Browsing by Subject "DRONNING MAUD LAND"

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  • Luttinen, Arto V. (2018)
    In the Karoo large igneous province, the geochemical assessment of mantle source variability and structure is hampered by probable crustal contamination overprinting of compositionally diverse flood basalts. Mantle source characteristics have been defined only for exceptional, primitive rock types. Here I use a compiled dataset for over 800 samples to demonstrate that the abundance of Nb relative to Zr, Ti, and Y provides a useful geochemical tracer of mantle sources for variably contaminated rock types of the Karoo province. Variations in the relative abundance of Nb reveal emplacement of distinctive, Nb-undepleted and Nb-depleted magmas in the North Karoo and South Karoo sub-provinces, respectively, and clarify correlation between flood basalts and previously proposed mantle source components. Judging from plate tectonic reconstructions and the compositions of plausible mantle source components, the geochemical bilateral asymmetry in Karoo may reflect tapping of contrasting plume and upper mantle reservoirs in the two sub-provinces.
  • Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Veikkolainen, Toni; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Piispa, Elisa; Ots, Siim; Smirnov, Aleksey V.; Kulakov, Evgeniy V.; Biggin, Andrew J. (2019)
    Nearly three decades ago paleomagnetists suggested that there existed a clear link between latitude dependence of geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV) and reversal frequency. Here we compare the latitude behavior of PSV for the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (CNS, 84–126 Ma, stable normal polarity) and the preceding Early Cretaceous‐Jurassic interval (pre‐CNS, 126–198 Ma, average reversal rate of ~4.6 Myr−1). We find that the CNS was characterized by a strong increase in the angular dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) with latitude, which is consistent with the results of earlier studies, whereas the VGP dispersion for the pre‐CNS period was nearly invariant with latitude. However, the PSV behavior for the last 5 or 10 million years (average reversal frequency of ~4.4–4.8 Myr−1) shows that the latitude invariance of VGP scatter cannot be considered as a characteristic feature of a frequently reversing field and that a strong increase in VGP dispersion with latitude was not restricted to the long periods of stable polarity. We discuss models describing the latitude dependence of PSV and show that their parameters are not reliable proxies for reversal frequency and should not be used to make inferences about the geomagnetic field stability. During the pre‐CNS interval, the geodynamo may have operated in a regime characterized by a high degree of equatorial symmetry. In contrast, more asymmetric geodynamos suggested for 0–10 Ma and the CNS were evidently capable of producing a very wide range of reversal frequencies.
  • Luttinen, Arto; Kurhila, Matti; Puttonen, Riina; Whitehouse, Martin; Andersen, Tom (2022)
    New U-Pb ages for zircons constrain the duration of silicic magmatism and timing of coeval mafic magmatism across the main rift zone of the Karoo large igneous province in Mozambique. Our 190 +/- 2 Ma, 188.4 +/- 0.9 Ma, 181.7 +/- 1.0 Ma, 180 +/- 3 Ma, 178 +/- 2 Ma and 172 +/- 2 Ma ages support periodicity of Karoo magmatism previously inferred from 40Ar/39Ar age data. The - 190-188 Ma ages confirm early onset of magmatism and the - 182-178 Ma ages correlate the bimodal volcanic successions of the Lower Zambezi and the Movene Formation with widespread silicic magmatism across the rift zone. The - 172 Ma age corresponds to waning magmatic activity. The age range and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons indicate up to -9 Ma lifespan for the Jurassic silicic magma chambers and suggest that the -2700-400 Ma xenocrysts represent crustal sources of the host rocks. The available chronological data indicate that the -183 Ma main phase magmatism was largely confined within the main Karoo and Kalahari basins and that the preceding and subsequent phases were mainly associated with the Karoo rift zone. Judging from geochemical literature, different kinds of magmas were erupted during the successive magmatic phases. We calculate from published geochemical data that the mafic main phase magmas were relatively poor in CO2 and SO2 and the lava stacking patterns point to low eruption rates, which suggests that degassing of sedimentary wall-rocks of intrusions probably triggered the coeval Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. In contrast, the mafic late phase magmas were rich in CO2 and SO2 and at least some of the lavas indicate high eruption rates. We propose that efficient degassing from widespread mafic magmatism and explosive eruption of over 30,000 km3 of silicic magmas in the Karoo rift zone linked the -182-178 Ma late phase magmatism with contemporaneous global biosphere crises. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for Gondwana Research. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( 4.0/).
  • Sinclair, V. A.; Dacre, H. F. (2019)
    Predicted changes in Southern Hemisphere (SH) precipitation and Antarctic ice mass correspond to variations in the meridional moisture flux (MMF). Thirty-five years of ERA-Interim reanalysis data are combined with an extratropical cyclone (ETC) identification and tracking algorithm to investigate factors controlling SH MMF variability in the midlatitudes and near Antarctica. ETC characteristics which exert the strongest control on ETC MMF are determined thus identifying which ETCs contribute most to SH moisture transport. ETC poleward propagation speed exerts the strongest control on the ETC MMF across the Antarctic coastline. In SH winter, ETCs with the largest poleward propagation speeds transport 2.5 times more moisture than an average ETC. In the midlatitudes, ETC genesis latitude and poleward propagation speed have a similar influence on ETC MMF. Surprisingly, ETC maximum vorticity has little control on ETC MMF. Cyclone compositing is used to determine the reasons for these statistical relationships. ETCs generally exhibit a dipole of poleward and equatorward MMF downstream and upstream of the cyclone center, respectively. However, ETCs with the largest poleward propagation speeds resemble open frontal waves with strong poleward moisture transport downstream of the cyclone center only and thus result in the largest MMF. These results suggest that inhomogeneous trends and predicted changes in precipitation over Antarctica may be due to changes in cyclone track orientation, associated with changes to the large-scale background flow, in addition to changes in cyclone number or intensity.