Browsing by Subject "DRINKING-WATER"

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  • Siren, Heli; Tavaststjerna, Tuomas; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2021)
    The research was done with partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography, and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography. The study focuses on determination of male and female steroids from cold and hot tap water of households in Helsinki City. The district ' s raw water is made run from Paijanne Lake through a water tunnel to the purification plants in Helsinki area. The effluents delivered from the plants to households as tap water were sampled and used for the study. They were concentrated with solid phase extraction to exceed the detection limits of the three methods. With partial filling method the limits were 0.50, 0.48, 0.33, and 0.50 mg/L for androsterone, testosterone, progesterone, and testosterone-glucuronide, respectively. In microemulsion method the limit values were 1.33, 1.11, and 0.40 mg/L for androsterone, testosterone, and progesterone, respectively, and 0.83, 0.45, and 0.50 mg/L for hydrocortisone, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and 17-alpha-methyltestosterone, respectively. In the tap water samples, progesterone concentrations represented the highest values being 0.22 and 1.18 ng/L in cold and hot water, respectively. They also contained testosterone (in all samples), its glucuronide metabolite (in 25% of the samples), and androstenedione (in 75% of the samples). The ultra-high liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection was used for identification of the steroids at mu g/L level. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tuomisto, Jouko; Airaksinen, Riikka; Pekkanen, Juha; Tukiainen, Erkki; Kiviranta, Hannu; Tuomisto, Jouni T. (2017)
    Soft-tissue sarcoma is one of the few specific tumors thought to be caused by polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and specifically TCDD. Evidence is, however, based on questionnaire-based case-control studies, and on very few cancer cases in cohort studies at high occupational exposures to chlorophenols or chlorophenoxy acid herbicides with dioxin impurities. Recall bias has been suspected to influence the reporting of exposure, but this possibility has never been adequately put to test. In the present study 87 cancer patients and 308 controls answered a questionnaire asking their exposure to wood preservatives, fungicides and herbicides, and insecticides, and their PCDD/ F concentrations were also measured. After matching for age and area 67-69 sarcoma patients and 153156 controls were available for the study depending on the chemical group, 1-3 controls for each sarcoma patient. Sarcoma patients reported exposure to these chemicals significantly more often than controls did, odds ratios were 6.7 for wood preservatives (p = 0.02), 16 for fungicides and herbicides (p = 0.01), and 4.9 for insecticides (p = 0.06). There was no association, when the analysis was based on measured PCDD/ F concentrations (odds ratios close to 1). Although it is not possible to exclude the role of the main chemical as the cause with certainty, the results indicate that recall bias is very likely in previous studies. Thus the causality between contaminant PCDD/Fs and soft tissue sarcoma cannot be considered proven. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Atashgahi, Siavash; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Humans and their associated microbiomes are exposed to numerous xenobiotics through drugs, dietary components, personal care products as well as environmental chemicals. Most of the reciprocal interactions between the microbiota and xenobiotics, such as halogenated compounds, occur within the human gut harboring diverse and dense microbial communities. Here, we provide an overview of the flux of halogenated compounds in the environment, and diverse exposure routes of human microbiota to these compounds. Subsequently, we review the impact of halogenated compounds in perturbing the structure and function of gut microbiota and host cells. In turn, cultivation-dependent and metagenomic surveys of dehalogenating genes revealed the potential of the gut microbiota to chemically alter halogenated xenobiotics and impact their fate. Finally, we provide an outlook for future research to draw attention and attract interest to study the bidirectional impact of halogenated and other xenobiotic compounds and the gut microbiota.
  • Kauppinen, A.; Al-Hello, H.; Zacheus, O.; Kilponen, J.; Maunula, L.; Huusko, S.; Lappalainen, M.; Miettinen, I.; Blomqvist, S.; Rimhanen-Finne, R. (2017)
  • Jalava, Katri; Rintala, Hanna; Ollgren, Jukka; Maunula, Leena; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Revez, Joana; Palander, Marja; Antikainen, Jenni; Kauppinen, Ari; Räsänen, Pia; Siponen, Sallamaari; Nyholm, Outi; Kyyhkynen, Aino; Hakkarainen, Sirpa; Merentie, Juhani; Pärnänen, Martti; Loginov, Raisa; Ryu, Hodon; Kuusi, Markku; Siitonen, Anja; Miettinen, Ilkka; Domingo, Jorge W. Santo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Pitkänen, Tarja (2014)
  • Plutzer, Judit; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Kucsera, Istvan; Dorbek-Kolin, Elisabeth; Soba, Barbara; Sreter, Tamas; Imre, Kalman; Omeragic, Jasmin; Nikolic, Aleksandra; Bobic, Branko; Zivicnjak, Tatjana; Lucinger, Snjezana; Stefanovic, Lorena Lazaric; Kucinar, Jasmina; Sroka, Jacek; Deksne, Gunita; Keidane, Dace; Kvac, Martin; Huzova, Zuzana; Karanis, Panagiotis (2018)
    Introduction: This paper reviews the current knowledge and understanding of Cryptosporidium spp. an d Giardia spp. in humans, animals and the environment in 10 countries in the eastern part of Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia. Methods: Published scientific papers and conference proceedings from the international and local literature, official national health service reports, national databases and doctoral theses in local languages were reviewed to provide an extensive overview on the epidemiology, diagnostics and research on these pathogens, as well as analyse knowledge gaps and areas for further research. Results: Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. were found to be common in eastern Europe, but the results from different countries are difficult to compare because of variations in reporting practices and detection methodologies used. Conclusion: Upgrading and making the diagnosis/detection procedures more uniform is recommended throughout the region. Public health authorities should actively work towards increasing reporting and standardising reporting practices as these prerequisites for the reported data to be valid and therefore necessary for appropriate control plans.
  • EFSA Panel Nutr Novel Foods Food A; Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2019)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on heat-killed Mycobacterium setense manresensis as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is an encapsulated ingredient composed of 200 mg mannitol and