Browsing by Subject "DRAINAGE"

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  • Niemi, Tero J.; Warsta, Lassi; Taka, Maija; Hickman, Brandon; Pulkkinen, Seppo; Krebs, Gerald; Moisseev, Dmitri N.; Koivusalo, Harri; Kokkonen, Teemu (2017)
    Rainfall-runoff simulations in urban environments require meteorological input data with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The availability of precipitation data is constantly increasing due to the shift towards more open data sharing. However, the applicability of such data for urban runoff assessments is often unknown. Here, the feasibility of Finnish Meteorological Institute's open rain gauge and open weather radar data as input sources was studied by conducting Storm Water Management Model simulations at a very small (33.5 ha) urban catchment in Helsinki, Finland. In addition to the open data sources, data were also available from two research gauges, one of them located on-site, and from a research radar. The results confirmed the importance of local precipitation measurements for urban rainfall-runoff simulations, implying the suitability of open gauge data to be largely dictated by the gauge's distance from the catchment. Performance of open radar data with 5 min and 1 km' resolution was acceptable in terms of runoff reproduction, albeit peak flows were constantly and flow volumes often underestimated. Gauge adjustment and advection interpolation were found to improve the quality of the radar data, and at least gauge adjustment should be performed when open radar data are used. Finally, utilizing dual-polarization capabilities of radars has a potential to improve rainfall estimates for high intensity storms although more research is still needed. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mali, Juha; Mentula, Panu; Leppäniemi, Ari; Sallinen, Ville (2019)
    BackgroundDiverticular abscess diameter of 3-6cm is generally accepted as a cutoff determining whether percutaneous drainage is recommended in addition to antibiotics, but this is not based on high-quality evidence. The aim of this study was to analyze the treatment choices and outcomes of patients with diverticular abscesses.MethodsThis was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an academic teaching hospital functioning as a secondary and tertiary referral center. Altogether, 241 patients with computer tomography-verified acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis with intra-abdominal abscess were collected from a database containing all patients treated for colonic diverticulitis in our institution during 2006-2013. The main measured outcomes were need of emergency surgery and 30-day mortality, and these were compared between antibiotics only and percutaneous drainage groups. Treatment choices, including surgery, were also analyzed for all patients.ResultsAbscesses under 40mm were mostly treated with antibiotics alone with a high success rate (93 out of 107, 87%). In abscesses over 40mm, the use of emergency surgery increased and the use of antibiotics alone decreased with increasing abscess size, but the proportion of successful drainage remained at 13-18% regardless of the abscess size. There were no differences in failure rate, 30-day mortality, the need of emergency surgery, permanent stoma, recurrence, or length of stay in patients treated with percutaneous drainage vs. antibiotics alone, even when groups were adjusted for potential confounders.ConclusionsPercutaneous drainage as a treatment for large abscess does not seem to be superior to the treatment with only antibiotics.
  • Javanainen, Mervi Hannele; Scheinin, Tom; Mustonen, Harri; Leivonen , Marja (2017)
    The current understanding of prophylaxis of pulmonary complications in bariatric surgery is weak. Purpose: The aim of this study was to observe how changes in perioperative and postoperative treatments affect the incidence of pulmonary complications in bariatric patients. Materials: This is a retrospective clinical study of 400 consecutive bariatric patients. The patients, who either underwent a sleeve gastrectomy or a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, were divided consecutively into four subgroups with different approaches to perioperative treatment. Methods: The first group (patients 0-100) was recovered in the intensive care unit with minimal mobilization (ICU). They had a urinary catheter and a drain. The second group (patients 101-200) was similar to the first group, but the patients used a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device intermittently (ICU-CPAP). The third group (patients 201-300) was recovered on a normal ward without a urinary catheter or a drain and used a CPAP device (ward-slow). The fourth group (patients 301-400) walked to the operating theater and was mobilized in the recovery room during the first 2 h after the operation (ward-fast). CPAP was also used. Primary endpoints were pulmonary complications, pneumonia, and infection, non-ultra descriptus (NUD). Results: The number of pulmonary complications among the groups was significantly different. A long operation time increased the risk for infection (p <0.001 95 % CI from 2.02 to 6.59 %). Conclusions: Operation time increases the risk for pulmonary complications. Changes in perioperative care toward the ERAS protocol may have a positive effect on the number of pulmonary complications.
  • Tarvainen, Timo; Siren, Jukka; Kokkola, Arto; Sallinen, Ville (2020)
    Importance Both hydrocortisone and pasireotide have been shown in randomized clinical trials to be effective in reducing postoperative complications of pancreatic surgery, but to date no randomized clinical trial has evaluated the effectiveness of pasireotide compared with hydrocortisone. Objective To assess the noninferiority of hydrocortisone compared with pasireotide in reducing complications after partial pancreatectomy. Design, Setting, and Participants A noninferiority, parallel-group, individually randomized clinical trial was conducted at a single academic center between May 19, 2016, and December 17, 2018. Outcome collectors and analyzers were blinded. A total of 281 patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy were assessed for inclusion. Patients younger than 18 years, those allergic to hydrocortisone or pasireotide, patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy with hard pancreas or dilated pancreatic duct, and patients not eventually undergoing partial pancreatectomy were excluded. Modified intention-to-treat analysis was used in determination of the results. Interventions Treatment included pasireotide, 900 mu g, subcutaneously twice a day for 7 days or hydrocortisone, 100 mg, intravenously 3 times a day for 3 days. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the Comprehensive Complication Index (CCI) score within 30 days. The noninferiority limit was set to 9 CCI points. Results Of the 281 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.8 years) assessed for eligibility, 168 patients (mean [SD] age, 63.6 years) were randomized and 126 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analyses. Sixty-three patients received pasireotide (35 men [56%]; median [interquartile range] age, 64 [56-70] years) and 63 patients received hydrocortisone (25 men [40%]; median [interquartile range] age, 67 [56-73] years). The mean (SD) CCI score was 23.94 (17.06) in the pasireotide group and 30.11 (20.47) in the hydrocortisone group (mean difference, -6.16; 2-sided 90% CI, -11.73 to -0.60), indicating that hydrocortisone was not noninferior. Postoperative pancreatic fistula was detected in 34 patients (54%) in the pasireotide group and 39 patients (62%) in the hydrocortisone group (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.68-2.82; P = .37). One patient in the pasireotide group and 2 patients in the hydrocortisone group died within 30 days. In subgroup analyses of patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy, the CCI score was a mean of 10.3 points lower (mean [SD], 16.03 [11.94] vs 26.28 [21.76]; 2-sided 95% CI, -19.34 to -2.12; P = .03) and postoperative pancreatic fistula rate was lower (37% vs 67%; P = .02) in the pasireotide group compared with the hydrocortisone group. Conclusions and Relevance In this study, hydrocortisone was not noninferior compared with pasireotide in patients undergoing partial pancreatectomy. Pasireotide may be more effective than hydrocortisone in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy.
  • Huovinen, Joel; Kastinen, Sami; Komulainen, Simo; Oinas, Minna; Avellan, Cecilia; Frantzen, Janek; Rinne, Jaakko; Ronkainen, Antti; Kauppinen, Mikko; Lonnrot, Kimmo; Perola, Markus; Pyykko, Okka T.; Koivisto, Anne M.; Remes, Anne M.; Soininen, Hilkka; Hiltunen, Mikko; Helisalmi, Seppo; Kurki, Mitja; Jaaskelainen, Juha E.; Leinonen, Ville (2016)
    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a late-onset surgically alleviated, progressive disease. We characterize a potential familial subgroup of iNPH in a nation-wide Finnish cohort of 375 shunt-operated iNPH-patients. The patients were questionnaired and phone-interviewed, whether they have relatives with either diagnosed iNPH or disease-related symptomatology. Then pedigrees of all families with more than one iNPH-case were drawn. Eighteen patients (4.8%) from 12 separate pedigrees had at least one shunt-operated relative whereas 42 patients (11%) had relatives with two or more triad symptoms. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, familial iNPH-patients had up to 3-fold risk of clinical dementia compared to sporadic iNPH patients. This risk was independent from diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and APOE epsilon 4 genotype. This study describes a familial entity of iNPH offering a novel approach to discover the potential genetic characteristics of iNPH. Discovered pedigrees offer an intriguing opportunity to conduct longitudinal studies targeting potential preclinical signs of iNPH. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Laukontaus, Sani J.; Pekkola, Johanna; Numminen, Jussi; Kagayama, Tomoko; Lepäntalo, Mauri; Farkkila, Markus; Atula, Sari; Tienari, Pentti; Venermo, Maarit (2017)
    Background: Doppler ultrasound (US) has been widely used to evaluate the cervical venous system of multiple sclerosis patients according to the hypothesis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency with contradictory results. Venous anatomy and pathology can be examined with less operator-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our aim is to assess the interobserver agreement in measuring internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in MR images and to explore the agreement between US and MRI in the detection of calibers of Methods: Thirty-seven multiple sclerosis patients underwent MRI of the cervical venous system. Two independent neuroradiologists measured the CSA of IJV at the mid-thyroid level. Furthermore, the time from contrast enhancement of common carotid arteries to that of each IJV (transit time in seconds) was assessed, and recorded whether IJV or the vertebral plexus visualized first during the contrast passage. US examination had been performed earlier. Results: Interobserver agreement for assessing IJV CSA in MR images was substantial: the measurements differed >0.5 cm(2) between the examiners in only 5 IJVs (7%), Cohen's kappa 0.79. Transit times from common carotid artery to IJV varied between 5.1 and 14.1 sec. Fifteen patients had left-to-right asymmetry in the speed of IJV contrast filling. IJV CSA Conclusions: Interobserver agreement at the thyroid level of the IJV was good at MRI measurements. The US defines more IJVs as narrow (CSA
  • Lusa, Merja; Knuutinen, Jenna; Lindgren, Marcus; Virkanen, Juhani; Bomberg, Malin (2019)
    The bacterial, fungal and archaeal communities were characterized in 17 top soil organic and mineral layer samples and in top sediment samples of the Paukkajanvaara area, a former pilot-scale uranium mine, located in Eno, Eastern Finland. using amplicon sequencing and qPCR. Soil and sediment samples were in addition analyzed for (Ra-226), radium sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO43-) concentrations. New bacterial strains, representing Pseudomonas spp., were isolated from the mine and reference area and used in laboratory experiments on uptake and leaching of radium (Ra). The effect of these strains on the sulfate leaching from the soil samples was also tested in vitro. Between 6 x 10(6) and 5 x 10(8) copies g(-1) DW (dry weight) of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, 5 x 10(5)-1 x 10(8) copies g(-1) DW archaeal 16S rRNA genes and 1 x 10(5)-1 x 10(8) copies g(-1) DW fungal 5.8S rRNA genes were detected in the samples. A total of 814. 54 and 167 bacterial, archaeal and fungal genera. respectively, were identified. Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota and Mortiriella were the dominant bacterial, archaeal and fungal phyla, respectively. All tested Pseudomonas spp. strains isolates from Paukkajanvaara removed Ra from the solution, but the amount of removed Ra depended on incubation conditions (temperature, time and nutrient broth). The highest removal of Ra (5320 L/kg DW) was observed by the Pseudomonas sp. strain T5-6-I at 37 degrees C. All Pseudomonas spp. strains decreased the release of Ra from soil with an average of 23% while simultaneously increasing the concentration of SO42- in the solution by 11%. As Pseudomonas spp. were frequent in both the sequence data and the cultures, these bacteria may play an important role in the immobilization of Ra in the Paukkajanvaara mine area. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Aalto, Juha; Tyystjärvi, Vilna; Niittynen, Pekka Oskari; Kemppinen, J.; Rissanen, Tuuli Katariina; Gregow, Hilppa; Luoto, Miska (2022)
    Microclimate varies greatly over short horizontal and vertical distances, and timescales. This multi-level heterogeneity influences terrestrial biodiversity and ecosystem functions by determining the ambient environment where organisms live in. Fine-scale heterogeneity in microclimate temperatures is driven by local topography, land and water cover, snow, and soil characteristics. However, their relative influence over boreal and tundra biomes and in different seasons, has not been comprehensively quantified. Here, we aim to (1) quantify temperature variations measured at three heights: soil (-6 cm), near-surface (15 cm) and air (150 cm), and (2) determine the relative influence of the environmental variables in driving thermal variability. We measured temperature at 446 sites within seven focus areas covering large macroclimatic, topographic, and ecosystem gradients (tundra, mires, forests) of northern Europe. Our data, consisting of over 60 million temperature readings during the study period of 2019/11-2020/10, reveal substantial thermal variability within and across the focus areas. Near-surface temperatures in the tundra showed the greatest instantaneous differences within a given focus area (32.3 degrees C) while the corresponding differences for soil temperatures ranged from 10.0 degrees C (middle boreal forest) to 27.1 degrees C (tundra). Instantaneous differences in wintertime air temperatures were the largest in the tundra (up to 25.6 degrees C, median 4.2 degrees C), while in summer the differences were largest in the southern boreal forest (13.1 degrees C, median 4.8 degrees C). Statistical analyses indicate that monthly-aggregated temperature variations in boreal forests are closely linked to water bodies, wetlands, and canopy cover, whereas in the tundra, variation was linked to elevation, topographic solar radiation, and snow cover. The results provide new understanding on the magnitude of microclimate temperature variability and its seasonal drivers and will help to project local impacts of climate change on boreal forest and tundra ecosystems.
  • Kiuru, Petri; Palviainen, Marjo; Grönholm, Tiia; Raivonen, Maarit; Kohl, Lukas; Gauci, Vincent; Urzainki, Inaki; Laurén, Annamari (Ari) (2022)
    Peatlands are important natural sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) emissions. The production and emission of CH4 are strongly influenced by the diffusion of oxygen into the soil and of CH4 from the soil to the atmosphere, respectively. This diffusion, in turn, is controlled by the structure of macropore networks. The characterization of peat pore structure and connectivity through complex network theory approaches can give conceptual insight into how the relationship between the microscale pore space properties and CH4 emissions on a macroscopic scale is shaped. The evolution of the pore space that is connected to the atmosphere can also be conceptualized through a pore network modeling approach. Pore regions isolated from the atmosphere may further develop into anaerobic pockets, which are local hotspots of CH4 production in unsaturated peat. In this study, we extracted interconnecting macropore networks from three-dimensional X-ray micro-computed tomography (µCT) images of peat samples and evaluated local and global connectivity metrics for the networks. We also simulated the water retention characteristics of the peat samples using a pore network modeling approach and compared the simulation results with measured water retention characteristics. The results showed large differences in peat macropore structure and pore network connectivity between vertical soil layers. The macropore space was more connected and the flow paths through the peat matrix were less tortuous near the soil surface than at deeper depths. In addition, macroporosity, structural anisotropy, and average pore throat diameter decreased with depth. Narrower and more winding air-filled diffusion channels may reduce the rate of gas transport as the distance from the peat layer to the soil–air interface increases. The network analysis also suggests that both local and global network connectivity metrics, such as the network average clustering coefficient and closeness centrality, might serve as proxies for assessing the efficiency of gas diffusion in air-filled pore networks. However, the applicability of the network metrics was restricted to the high-porosity near-surface layer. The spatial extent and continuity of the pore network and the spatial distribution of the pores may be reflected in different network metrics in contrasting ways. The hysteresis of peat water content between wetting and drying was found to affect the evolution of the volume of connected air-filled pore space in unsaturated peat. Thus, the formation of anaerobic pockets may occur in a smaller soil volume and methanogenesis may be slower when the peat is wetting compared to in drying conditions. This hysteretic behavior might explain the hotspots and episodic spikes of CH4 emissions, and therefore, it should be taken into account in biogeochemical models.
  • Koski, Tapio K.; Suominen, Pertti K.; Raissadati, Alireza; Knihtilä, Hanna M.; Ojala, Tiina H.; Salminen, Jukka T. (2019)
    Background We evaluated whether the administration of sildenafil in children undergoing the TCPC operation shortened the interval from the operation to the removal of the pleural and peritoneal drains. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the data of 122 patients who had undergone the TCPC operation between 2004 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of their treatments. Sildenafil was orally administered pre-operatively in the morning of the procedure or within 24 hours after the TCPC operation to the sildenafil group (n = 48), which was compared to a control group (n = 60). Fourteen patients were excluded from the study. Results The primary outcome measure was the time from the operation to the removal of the drains. The study groups had similar demographics. The median [interquartile range] time for the removal of drains (sildenafil group 11 [8-19] vs control group 11 [7-16] d, P = .532) was comparable between the groups. The median [interquartile range] fluid balance on the first post-operative day was significantly higher (P = .001) in the sildenafil group compared with controls (47 [12-103] vs 7 [-6-67] mL kg(-1)). The first post-operative day fluid balance was a significant predictor for a prolonged need for drains in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions Sildenafil administration, pre-operatively or within 24 hours after the TCPC operation, did not reduce the required time for pleural and peritoneal drains but was associated with a significantly higher positive fluid balance.
  • Udd, M.; Kylänpää, L.; Kokkola, A. (2020)
    Chronic pancreatitis is a long-term illness leading to hospital admissions and readmission. This disease is often caused by heavy alcohol consumption and smoking. Patients with chronic pancreatitis suffer from acute or chronic pain episodes, recurrent pancreatitis, and complications, such as pseudocysts, biliary duct strictures, and pancreatic duct fistulas. Pancreatic duct strictures and stones may increase intraductal pressure and cause pain. Endoscopic therapy is aiming at decompressing the pressure and relieving the pain, most commonly with pancreatic duct stents and pancreatic duct stone retrieval. Early surgery is another option to treat the pain. In addition, endotherapy has been successful in treating complications related to chronic pancreatitis. The therapy should be individually chosen in a multidisciplinary meeting. Endoscopic therapy and surgery as treatment options for chronic pancreatitis are discussed in this review.