Browsing by Subject "DRAFT GENOME"

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  • Mascher, Martin; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Chapman, Jarrod; Schmutz, Jeremy; Barry, Kerrie; Munoz-Amatriain, Maria; Close, Timothy J.; Wise, Roger P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Himmelbach, Axel; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Scholz, Uwe; Poland, Jesse A.; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie (2013)
  • Smith, Chris R; Morandin, Claire Marthe; Noureddine, M; Pant, S (2018)
    Much of the variation among insects is derived from the different ways that chitin has been moulded to form rigid structures, both internal and external. In this study, we identify a highly conserved expression pattern in an insect-only gene family, the Osiris genes, that is essential for development, but also plays a significant role in phenotypic plasticity and in immunity/toxicity responses. The majority of Osiris genes exist in a highly syntenic cluster, and the cluster itself appears to have arisen very early in the evolution of insects. We used developmental gene expression in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, and the wood ant, Formica exsecta, to compare patterns of Osiris gene expression both during development and between alternate caste phenotypes in the polymorphic social insects. Developmental gene expression of Osiris genes is highly conserved across species and correlated with gene location and evolutionary history. The social insect castes are highly divergent in pupal Osiris gene expression. Sets of co-expressed genes that include Osiris genes are enriched in gene ontology terms related to chitin/cuticle and peptidase activity. Osiris genes are essential for cuticle formation in both embryos and pupae, and genes co-expressed with Osiris genes affect wing development. Additionally, Osiris genes and those co-expressed seem to play a conserved role in insect toxicology defences and digestion. Given their role in development, plasticity, and protection, we propose that the Osiris genes play a central role in insect adaptive evolution.
  • Veltsos, Paris; Ridout, Kate E.; Toups, Melissa A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Santiago C.; Muyle, Aline; Emery, Olivier; Rastas, Pasi; Hudzieczek, Vojtech; Hobza, Roman; Vyskot, Boris; Marais, Gabriel A. B.; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Pannell, John R. (2019)
    Suppressed recombination allows divergence between homologous sex chromosomes and the functionality of their genes. Here, we reveal patterns of the earliest stages of sex-chromosome evolution in the diploid dioecious herb Mercurialis annua on the basis of cytological analysis, de novo genome assembly and annotation, genetic mapping, exome resequencing of natural populations, and transcriptome analysis. The genome assembly contained 34,105 expressed genes, of which 10,076 were assigned to linkage groups. Genetic mapping and exome resequencing of individuals across the species range both identified the largest linkage group, LG1, as the sex chromosome. Although the sex chromosomes of M. annua are karyotypically homomorphic, we estimate that about one-third of the Y chromosome, containing 568 transcripts and spanning 22.3 cM in the corresponding female map, has ceased recombining. Nevertheless, we found limited evidence for Y-chromosome degeneration in terms of gene loss and pseudogenization, and most X- and Y-linked genes appear to have diverged in the period subsequent to speciation between M. annua and its sister species M. huetii, which shares the same sex-determining region. Taken together, our results suggest that the M. annua Y chromosome has at least two evolutionary strata: a small old stratum shared with M. huetii, and a more recent larger stratum that is probably unique to M. annua and that stopped recombining similar to 1 MYA. Patterns of gene expression within the nonrecombining region are consistent with the idea that sexually antagonistic selection may have played a role in favoring suppressed recombination.
  • Boomsma, Jacobus J.; Brady, Sean G.; Dunn, Robert R.; Gadau, Juergen; Heinze, Juergen; Keller, Laurent; Moreau, Corrie S.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Schrader, Lukas; Schultz, Ted R.; Sundstrom, Lotta; Ward, Philip S.; Wcislo, William T.; Zhang, Guojie; GAGA Consortium (2017)
  • Schrader, Lukas; Kim, Jay W.; Ence, Daniel; Zimin, Aleksey; Klein, Antonia; Wyschetzki, Katharina; Weichselgartner, Tobias; Kemena, Carsten; Stoekl, Johannes; Schultner, Eva; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D.; Yandell, Mark; Heinze, Juergen; Gadau, Juergen; Oettler, Jan (2014)
  • Qin, Huayu; Wang, Shang; Feng, Kai; He, Zhili; Virta, Marko P. J.; Hou, Weiguo; Dong, Hailiang; Deng, Ye (2019)
    Sulfate reduction is an important biogeochemical process in the ecosphere; however, the major taxa of sulfate reducers have not been fully identified. Here, we used epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation, and Concatenation PCR) technology to identify the phylogeny of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in sediments from Tibetan Plateau saline lakes. A total of 12,519 OTUs and 883 SRP-OTUs were detected in ten lakes by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons and epicPCR products of fused 16S rRNA plus dsrB gene, respectively, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes being the dominant phyla in both datasets. The 120 highly abundant SRP-OTUs (>1% in at least one sample) were affiliated with 17 described phyla, only 7 of which are widely recognized as SRP phyla. The majority of OTUs from both the whole microbial communities and the SRPs were not detected in more than one specific lake, suggesting high levels of endemism. The -diversity of the entire microbial community and SRP sub-community showed significant positive correlations. The pH value and mean water temperature of the month prior to sampling were the environmental determinants for the whole microbial community, while the mean water temperature and total nitrogen were the major environmental drivers for the SRP sub-community. This study revealed there are still many undocumented SRP in Tibetan saline lakes, many of which could be endemic and adapted to specific environmental conditions.
  • Morandin, C.; Hietala, A.; Helanterä, H. (2019)
    Social insect colonies are characterized by division of labour, and extensive morphological, physiological and behavioural differences between queens and workers. The storage protein vitellogenin (Vg) affects multiple aspects of social insect life histories, and has been suggested as a key player for caste differentiation and maintenance. Recently, three genes homologous to Vg have been described in the ant Formica exsecta. Their role is currently unclear but their structural variation suggests variable functions. We examined the expression patterns of the conventional Vg and the three Vg-like genes using qRT-PCR in the common black ant Formica fusca between queens and workers, between nurse and foragers workers, and across social contexts (queenless vs. queenright nests), and sampling time. As expected, we found a significant queen caste and nurse task-related increase for the conventional Vg, while Vg-like-C displayed a consistent forager-biased expression pattern. Task (forager vs. nurse) was the only factor that explained expression variation among workers in any of the studied genes. The removal of the queen did not affect expression, although the proportion of fertile nurses increased in queenless nests. The observed expression biases suggest that in Formica fusca, the ancestral duplication has led to alternative social functions for Vg-like genes across castes and tasks. To get a broader picture of the role of gene duplications in social evolution and the roles of Vg-like genes in caste differentiation and maintenance, how these genes achieve these roles at a molecular level need to be investigated further.