Browsing by Subject "DOWN-SYNDROME"

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  • Daltveit, Dagrun Slettebo; Klungsoyr, Kari; Engeland, Anders; Ekbom, Anders; Gissler, Mika; Glimelius, Ingrid; Grotmol, Tom; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Ording, Anne Gulbech; Saether, Solbjorg Makalani Myrtveit; Sorensen, Henrik Toft; Troisi, Rebecca; Bjørge, Tone (2020)
    OBJECTIVE To examine associations between birth defects and cancer from birth into adulthood. DESIGN Population based nested case-control study. SETTING Nationwide health registries in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. PARTICIPANTS 62 295 cancer cases (0-46 years) and 724 542 frequency matched controls (matched on country and birth year), born between 1967 and 2014. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Relative risk of cancer in relation to major birth defects, estimated as odds ratios with 99% confidence intervals from logistic regression models. RESULTS Altogether, 3.5% (2160/62 295) of cases and 2.2% (15 826/724 542) of controls were born with major birth defects. The odds ratio of cancer for people with major birth defects compared with those without was 1.74 (99% confidence interval 1.63 to 1.84). For individuals with non-chromosomal birth defects, the odds ratio of cancer was 1.54 (1.44 to 1.64); for those with chromosomal anomalies, the odds ratio was 5.53 (4.67 to 6.54). Many structural birth defects were associated with later cancer in the same organ system or anatomical location, such as defects of the eye, nervous system, and urinary organs. The odds ratio of cancer increased with number of defects and decreased with age, for both non-chromosomal and chromosomal anomalies. The odds ratio of cancer in people with any non-chromosomal birth defect was lower in adults (>= 20 years: 1.21, 1.09 to 1.33) than in adolescents (15-19 years: 1.58, 1.31 to 1.90) and children (0-14 years: 2.03, 1.85 to 2.23). The relative overall cancer risk among adults with chromosomal anomalies was markedly reduced from 11.3 (9.35 to 13.8) in children to 1.50 (1.01 to 2.24). Among adults, skeletal dysplasia (odds ratio 3.54, 1.54 to 8.15), nervous system defects (1.76, 1.16 to 2.65), chromosomal anomalies (1.50, 1.01 to 2.24), genital organs defects (1.43, 1.14 to 1.78), and congenital heart defects (1.28, 1.02 to 1.59) were associated with overall cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS The increased risk of cancer in individuals with birth defects persisted into adulthood, both for nonchromosomal and chromosomal anomalies. Further studies on the molecular mechanisms involved are warranted.
  • Airaksinen, Riku; Mattila, Ilkka; Jokinen, Eero; Salminen, Jukka; Puntila, Juha; Lehtinen, Miia L.; Ojala, Tilna; Rautiainen, Paula; Rahkonen, Otto; Suominen, Pertti; Pätilä, Tommi (2019)
    Background. Operative mortality after complete atrioventricular septal defect (cAVSD) repair has improved vastly. Less improvement has been demonstrated regarding late mortality and reoperation rates, however. There is evident lack of comprehensive population-based studies analyzing the history and progress of the ever-changing operative results. Methods. This is a 5-million population-based retrospective study of consecutive 388 cAVSD patients operated in Finland between 1962 and 2014. Data were collected using Children's Cardiac Surgical Registry of Children's Hospital at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Mortality data and reoperation rates were analyzed on a decade-by-decade basis. Results. During the early era, overall mortality was 17.4%, operative mortality constituting 10.9%. The operative results have improved significantly over the decades, and eventually, the last decade showed no mortality. A total of 23 late deaths occurred; of these, 20 were directly heart-related. Half of the late mortality occurred during the first postoperative year. The only significant risk factor for overall mortality was an earlier decade of operation (p <0.001). Reoperation rates have not decreased but slightly increased over decades (p = 0.621), and reoperations have been performed mainly during the first year after the primary operation. Actuarial freedom from left side atrioventricular valve reoperation at 15 years was 90.9%. Conclusions. There has been an outstanding improvement in surgical results through the years even though the general operative approach has remained the same. Rates of reoperation have not been declining, but the reoperations are dated to early childhood years. The improvement in results has been ongoing. (C) 2019 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
  • Teder, Hindrek; Paluoja, Priit; Rekker, Kadri; Salumets, Andres; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Palta, Priit (2019)
    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) enables accurate detection of fetal chromosomal trisomies. The majority of publicly available computational methods for sequencing-based NIPT analyses rely on low-coverage whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data and are not applicable for targeted high-coverage sequencing data from cell-free DNA samples. Here, we present a novel computational framework for a targeted high-coverage sequencing-based NIPT analysis. The developed framework uses a hidden Markov model (HMM) in conjunction with a supplemental machine learning model, such as decision tree (DT) or support vector machine (SVM), to detect fetal trisomy and parental origin of additional fetal chromosomes. These models were developed using simulated datasets covering a wide range of biologically relevant scenarios with various chromosomal quantities, parental origins of extra chromosomes, fetal DNA fractions, and sequencing read depths. Developed models were tested on simulated and experimental targeted sequencing datasets. Consequently, we determined the functional feasibility and limitations of each proposed approach and demonstrated that read count-based HMM achieved the best overall classification accuracy of 0.89 for detecting fetal euploidies and trisomies on simulated dataset. Furthermore, we show that by using the DT and SVM on the HMM classification results, it was possible to increase the final trisomy classification accuracy to 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. We demonstrate that read count and allelic ratio-based models can achieve a high accuracy (up to 0.98) for detecting fetal trisomy even if the fetal fraction is as low as 2%. Currently, existing commercial NIPT analysis requires at least 4% of fetal fraction, which can be possibly a challenge in case of early gestational age (35 kg/m2). More accurate detection can be achieved at higher sequencing depth using HMM in conjunction with supplemental models, which significantly improve the trisomy detection especially in borderline scenarios (e.g., very low fetal fraction) and enables to perform NIPT even earlier than 10 weeks of pregnancy.
  • Chen, An; Tenhunen, Henni; Torkki, Paulus; Heinonen, Seppo; Lillrank, Paul; Stefanovic, Vedran (2017)
    Introduction Nowadays, an important decision for pregnant women is whether to undergo prenatal testing for aneuploidies and which tests to uptake. We investigate the factors influencing women's choices between non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and invasive prenatal tests in pregnancies with elevated a priori risk of fetal aneuploidies. Methodology This is a mixed-method study. We used medical data (1st Jan 2015-31st Dec 2015) about women participating in further testing at Fetomaternal Medical Center at Helsinki University Hospital and employed Chi-square tests and ANOVA to compare the groups of women choosing different methods. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed the significant clinical factors influencing women's choice. We explored the underlying values, beliefs, attitudes and other psychosocial factors that affect women's choice by interviewing women with the Theory of Planned Behavior framework. The semi-structured interview data were processed by thematic analysis. Results Statistical data indicated that gestational age and counseling day were strong factors influencing women's choice. Interview data revealed that women's values and moral principles on pregnancy and childbirth chiefly determined the choices. Behavioral beliefs (e.g. safety and accuracy) and perceived choice control (e.g. easiness, rapidness and convenience) were also important and the major trade-offs happened between these constructs. Discussion Values are the determinants of women's choice. Service availability and convenience are strong factors. Medical risk status in this choice context is not highly influential. Choice aids can be developed by helping women to identify their leading values in prenatal testing and by providing lists of value-matching test options and attributes.
  • Clarke, Angus J.; Wallgren-Pettersson, Carina (2019)
    Difficult ethical issues arise for patients and professionals in medical genetics, and often relate to the patient’s family or their social context. Tackling these issues requires sensitivity to nuances of communication and a commitment to clarity and consistency. It also benefits from an awareness of different approaches to ethical theory. Many of the ethical problems encountered in genetics relate to tensions between the wishes or interests of different people, sometimes even people who do not (yet) exist or exist as embryos, either in an established pregnancy or in vitro. Concern for the long-term welfare of a child or young person, or possible future children, or for other members of the family, may lead to tensions felt by the patient (client) in genetic counselling. Differences in perspective may also arise between the patient and professional when the latter recommends disclosure of information to relatives and the patient finds that too difficult, or when the professional considers the genetic testing of a child, sought by parents, to be inappropriate. The expectations of a patient’s community may also lead to the differences in perspective between patient and counsellor. Recent developments of genetic technology permit genome-wide investigations. These have generated additional and more complex data that amplify and exacerbate some pre-existing ethical problems, including those presented by incidental (additional sought and secondary) findings and the recognition of variants currently of uncertain significance, so that reports of genomic investigations may often be provisional rather than definitive. Experience is being gained with these problems but substantial challenges are likely to persist in the long term.
  • Oskarsson, Trausti; Soderhall, Stefan; Arvidson, Johan; Forestier, Erik; Montgomery, Scott; Bottai, Matteo; Lausen, Birgitte; Carlsen, Niels; Hellebostad, Marit; Lahteenmaki, Paivi; Saarinen-Pihkala, Ulla M.; Jonsson, Olafur G.; Heyman, Mats; Nordic Soc Paediat Haematology (2016)
    Relapse is the main reason for treatment failure in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Despite improvements in the up-front therapy, survival after relapse is still relatively poor, especially for high-risk relapses. The aims of this study were to assess outcomes following acute lymphoblastic leukemia relapse after common initial Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology protocol treatment; to validate currently used risk stratifications, and identify additional prognostic factors for overall survival. Altogether, 516 of 2735 patients (18.9%) relapsed between 1992 and 2011 and were included in the study. There were no statistically significant differences in outcome between the up-front protocols or between the relapse protocols used, but an improvement over time was observed. The 5-year overall survival for patients relapsing in the period 2002-2011 was 57.5 +/- 3.4%, but 44.7 +/- 3.2% (P
  • Vuorenlehto, Leena; Hinnelä, Kaisa; Äyräs, Outi; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Louhiala, Pekka; Kaijomaa, Marja (2021)
    Objective To study women's apprehensions, understanding and experiences of counselling concerning a screen-positive result in screening for fetal chromosomal defects. Methods A questionnaire study including different steps of the prenatal screening process was carried out in Helsinki University Hospital. Women's experiences concerning counselling immediately after a screen-positive result and during further examinations in the Fetal Medicine Unit (FMU) were analyzed. Results 143 women filled in the questionnaire. Less than half of the women considered the primary counselling after a screen-positive result to be explicit (43.9%) and sufficient (43.1%). In the FMU, 88.3% and 89.8% of women were satisfied with the explicitness and sufficiency of counselling. Most women (75%) experienced worry before further examinations but less than half (45%) had considered their personal values concerning diagnostic tests. Half (50.5%) of women expected the worry to continue even if diagnostic tests turn out normal. Most (81%) women were aware that diagnostic tests are voluntary and were confident (85.3%) with their decision to participate. Conclusions After a screen-positive result, women have unanswered questions, experience anxiety and confusion. The possibility of an abnormal screening result is not seriously considered beforehand. To enable an informed consent for prenatal screening, improvements in prescreening counselling during the first visits of antenatal care need to be made.