Browsing by Subject "DOPAMINE NEURONS"

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  • Vashchinkina, Elena; Piippo, Ossi; Vekovischeva, Olga; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Ilyuk, Ruslan; Neznanov, Nikholay; Kazankov, Kirill; Zaplatkin, Igor; Korpi, Esa R. (2018)
    The gabapentinoid pregabalin is a rapid-acting anxiolytic and analgesic, possibly suitable in supervised opioid detoxification. However, clinicians have been cautious in using it because of its unknown addictive risk and rising number of mortalities after pregabalin self-medication in opioid abusers. Here, we studied interactions of pregabalin and morphine on reward functions of the dopamine system in mice and the efficacy of pregabalin on withdrawal in opioid addicts. After the treatment of mice with pregabalin and morphine, we used electrophysiology to study neuroplasticity in midbrain slices, self-administration and conditioned place preference tests to investigate the rewarding potential of pregabalin and naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal to evaluate opioid withdrawal symptoms. Further, we ran a pilot single-blind, randomized, controlled trial (34 heroin addicts) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pregabalin in the treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. Pregabalin alone did not induce glutamate receptor neuroplasticity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, but pre-treatment with pregabalin suppressed morphine-induced neuroplasticity, hyperlocomotion and morphine self-administration. Pregabalin administration after chronic morphine exposure failed to induce any rewarding effects. Instead, pregabalin suppressed withdrawal symptoms in both morphine-treated mice and opioid addicts and was well tolerated. Intriguingly, pregabalin administration after a low dose of morphine strongly facilitated ventral tegmental area neuroplasticity and led to increased conditioned place preference. Pregabalin appears to have the efficacy to counteract both reinforcing and withdrawal effects of opioids, but it also has a potentiating effect when given to mice with existing opioid levels.
  • Oinio, Ville; Sundström, Mikko; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Petteri (2018)
    Comorbidity with gambling disorder (GD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) is well documented. The purpose of our study was to examine the influence of genetic alcohol drinking tendency on reward-guided decision making behavior of rats and the impact of dopamine releaser D-amphetamine on this behavior. In this study, Alko alcohol (AA) and Wistar rats went through long periods of operant lever pressing training where the task was to choose the profitable of two options. The lever choices were guided by different-sized sucrose rewards (one or three pellets), and the probability of gaining the larger reward was slowly changed to a level where choosing the smaller reward would be the most profitable in the long run. After training, rats were injected (s.c.) with dopamine releaser D-amphetamine (0.3, 1.0 mg/kg) to study the impact of rapid dopamine release on this learned decision making behavior. Administration of D-amphetamine promoted unprofitable decision making of AA rats more robustly when compared to Wistar rats. At the same time, D-amphetamine reduced lever pressing responses. Interestingly, we found that this reduction in lever pressing was significantly greater in Wistar rats than in AA rats and it was not linked to motivation to consume sucrose. Our results indicate that conditioning to the lever pressing in uncertain environments is more pronounced in AA than in Wistar rats and indicate that the reinforcing effects of a gambling-like environment act as a stronger conditioning factor for rats that exhibit a genetic tendency for high alcohol drinking.
  • de Miguel, Elena; Vekovischeva, Olga; Kuokkanen, Katja; Vesajoki, Marja; Paasikoski, Nelli; Kaskinoro, Janne; Myllymäki, Mikko; Lainiola, Mira; Janhunen, Sanna K.; Hyytiä, Petri; Linden, Anni-Maija; Korpi, Esa R. (2019)
    Drugs of abuse induce widespread synaptic adaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons. Such drug-induced neuroadaptations may constitute an initial cellular mechanism eventually leading to compulsive drug-seeking behavior. To evaluate the impact of GABA(B) receptors on addiction-related persistent neuroplasticity, we tested the ability of orthosteric agonist baclofen and two positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABA(B) receptors to suppress neuroadaptations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and reward-related behaviors induced by ethanol and cocaine. A novel compound (S)-1-(5-fluoro-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-2-yl)-4-methyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]quinazolin-5(4H)-one (ORM-27669) was found to be a GABA(B) PAM of low efficacy as agonist, whereas the reference compound (R,S)-5,7-di-tert-butyl-3-hydroxy-3-trifluoromethyl-3H-benzofuran-2-one (rac-BHFF) had a different allosteric profile being a more potent PAM in the calcium-based assay and an agonist, coupled with potent PAM activity, in the [S-35] GTP gamma S binding assay in rat and human recombinant receptors. Using autoradiography, the high-efficacy rac-BHFF and the low-efficacy ORM-27669 potentiated the effects of baclofen on [S-35] GTP gamma S binding with identical brain regional distribution. Treatment of mice with baclofen, rac-BHFF, or ORM-27669 failed to induce glutamate receptor neuroplasticity in the VTA DA neurons. Pretreatment with rac-BHFF at non-sedative doses effectively reversed both ethanol- and cocaine-induced plasticity and attenuated cocaine i.v. self-administration and ethanol drinking. Pretreatment with ORM-27669 only reversed ethanol-induced neuroplasticity and attenuated ethanol drinking but had no effects on cocaine-induced neuroplasticity or self-administration. These findings encourage further investigation of GABA(B) receptor PAMs with different efficacies in addiction models to develop novel treatment strategies for drug addiction.
  • Aitta-aho, Teemu; Möykkynen, Tommi Petteri; Panhelainen, Anne E.; Vekovischeva, Olga Yu; Bäckström, Pia; Korpi, Esa R. (2012)
  • Sonninen, Tuuli-Maria; Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Koskuvi, Marja; Oksanen, Minna; Shakirzyanova, Anastasia; Wojciechowski, Sara; Puttonen, Katja; Naumenko, Nikolay; Goldsteins, Gundars; Laham-Karam, Nihay; Lehtonen, Marko; Tavi, Pasi; Koistinaho, Jari; Lehtonen, Sarka (2020)
    In Parkinson's disease (PD), the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is associated with Lewy bodies arising from the accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein which leads ultimately to movement impairment. While PD has been considered a disease of the DA neurons, a glial contribution, in particular that of astrocytes, in PD pathogenesis is starting to be uncovered. Here, we report findings from astrocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of LRRK2 G2019S mutant patients, with one patient also carrying a GBA N370S mutation, as well as healthy individuals. The PD patient astrocytes manifest the hallmarks of the disease pathology including increased expression of alpha-synuclein. This has detrimental consequences, resulting in altered metabolism, disturbed Ca2+ homeostasis and increased release of cytokines upon inflammatory stimulation. Furthermore, PD astroglial cells manifest increased levels of polyamines and polyamine precursors while lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels are decreased, both of these changes have been reported also in PD brain. Collectively, these data reveal an important role for astrocytes in PD pathology and highlight the potential of iPSC-derived cells in disease modeling and drug discovery.
  • Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Korpi, Esa R.; Aitta-aho, Teemu (2019)
    Extinction and reinstatement of morphine-induced conditioned place preference were studied in glutamate α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-receptor GluA1 subunit-deficient mice (global GluA1-KO mice). In line with previous findings, both acquisition and expression of conditioned place preference to morphine (20 mg/kg, subcutaneously) were fully functional in GluA1 KO mice compared with wild-type littermate controls (GluA1-WT), thus enabling the study of extinction. With a 10-session extinction paradigm, the GluA1 KO mice showed complete extinction similar to that of the GluA1-WT mice. Morphine-induced reinstatement (10 mg/kg, subcutaneously) was detected in both mouse lines. GluA1 KO mice moved more during all the phases of the experiment, including the place conditioning trials, extinction sessions, and place preference tests. The results suggest that the GluA1 subunit may be dispensable or prone to compensation at the neural circuitries delineating extinction and reinstatement. The GluA1 KO mice show altered long-term between-session habituation, which extends longer than previously anticipated.