Browsing by Subject "DOMESTICATION"

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  • Aitamurto, Kaarina (2019)
    Transnational Islam is increasingly presented in the Russian political rhetoric as a security threat. Therefore, Russian politicians and authorities attempt to support indigenous or national forms of Islam. Similar policies are implemented in several western European countries. Yet they tend to disregard the heterogeneity of the Muslim community, they create exclusions and they are often conceived as imposing outside evaluations and interpretations on Islam. This contribution analyses initiatives intended to develop a national Islam in post-Soviet Russia. While the aims, methods and problems in different countries are often quite similar, the values and norms underlying these initiatives vary and reflect the societies from which they emerge. This contribution argues that since the 1990s, the changes in the political line of the Kremlin have impacted the project for a ‘national’ Islam by placing less emphasis on liberal values and more emphasis on adherence to loyalism and political conservatism.
  • Milovanov, Alexander; Zvyagin, Andrey; Daniyarov, Asset; Kalendar, Ruslan; Troshin, Leonid (2019)
    Cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. ssp. sativa D.C.) is one of the oldest agricultural crops, each variety comprising an array of clones obtained by vegetative propagation from a selected vine grown from a single seedling. Most clones within a variety are identical, but some show a different form of accession, giving rise to new divergent phenotypes. Understanding the associations among the genotypes within a variety is crucial to efficient management and effective grapevine improvement. Inter-primer binding-site (iPBS) markers may aid in determining the new clones inside closely related genotypes. Following this idea, iPBS markers were used to assess the genetic variation of 33 grapevine genotypes collected from Russia. We used molecular markers to identify the differences among and within five grapevine clonal populations and analysed the variation, using clustering and statistical approaches. Four of a total of 30 PBS primers were selected, based on amplification efficiency. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with PBS primers resulted in a total of 1412 bands ranging from 300 to 6000 bp, with a polymorphism ratio of 44%, ranging from 58 to 75 bands per group. In total, were identified seven private bands in 33 genotypes. Results of molecular variance analysis showed that 40% of the total variation was observed within groups and only 60% between groups. Cluster analysis clearly showed that grapevine genotypes are highly divergent and possess abundant genetic diversities. The iPBS PCR-based genome fingerprinting technology used in this study effectively differentiated genotypes into five grapevine groups and indicated that iPBS markers are useful tools for clonal selection. The number of differences between clones was sufficient to identify them as separate clones of studied varieties containing unique mutations. Our previous phenotypic and phenological studies have confirmed that these genotypes differ from those of maternal plants. This work emphasized the need for a better understanding of the genotypic differences among closely related varieties of grapevine and has implications for the management of its selection processes.
  • Qvist, Laura; Niskanen, Markku; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Wutke, Saskia; Aspi, Jouni (2019)
    Background: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. Results: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski’s horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST=0.007–0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST= 0.054–0.068). Conclusions: The existence of a Przewalski’s horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective popula- tion sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.
  • Aubriot, Xavier; Knapp, Sandra; Syfert, Mindy; Poczai, Péter; Buerki, Sven (2018)
    • While brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is the second most important solanaceaous vegetable crop, we lack firm knowledge of its evolutionary relationships. This in turn limits efficient use of crop wild relatives in eggplant improvement. Here, we examine the hypothesis of linear step-wise expansion of the eggplant group from Africa to Asia. • We use museum collections to generate nuclear and full-plastome data for all species of the eggplant clade. We combine a phylogenomic approach with distribution data to infer a biogeographic scenario for the clade. • The eggplant clade has Pleistocene origins in northern Africa. Dispersions to tropical Asia gave rise to Solanum insanum, the wild progenitor of the eggplant, and to Africa distinct lineages of widespread and southern-African species. Results suggest that spread of species to southern Africa is recent and was likely facilitated by large mammal herbivores feeding on Solanum fruits (African elephant, impala). • Rather than a linear ‘Out Of Africa’ sequence, our results are more consistent with an initial event into Asia, and subsequent wide dispersion and differentiation across Africa driven by large mammalian herbivores. Our evolutionary results will impact future work on eggplant domestication and use of wild relatives in breeding of this increasingly important solanaceous crop.
  • Yanagida, Tetsuya; Lavikainen, Antti; Hoberg, Eric P.; Konyaev, Sergey; Ito, Akira; Sato, Marcello Otake; Zaikov, Vladimir A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee; Nakao, Minoru (2017)
    The specific status of Echinococcus canadensis has long been controversial, mainly because it consists of the mitochondrial lineages G6, G7, G8 and G10 with different host affinity: G6 (camel strain) and G7 (pig strain) with domestic cycles and G8 (cervid strain) and G10 (Fennoscandian cervid strain) with sylvatic or semi-domestic cycles. There is an argument whether the mitochondria] lineages should be recognised as separate species which correspond to the biological or epidemiological aggregation. In the present study, the specific status of E. canadensis was investigated using mitochondrial DNA and single copy nuclear DNA markers. Nucleotide sequences of complete mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) and partial nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) were determined for 48 isolates of E. canadensis collected from different hosts in a wide range of regions. The mitochondrial phylogeny of cox1 showed that all the isolates were clearly divided into three clades corresponding to G6/G7, G8 and G10. Five and three alleles were confirmed at pepck and pold loci, respectively. These alleles were generally divided into two groups corresponding to G6/G7 or G8 and G10. However, allele sharing was confirmed among individuals belonging to different lineages. The allele sharing occurred primarily in regions where different mitochondrial DNA lineages were found in sympatry. The resultant nuclear mitochondrial discordance suggests the genetic exchangeability among E. canadensis isolates belonging to different lineages. An apparently mosaic parasite fauna that reflects faunal mixing due to natural and anthropogenic disturbance, including introductions and invasion, precludes us from designating each of G6/G7, G8 and G10 into a different species. (C) 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology.