vaisanen, Elina; Mohanraj, Ushanandini; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Jokelainen, Pikka; Al-Hello, Haider; Barakat, Ali M.; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Jalilian, Farid A.; Majlesi, Amir; Masika, Moses; Mwaengo, Dufton; Anzala, Omu; Delwart, Eric; Vapalahti, Olli; Hedman, Klaus; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria (2018)
    Development of next-generation sequencing and metagenomics has revolutionized detection of novel viruses. Among these viruses are 3 human protoparvoviruses: bufavirus, tusavirus, and cutavirus. These viruses have been detected in feces of children with diarrhea. In addition, cutavirus has been detected in skin biopsy specimens of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients in France and in 1 melanoma patient in Denmark. We studied seroprevalences of IgG against bufavirus, tusavirus, and cutavirus in various populations (n = 840), and found a striking geographic difference in prevalence of bufavirus IgG. Although prevalence was low in adult populations in Finland (1.9%) and the United States (3.6%), bufavirus IgG was highly prevalent in populations in Iraq (84.8%), Iran (56.1%), and Kenya (72.3%). Conversely, cutavirus IgG showed evenly low prevalences (0%-5.6%) in all cohorts, and tusavirus IgG was not detected. These results provide new insights on the global distribution and endemic areas of protoparvoviruses.
  • Vaisanen, Elina; Fu, Yu; Hedman, Klaus; Soderlund-Venermo, Maria (2017)
    Next-generation sequencing and metagenomics have revolutionized the discovery of novel viruses. In recent years, three novel protoparvoviruses have been discovered in fecal samples of humans: bufavirus (BuV) in 2012, tusavirus (TuV) in 2014, and cutavirus (CuV) in 2016. BuV has since been studied the most, disclosing three genotypes that also represent serotypes. Besides one nasal sample, BuV DNA has been found exclusively in diarrheal feces, but not in non-diarrheal feces, suggesting a causal relationship. According to both geno- and seroprevalences, BuV appears to be the most common of the three novel protoparvoviruses, whereas TuV DNA has been found in only a single fecal sample, with antibody detection being equally rare. Moreover, the TuV sequence is closer to those of non-human protoparvoviruses, and so the evidence of TuV being a human virus is thus far insufficient. Interestingly, besides in feces, CuV has also been detected in skin biopsies of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and a patient with melanoma, while all other skin samples have tested PCR negative. Even if preliminary disease associations exist, the full etiological roles of these viruses in human disease are yet to be resolved.
  • Felin, E.; Jukola, E.; Raulo, S.; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M. (2015)
    The seroprevalence of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. was studied in 1353 finishing pigs from 259 farms that were allocated according to farm types: large fattening farms (1000 pig places), small fattening farms (<1000 pig places) and farrow-to-finish farms. The antibodies were analysed with commercial ELISA kits in meat juice samples that were collected at Finnish slaughterhouses. Salmonella antibodies were rare (3% of pigs, 14% of farms) when the cut-off optical density (OD) value 0.2 was used. Antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia spp. and T.gondii were detected in 57% of pigs and 85% of farms (OD 0.3) and in 3% of pigs and 9% of farms (OD 0.15), respectively. No antibodies to Trichinella spp. were detected (OD 0.3). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, T.gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of pigs. The seroprevalence of these important zoonotic pathogens was low in Finland, except that of Yersinia. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was significantly higher in pigs originating from small-scale fattening farms (P<0.05). Strong positive correlation was observed at the animal level between Salmonella and Yersinia seropositivity and between Salmonella and Toxoplasma seropositivity (P<0.05). We suggest that these results reflect the level and importance of biosecurity measures applied on the farms. Meat juice serology at slaughter is a useful tool for targeting measures to control these pathogens. The information obtained from analyses should be used as part of the food chain information (FCI).
  • Santoro, Azzurra; Tagel, Maarja; Must, Kart; Laine, Miia; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka (2017)
    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread occurring parasite infecting warm-blooded animals, including pigs and humans. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies and to evaluate risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity in breeding pigs raised in Estonia. Sera from 382 pigs were tested with a commercial direct agglutination test, using a cut-off titer of 40 for seropositivity, for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies. Results: Twenty-two (5.8%) of the 382 pigs tested seropositive for T. gondii, and 6 of the 14 herds had at least one seropositive pig. The proportion of seropositive pigs within the herds ranged between 0 and 43%. Gender appeared as a significant factor, with sows having 5.6 times higher odds to be seropositive to T. gondii than boars. Seroprevalence did not increase with age. Conclusions: Anti-T. gondii antibodies were present in a substantial proportion of breeding pig herds in Estonia. On the other hand, the presence of herds without seropositive pigs illustrates that porcine T. gondii infections can be avoided even in a country where the parasite is endemic and common in several other host species.
  • Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria (2019)
    Wild boar populations around the world have increased dramatically over past decades. Climate change, generating milder winters with less snow, may affect their spread into northern regions. Wild boars can serve as reservoirs for a number of bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which are transmissible to humans and domestic animals through direct interaction with wild boars, through contaminated food or indirectly through contaminated environment. Disease transmission between wild boars, domestic animals, and humans is an increasing threat to human and animal health, especially in areas with high wild boar densities. This article reviews important foodborne zoonoses, including bacterial diseases (brucellosis, salmonellosis, tuberculosis, and yersiniosis), parasitic diseases (toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis), and the viral hepatitis E. The focus is on the prevalence of these diseases and the causative microbes in wild boars. The role of wild boars in transmitting these pathogens to humans and livestock is also briefly discussed.