Browsing by Subject "DRINKING"

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  • Laht, Mailis; Karkman, Antti; Voolaid, Veiko; Ritz, Christian; Tenson, Tanel; Virta, Marko; Kisand, Veljo (2014)
  • GBD 2016 Alcohol Collaborators (2018)
    Background Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older. Methods Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health. Findings Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week. Interpretation Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Background. Personality has been associated with alcohol use, but less is known about how alcohol use may influence long-term personality trait change. Methods. The present study examines associations between alcohol use and change in the five major personality traits across two measurement occasions (mean follow-up of 5.6 years). A total of 39 722 participants (54% women) were pooled from six cohort studies for an individual-participant meta-analysis. Alcohol use was measured as (1) average alcohol consumption, (2) frequency of binge drinking, (3) symptoms of alcohol use disorder, and (4) a global indicator of risky alcohol use. Changes in the five major personality traits (extraversion, emotional stability, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience) were used as outcomes. Results. Risky alcohol use was associated with increasing extraversion [0.25 T-scores over the mean follow-up of 5.6 years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.44] and decreasing emotional stability (-0.28; 95% CI -0.48 to -0.08), agreeableness (-0.67; 95% CI -0.87 to -0.36), and conscientiousness (-0.58; 95% CI -0.79 to -0.38). Except the association between alcohol use and extraversion, these associations were consistent across cohort studies and across different measures of alcohol use. Conclusions. These findings suggest that alcohol use is associated with personality trait changes in adulthood.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki (2018)
    Objective: We investigated alcohol use and smoking at time of burn and their relationships with severity of burn and presence of mental disorders. Methods: Consecutive acute burn patients (N = 107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the structured clinical interview for mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and after 6 months. Information regarding being under the influence of alcohol and having smoking-related activity at burn as well as about hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and heavy smoking before the burn was recorded. Results: Around half (52%) of the acute burn patients were under the influence of alcohol and 19% had been both drinking and smoking at the time of the burn. Patients under the influence at the time of burn had significantly higher prevalence of lifetime mental disorders compared to those patients who were not under the influence of alcohol (73.2% vs. 45.1%, p = 0.003), especially alcohol dependence (55.4% vs. 13.7%, p <0.001) and anxiety disorders (28.6% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.015). Patients who had both alcohol use and smoking at burn had even more often at least one mental disorder (95.0% vs. 51.7%, p <0.001), in specific alcohol dependence (90.0% vs. 23.0%, p <0.001), or psychotic disorder (25.0% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.016). The main characteristics of the burns themselves did not differ significantly between these groups. Conclusion: Half of the burn patients were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the burn in this study. In almost all patients where alcohol and smoking contributed to the burn a diagnosable alcohol use disorder was present. Interventions for those with alcohol use disorders and the associated risk behaviors are important for the prevention of burns. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Sjosten, Noora; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi (2012)
    Objectives: To examine the trajectories of physical activity from preretirement to postretirement and to further clarify whether the changes in physical activity are associated with changes in body weight. Design: Prospective. Setting: French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL cohort). Participants: From the original sample of 20 625 employees, only those retiring between 2001 and 2008 on a statutory basis were selected for the analyses (analysis 1: n = 2711, 63% men; analysis 2: n = 3812, 75% men). Persons with data on at least one preretirement and postretirement measurement of the outcome were selected. Primary and secondary outcome measures: All outcome data were gathered by questionnaires. In analysis 1, the annual prevalence of higher physical activity (walking >= 5 km/week) 4 years before and after retirement was analysed. In analysis 2, changes in leisure-time sport activities (engagement, frequency and manner) from preretirement to postretirement were analysed with simultaneous changes in body weight (kilogram). Results: In analysis 1 (n = 2711), prevalence estimates for 4 years before and 4 years after retirement showed that higher leisure-time physical activity (walking at least 5 km/week) increased by 36% in men and 61% in women during the transition to retirement. This increase was also observed among people at a higher risk of physical inactivity, such as smokers and those with elevated depressive symptoms. In a separate sample (analysis 2, n = 3812), change in weight as a function of preretirement and postretirement physical activity was analysed. Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p Conclusions: Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of individuals in order to maintain long-term changes.
  • Latvala, Tiina; Castren, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne (2018)
    Aims: This study aims to explore the associations between final compulsory school grades and gambling and their relation to substance use and perceived mental health among people aged 18-29 in Finland (N = 831). Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data, weighted on the basis of age, gender and region of residence, were collected in 2015. The data were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographic variables, risky alcohol use, daily smoking, and perceived mental health. Results: Weekly gambling and at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) were more common among men. Weekly gambling was linked to smoking and risky alcohol use among men and smoking among women. Additionally, ARPG was linked to risky alcohol use among men. ARPG was associated with moderate/poor mental health among men and women, but this was not the case with weekly gambling. Among men, low and average final school grades at age 16 were associated with weekly gambling later in life, even when adjusting for other variables. Among women, low and average final school grades were not associated with weekly gambling when adjusting for substance use. Lower final school grades were associated with ARPG among women but not among men when all potential confounders were adjusted for. Conclusions: Adolescents with lower final school grades are more likely to gamble weekly later in life. Lower final school grades are also linked with ARPG among women. It is important therefore for schools to have clear policies on gambling and to implement early prevention programmes.
  • Oinio, Ville; Bäckström, Pia; Uhari-Väänänen, Johanna; Raasmaja, Atso; Piepponen, Timo; Kiianmaa, Kalervo (2017)
    R**esults from animal gambling models have highlighted the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission in modulating decision making when large sucrose rewards are combined with uncertainty. The majority of these models use food restriction as a tool to motivate animals to accomplish operant behavioral tasks, in which sucrose is used as a reward. As enhanced motivation to obtain sucrose due to hunger may impact its reward-seeking effect, we wanted to examine the decision-making behavior of rats in a situation where rats were fed ad libitum. For this purpose, we chose alcohol-preferring AA (alko alcohol) rats, as these rats have been shown to have high preference for sweet agents. In the present study, AA rats were trained to self-administer sucrose pellet rewards in a two-lever choice task (one pellet vs. three pellets). Once rational choice behavior had been established, the probability of gaining three pellets was decreased over time (50%, 33%, 25% then 20%). The effect of D-amphetamine on decision making was studied at every probability level, as well as the effect of the dopamine D-1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 and D-2 agonist quinpirole at probability levels of 100% and 25%. D-Amphetamine increased unprofitable choices in a dose-dependent manner at the two lowest probability levels. Quinpirole increased the frequency of unprofitable decisions at the 25% probability level, and SKF-82197 did not affect choice behavior. These results mirror the findings of probabilistic discounting studies using food-restricted rats. Based on this, the use of AA rats provides a new approach for studies on reward-guided decision making. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Savage, Jeanne E.; Rose, Richard J.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri; Korhonen, Tellervo; Kaprio, Jaakko; Gillespie, Nathan; Dick, Danielle M. (2018)
    Early maturation, indexed by pubertal development (PD), has been associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of adolescent substance use, but this relationship may be biased by confounding factors and effects that change across development. Using a population-based Finnish twin sample (N = 3,632 individuals), we conducted twin modeling and multilevel structural equation modeling of the relationship between PD and substance use at ages 12-22. Shared environmental factors contributed to early PD and heavier substance use for females. Biological father absence was associated with early PD for boys but not girls, and did not account for the relationship between PD and substance use. The association between early PD and heavier substance use was partially due to between-family confounds, although early PD appeared to qualitatively alter long-term trajectories for some substances (nicotine), but not others (alcohol). Mediation by peer and parental factors did not explain this relationship within families. However, higher peer substance use and lower parental monitoring were themselves associated with heavier substance use, strengthening the existing evidence for these factors as targets for prevention/intervention efforts. Early maturation was not supported as a robust determinant of alcohol use trajectories in adolescence and young adulthood, but may require longer term follow-up. Subtle effects of early PD on nicotine and illicit drug use trajectories throughout adolescence and adulthood merit further investigation.
  • Barr, Peter B.; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Maes, Hermine; Aliev, Fazil; Latvala, Antti; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M. (2016)
    The consequences of heavy alcohol use remain a serious public health problem. Consistent evidence has demonstrated that both genetic and social influences contribute to alcohol use. Research on gene environment interaction (GxE) has also demonstrated that these social and genetic influences do not act independently. Instead, certain environmental contexts may limit or exacerbate an underlying genetic predisposition. However, much of the work on GxE and alcohol use has focused on adolescence and less is known about the important environmental contexts in young adulthood. Using data from the young adult wave of the Finnish Twin Study, FinnTwin12 (N = 3402), we used biometric twin modeling to test whether education moderated genetic risk for alcohol use as assessed by drinking frequency and intoxication frequency. Education is important because it offers greater access to personal resources and helps determine one's position in the broader stratification system. Results from the twin models show that education did not moderate genetic variance components and that genetic risk was constant across levels of education. Instead, education moderated environmental variance so that under conditions of low education, environmental influences explained more of the variation in alcohol use outcomes. The implications and limitations of these results are discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Zins, Marie; Gueguen, Alice; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Leclerc, Annette; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Ferrie, Jane E.; Goldberg, Marcel (2011)
  • Lido, Helga Hoifodt; Jonsson, Susanne; Hyytiä, Petri; Ericson, Mia; Soderpalm, Bo (2017)
    The glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 is a promising candidate in a treatment concept for alcohol use disorder targeting the glycine system. Org25935 inhibits ethanol-induced dopamine elevation in brain reward regions and reduces ethanol intake in Wistar rats. This study aimed to further characterise the compound and used ethanol consumption, behavioral measures, and gene expression as parameters to investigate the effects in Wistar rats and, as pharmacogenetic comparison, Alko-Alcohol (AA) rats. Animals were provided limited access to ethanol in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm with daily drug administration. Acute effects of Org25935 were estimated using locomotor activity and neurobehavioral status. Effects on gene expression in Wistar rats were measured with qPCR. The higher but not the lower dose of Org25935 reduced alcohol intake in Wistar rats. Unexpectedly, Org25935 reduced both ethanol and water intake and induced strong CNS-depressive effects in AA-rats (withdrawn from further studies). Neurobehavioral effects by Org25935 differed between the strains (AA-rats towards sedation). Org25935 did not affect gene expression at the mRNA level in the glycine system of Wistar rats. The data indicate a small therapeutic range for the anti-alcohol properties of Org25935, a finding that may guide further evaluations of the clinical utility of GlyT-1 inhibitors. The results point to the importance of pharmacogenetic considerations when developing drugs for alcohol-related medical concerns. Despite the lack of successful clinical outcomes, to date, the heterogeneity of drug action of Org25935 and similar agents and the unmet medical need justify further studies of glycinergic compounds in alcohol use disorder.
  • Edgren, Robert; Castren, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2017)
    The expansion of online gambling opportunities calls for better comprehension of online gambling, including relevant gender specific correlates. This study compared online and land-based gamblers among males and females separately, utilizing a nationally representative Finnish survey sample of 18-74 year olds. Online gamblers were younger than land-based gamblers and had full-time working status more often than land-based gamblers, with partial indication of land-based gamblers' monthly income being lower. Online gambling was associated with participation in computer or video gaming more strongly than with land-based gambling. Results show that the strongest predictors of online gambling common to both genders were younger age, computer gaming and gambling on multiple gambling types. Risky alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were not associated to gambling mode when controlling for other factors. Results indicate that particularly for females online gambling may be related to higher relative expenditure and at-risk and problem gambling, providing implications for tailored interventions. The continued study of subgroups of gamblers is necessary to comprehensively understand the altering gambling milieu. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sahlman, Perttu; Nissinen, Markku; Puukka, Pauli; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Perola, Markus; Färkkilä, Martti; Åberg, Fredrik (2019)
    Background and Aim Liver disease is traditionally categorized as alcoholic and non-alcoholic. We studied various risk factors predictive of advanced non-viral liver disease in general population and analyzed the interaction between these factors and alcohol consumption. Methods Persons without underlying liver disease who participated in the Health2000 or FINRISK studies 1992-2012 comprised a cohort of 41 260 individuals. Pattern of alcohol consumption and metabolic, lifestyle-related, and anthropometric parameters were analyzed with Cox regression analysis using severe liver disease hospitalization, cancer, or death as end-point. Viral liver diseases were excluded. Results A total of 355 liver events occurred during the mean 12.4-year follow-up (511 789 person-years). In the multivariate model, age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.03, P = 0.0083 for men; HR 1.04, P = 0.0198 for women), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (HR 1.52, P = 0.0006 for men; HR 1.58, P = 0.0167 for women), patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 mutations (HR 1.9, P = 0.024 for men; HR 2.7, P = 0.0109 for women), and weekly binge drinking (HR 2.4, P = 0.0024 for men; HR 7.4, P <0.0001 for women) predicted development of severe liver disease. Among men, diabetes (HR 2.7, P = 0.0002), average alcohol consumption (HR for 10 g/day 1.1, P = 0.0022), non-married status (HR 1.9, P = 0.0397 for single; HR 2.4, P = 0.0002 for widowed/separated), and serum high-density lipoprotein (HR 2.2, P = 0.0022) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.2, P = 0.0237) were additional risk factors. Alcohol intake increased the risk especially among persons with high WHR (P for interaction 0.009). Conclusions Age, patatin-like phospholipase-containing domain 3 haplotype, and WHR increase the risk for development of severe liver disease. We found strong synergism between alcohol and central obesity. Binge drinking is an additional risk factor.
  • Jarvela-Reijonen, Elina; Karhunen, Leila; Sairanen, Essi; Rantala, Sanni; Laitinen, Jaana; Puttonen, Sampsa; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Juvonen, Kristiina; Myllymaki, Tero; Fohr, Tiina; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kolehmainen, Marjukka (2016)
    Stress-related eating may be a potential factor in the obesity epidemic. Rather little is known about how stress associates with eating behavior and food intake in overweight individuals in a free-living situation. Thus, the present study aims to investigate this question in psychologically distressed overweight and obese working-aged Finns. The study is a cross-sectional baseline analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Of the 339 study participants, those with all the needed data available (n = 297, 84% females) were included. The mean age was 48.9 y (SD = 7.6) and mean body mass index 31.3 kg/m(2) (SD = 3.0). Perceived stress and eating behavior were assessed by self-reported questionnaires Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Intuitive Eating Scale, the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales and ecSatter Inventory. Diet and alcohol consumption were assessed by 48-h dietary recall, Index of Diet Quality, and AUDIT-C. Individuals reporting most perceived stress (i.e. in the highest PSS tertile) had less intuitive eating, more uncontrolled eating, and more emotional eating compared to those reporting less perceived stress (p <0.05). Moreover, individuals in the highest PSS tertile reported less cognitive restraint and less eating competence than those in the lowest tertile (p <0.05). Intake of whole grain products was the lowest among those in the highest PSS tertile (p <0.05). Otherwise the quality of diet and alcohol consumption did not differ among the PSS tertiles. In conclusion, high perceived stress was associated with the features of eating behavior that could in turn contribute to difficulties in weight management. Stress-related way of eating could thus form a potential risk factor for obesity. More research is needed to develop efficient methods for clinicians to assist in handling stress-related eating in the treatment of obese people. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Bonenfant, Sebastien; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Clays, Els; Casini, Annalisa; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Geuskens, Goedele A.; Goldberg, Marcel; Hooftman, Wendela E.; Houtman, Irene L.; Joensuu, Matti; Joeckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Lunau, Thorsten; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Marmot, Michael G.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Rugulies, Reiner; Steptoe, Andrew; Siegrist, Johannes; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Vaananen, Ari; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Tores; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David; Kivimäki, Mika; IPD-Work Consortium (2012)
  • Salaspuro, Mikko (2020)
    Background:Alcohol consumption and ethanol in alcoholic beverages are group 1 carcinogens, that is, carcinogenic to humans. However, ethanol itself is neither genotoxic nor mutagenic. Based on unique gene-epidemiologic and gene-biochemical evidence, the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation - acetaldehyde (ACH) - acts as a local carcinogen in the oropharynx. This review is focused on those facts, which highlight the importance of the oropharynx and local ACH in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related oropharyngeal cancer.Summary:The strongest evidence for the local carcinogenicity of ACH in man provides a point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene, which has randomized millions of alcohol consumers to markedly increased ACH exposure via saliva. This novel human cancer model is associated with manifold risk for oropharyngeal cancer and most importantly it is free from confounding factors markedly hampering epidemiological studies on alcohol-related cancer. The oropharynx is an ideal target organ for the cancer risk assessment of ACH. There is substantial epidemiological data on alcohol-related oropharyngeal cancer risk and also on salivary ACH concentrations among major risk groups for oropharyngeal cancer. Normal human saliva does not contain measurable levels of ACH. However, alcohol ingestion results within seconds in a concentration-dependent accumulation of ACH in saliva, which continues for up to 10-15 min after each sip of alcoholic beverage. This instant ACH exposure phase is followed by a long-term phase derived from ethanol diffused back to saliva from blood circulation. Microbes representing normal oral flora play a major role in local ACH formation from ethanol. In ALDH2-deficient subjects excess ACH during the long-term ACH exposure phase is most probably derived from salivary glands.Key Message:ALDH2gene mutation proves the causal relationship between local ACH exposure via saliva and oropharyngeal cancer and provides new means for the quantitative assessment of local ACH exposure in relation to oropharyngeal cancer risk. Instant ACH formation from ethanol represents approximately 70-100% of total local ACH exposure. Ethanol present in "non-alcoholic" beverages and food forms an epidemiological bias in studies on alcohol-related upper digestive tract cancer.Responses:One should quit smoking, adopt sensible drinking habits, and maintain good oral hygiene. Genetic risk groups could be screened and educated. Consumption of beverages and foodstuffs containing low ethanol levels as well as alcoholic beverages containing high ACH levels should be minimized. To that aim, labelling of alcohol and ACH concentrations of all beverages and foodstuffs should be mandatory.
  • Immonen, Satu; Launes, Jyrki; Järvinen, Ilkka; Virta, Maarit; Vanninen, Ritva; Schiavone, Nella; Lehto, Eliisa; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Lipsanen, Jari; Michelsson, Katarina; Hokkanen, Laura (2020)
    The aim was to examine cross-sectional association between moderate alcohol consumption and total brain volume in a cohort of participants in early middle-age, unconfounded by age-related neuronal change. 353 participants aged 39 to 45 years reported on their alcohol consumption using the AUDIT-C measure. Participants with alcohol abuse were excluded. Brain MRI was analyzed using a fully automated method. Brain volumes were adjusted by intracranial volume expressed as adjusted total brain volume (aTBV). AUDIT-C mean of 3.92 (SD 2.04) indicated moderate consumption. In a linear regression model, alcohol consumption was associated with smaller aTBV (B=- 0.258, p
  • Barr, Peter B.; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Aliev, Fazil; Latvala, Antti; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Dick, Danielle M. (2019)
    Background and Aims Previous twin research suggests relationship status can moderate underlying genetic liability towards alcohol misuse. This paper examined: (1) whether genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) for alcohol consumption are associated with alcohol misuse; (2) whether these GPS are moderated by romantic relationships (gene-environment interaction; G x E) and (3) whether G x E results are consistent across sex. Design Linear mixed-effects models were used to test associations between genome-wide polygenic scores, relationship status and alcohol use/misuse. Setting Finnish twins born between 1983 and 1987 identified through Finland's central population registry. Participants An intensively studied subset of Finnish Twin Study (FinnTwin12) during the young adult phase (aged 20-26 years). The analytical sample includes those with complete interview and genetic data (n = 1201). Measurements Key measurements included involvement in a romantic partnership, drinking frequency, intoxication frequency and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) were created from available summary statistics from a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of drinks per week. Results GPS predicted drinking frequency [b = 0.109; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.050, 0.168], intoxication frequency (b = 0.111; 95% CI = 0.054, 0.168) and AD symptoms (b = 0.123; 95% CI = 0.064, 0.182). Having a romantic relationship negatively influenced the association between GPS and drinking frequency (b = -0.105; 95% CI = -0.211, -0.001), intoxication frequency (b = -0.118; 95% CI = -0.220, -0.016) and AD symptoms (b = -0.119; 95% CI = -0.229, -0.009). There was a three-way interaction between sex, relationship status and GPS for intoxication frequency (b = 0.223; 95% CI = 0.013, 0.433), such that the reduced association between GPS and intoxication frequency for those in a relationship was only apparent in males. We found no evidence of three-way interactions for drinking frequency or AD symptoms. Conclusions Being in a romantic relationship reduced the association between genetic predisposition and drinking, high-risk drinking and alcohol problems. However, for high-risk drinking the protective effect was limited to males, mapping onto earlier findings suggesting that males benefit more from romantic partnerships.
  • Vaaramo, Kalle; Puljula, Jussi; Tetri, Sami; Juvela, Seppo; Hillbom, Matti (2014)
  • Adebayo, Folasade A.; Itkonen, Suvi T.; Lilja, Eero; Jaaskelainen, Tuija; Lundqvist, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Koponen, Paivikki; Cashman, Kevin D.; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel (2020)
    Objective: We investigated the determinants of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [S-25(OH)D] and dietary vitamin D sources among three immigrant groups in Finland and compared their S-25(OH)D to the general Finnish population. Design: Cross-sectional population-based Migrant Health and Wellbeing Study and the nationally representative Finnish Health 2011 Survey. S-25(OH)D was standardised according to the Vitamin D Standardisation Program. Vitamin D sources were assessed by interview. Setting: Six different municipalities in Finland (60 degrees-63 degrees N). Participants: Immigrants aged 18-64 years (446 Russians, 346 Somalis, 500 Kurds), 798 Finns aged 30-64 years. Results: The mean of S-25(OH)D was 64 (95 % CI 62, 66), 44 (95 % CI 41, 46), 35 (95 % CI 34, 37) and 64 (95 % CI 62, 66) nmol/l for Russians, Somalis, Kurds and Finns, respectively. S-25(OH)D among Somalis and Kurds was lower compared with Finns (P <0 center dot 001). The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (S-25(OH)D