Browsing by Subject "DROUGHT"

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  • Mencuccini, Maurizio; Salmon, Yann; Mitchell, Patrick; Hölttä, Teemu; Choat, Brendan; Meir, Patrick; O'Grady, Anthony; Tissue, David; Zweifel, Roman; Sevanto, Sanna; Pfautsch, Sebastian (2017)
    Substantial uncertainty surrounds our knowledge of tree stem growth, with some of the most basic questions, such as when stem radial growth occurs through the daily cycle, still unanswered. We employed high-resolution point dendrometers, sap flow sensors, and developed theory and statistical approaches, to devise a novel method separating irreversible radial growth from elastic tension-driven and elastic osmotically driven changes in bark water content. We tested this method using data from five case study species. Experimental manipulations, namely a field irrigation experiment on Scots pine and a stem girdling experiment on red forest gum trees, were used to validate the theory. Time courses of stem radial growth following irrigation and stem girdling were consistent with a-priori predictions. Patterns of stem radial growth varied across case studies, with growth occurring during the day and/or night, consistent with the available literature. Importantly, our approach provides a valuable alternative to existing methods, as it can be approximated by a simple empirical interpolation routine that derives irreversible radial growth using standard regression techniques. Our novel method provides an improved understanding of the relative source-sink carbon dynamics of tree stems at a sub-daily time scale.
  • Fang, Keyan; Makkonen, Risto; Guo, Zhengtang; Zhao, Yan; Seppä, Heikki (2015)
    A significant wetting trend since the early 1980s in Tibetan Plateau (TP) is most conspicuous in central and eastern Asia as shown in the instrumental data and the long-term moisture sensitive tree rings. We found that anomalies in the large-scale oceanic and atmospheric circulations do not play a significant role on the wetting trend in TP. Meanwhile, the weak correlation between local temperature and precipitation suggests that the temperature-induced enhancement of the local water cycle cannot fully explain the wetting trend either. This may indicate the presence of nonlinear processes between local temperature and precipitation. We hypothesize that the current warming may enhance the emissions of the biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) that can increase the secondary organic aerosols (SOA), contributing to the precipitation increase. The wetting trend can increase the vegetation cover and cause a positive feedback on the BVOC emissions. Our simulations indicate a significant contribution of increased BVOC emissions to the regional organic aerosol mass and the simulated increase in BVOC emissions is significantly correlated with the wetting trend in TP.
  • Liu, Miao; Liu, Xiucheng; Du, Xuhua; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    Synergistic regulation in leaf architecture and photosynthesis is essential for salt tolerance. However, how plant sex and inorganic nitrogen sources alter salt stress-dependent photosynthesis remains unknown. Leaf anatomical characteristics and photosynthesis of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males were investigated under salt stress conditions combined with nitrate NO3- and ammonium NH4+ supplies to clarify the underlying mechanisms. In salt-stressed females, we observed an increased mesophyll spongy cell density, a reduced chloroplast density, a decreased surface area of chloroplasts adjacent to the intercellular air space (S-c/S) and an increased mesophyll cell area per transverse section width (S/W), consequently causing mesophyll conductance (g(m)) and photosynthesis inhibition, especially under NH4+ supply. Conversely, males with a greater mesophyll palisade tissue thickness and chloroplast density, but a lower spongy cell density had lower S/W and higher S-c/S, and higher g(m) and photosynthesis. NH4+-fed females had a lower CO2 conductance through cell wall and stromal conductance perpendicular to the cell wall, but a higher chloroplast conductance from the cell wall (g(cyt1)) than females supplied with NO3-, whereas males had a higher chloroplast conductance and lower CO2 conductance through cell wall when supplied with NO3- instead of NH4+ under salt stress. These findings indicate sex-specific strategies in coping with salt stress related to leaf anatomy and g(m) under both types of nitrogen supplies, which may contribute to sex-specific CO2 capture and niche segregation.
  • Tienaho, Jenni; Karonen, Maarit; Muilu-Mäkelä, Riina; Kaseva, Janne; de Pedro, Nuria; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Aapola, Ulla; Uusitalo, Hannu; Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Franzen, Robert; Wähälä, Kristiina; Karp, Matti; Santala, Ville; Sarjala, Tytti (2020)
    Despite the continuing interest in various plant and natural products, only a small portion of the biologically active compounds from nature has been discovered and exploited. In this study, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of aqueous fractions of three endophytic fungi isolated from the roots of 8-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) growing on a drained peatland were investigated. The endophytic fungi species were Acephala applanata, Phialocephala fortinii, and Humicolopsis cephalosporioides/Coniochaeta mutabilis. The bioactivities were examined using hydrogen peroxide scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance capacity tests as well as sensitive Escherichia coli-based biosensors, which produce a luminescent signal in the presence of substances with oxidative or genotoxic properties. In addition, cell models for Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, and osteoarthritis were used to evaluate the potential for pharmaceutical applications. The aqueous extracts of fungi and 19 out of 42 fractions were found to be active in one or more of the tests used. However, no activity was found in the age-related macular degeneration and osteoarthritis cell model tests. Additionally, bioactivity data was connected with metabolites putatively annotated, and out of 330 metabolites, 177 were interesting in view of the bioactivities investigated. A majority of these were peptides and all three fungal species shared a highly similar metabolome. We propose that Scots pine endophytic fungi are a rich source of interesting metabolites, and synergistic effects may cause the bioactivities, as they were found to vary after the fractionation process.
  • de Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Balzter, Heiko; Galvão, Lênio S.; Dalagnol, Ricardo; Espírito-Santo, Fernando; Santos, Erone G.; Garcia, Mariano; Bispo, Polyanna Da Conceição; Oliveira, Raimundo C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E. (2020)
    Tropical forests hold significant amounts of carbon and play a critical role on Earth ' s climate system. To date, carbon dynamics over tropical forests have been poorly assessed, especially over vast areas of the tropics that have been affected by some type of disturbance (e.g., selective logging, understory fires, and fragmentation). Understanding the multi-temporal dynamics of carbon stocks over human-modified tropical forests (HMTF) is crucial to close the carbon cycle balance in the tropics. Here, we used multi-temporal and high-spatial resolution airborne LiDAR data to quantify rates of carbon dynamics over a large patch of HMTF in eastern Amazon, Brazil. We described a robust approach to monitor changes in aboveground forest carbon stocks between 2012 and 2018. Our results showed that this particular HMTF lost 0.57 myr(-1) in mean forest canopy height and 1.38 MgCha(-1)yr(-1) of forest carbon between 2012 and 2018. LiDAR-based estimates of Aboveground Carbon Density (ACD) showed progressive loss through the years, from 77.9 MgCha(-1) in 2012 to 53.1 MgCha(-1) in 2018, thus a decrease of 31.8%. Rates of carbon stock changes were negative for all time intervals analyzed, yielding average annual carbon loss rates of -1.34 MgCha(-1)yr(-1). This suggests that this HMTF is acting more as a source of carbon than a sink, having great negative implications for carbon emission scenarios in tropical forests. Although more studies of forest dynamics in HMTFs are necessary to reduce the current remaining uncertainties in the carbon cycle, our results highlight the persistent effects of carbon losses for the study area. HMTFs are likely to expand across the Amazon in the near future. The resultant carbon source conditions, directly associated with disturbances, may be essential when considering climate projections and carbon accounting methods.
  • Zweifel, Roman; Etzold, Sophia; Sterck, Frank; Gessler, Arthur; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Mencuccini, Maurizio; von Arx, Georg; Lazzarin, Martina; Haeni, Matthias; Feichtinger, Linda; Meusburger, Katrin; Knuesel, Simon; Walthert, Lorenz; Salmon, Yann; Bose, Arun K.; Schoenbeck, Leonie; Hug, Christian; De Girardi, Nicolas; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Schaub, Marcus; Rigling, Andreas (2020)
    Tree responses to altered water availability range from immediate (e.g. stomatal regulation) to delayed (e.g. crown size adjustment). The interplay of the different response times and processes, and their effects on long-term whole-tree performance, however, is hardly understood. Here we investigated legacy effects on structures and functions of mature Scots pine in a dry inner-Alpine Swiss valley after stopping an 11-yr lasting irrigation treatment. Measured ecophysiological time series were analysed and interpreted with a system-analytic tree model. We found that the irrigation stop led to a cascade of downregulations of physiological and morphological processes with different response times. Biophysical processes responded within days, whereas needle and shoot lengths, crown transparency, and radial stem growth reached control levels after up to 4 yr only. Modelling suggested that organ and carbon reserve turnover rates play a key role for a tree's responsiveness to environmental changes. Needle turnover rate was found to be most important to accurately model stem growth dynamics. We conclude that leaf area and its adjustment time to new conditions is the main determinant for radial stem growth of pine trees as the transpiring area needs to be supported by a proportional amount of sapwood, despite the growth-inhibiting environmental conditions.
  • Vesala, Timo; Sevanto, Sanna; Grönholm, Tiia; Salmon, Yann; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hari, Pertti; Hölttä, Teemu (2017)
    The pull of water from the soil to the leaves causes water in the transpiration stream to be under negative pressure decreasing the water potential below zero. The osmotic concentration also contributes to the decrease in leaf water potential but withmuch lesser extent. Thus, the surface tension force is approximately balanced by a force induced by negative water potential resulting in concavely curved water-air interfaces in leaves. The lowered water potential causes a reduction in the equilibrium water vapor pressure in internal (sub-stomatal/ intercellular) cavities in relation to that over water with the potential of zero, i.e., over the flat surface. The curved surface causes a reduction also in the equilibrium vapor pressure of dissolved CO2, thus enhancing its physical solubility to water. Although the water vapor reduction is acknowledged by plant physiologists its consequences for water vapor exchange at low water potential values have received very little attention. Consequences of the enhanced CO2 solubility to a leaf water-carbon budget have not been considered at all before this study. We use theoretical calculations and modeling to show how the reduction in the vapor pressures affects transpiration and carbon assimilation rates. Our results indicate that the reduction in vapor pressures of water and CO2 could enhance plant water use efficiency up to about 10% at a leaf water potential of -2 MPa, and much more when water potential decreases further. The low water potential allows for a direct stomatal water vapor uptake from the ambient air even at sub-100% relative humidity values. This alone could explain the observed rates of foliar water uptake by e.g., the coastal redwood in the fog belt region of coastal California provided the stomata are sufficiently open. The omission of the reduction in the water vapor pressure causes a bias in the estimates of the stomatal conductance and leaf internal CO2 concentration based on leaf gas exchange measurements. Manufactures of leaf gas exchange measurement systems should incorporate leaf water potentials in measurement set-ups.
  • Xie, Long; Timonen, Sari; Gange, Alan; Kuoppamäki, Kirsi; Hagner, Marleena; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2022)
    Background Vegetated building envelopes (VBEs), such as vegetated roofs and facades, are becoming more frequent in urban planning nowadays. However, harsh growing conditions restrain the application of VBEs. Plant growth-promoting microbes (PGPMs) might help ease the stresses, but first, it is necessary to investigate how to ensure their survival and growth under VBE conditions. Methods We conducted three experiments to test the impact of various factors on the microbial populations of inoculated PGPMs in VBEs, a mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis and a bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The first experiment was conducted by inoculating the two PGPMs separately in Sedum roof plots, and the microbial populations associated with Poa alpina was monitored for two consecutive years under local weather conditions. The second experiment was conducted in a laboratory testing the effect of substrate pH (substrates collected from balcony gardens) on R. irregularis population associated with Trifolium repens and Viola tricolor. The third experiment was conducted on a meadow roof testing the effect of biochar amendment on R. irregularis population associated with Thymus serpyllum and Fragaria vesca. Results In the first experiment, Bacillus was found to associate with P. alpina, but Rhizophagus wasn't. Yet, the fungus induced high Bacillus population density in the Rhizophagus treated plots in the first year. In the second experiment, Rhizophagus abundance in T. repens was higher in the neutral substrate (6–6.5), while V. tricolor was more colonized in acidic substrate (5–5.5), suggesting an important interactive effect of substrate pH and plant species on Rhizophagus abundance. The third experiment suggested a negligible impact of biochar amendment on Rhizophagus abundance for both host plants. Conclusion Three experiments demonstrate that PGPM inoculation on VBEs is feasible, and various factors and interactions affect the PGPM populations. This paper provides reference and inspiration for other VBE research involving substrate microbial manipulation.
  • Ryhti, Kira; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Tang, Yu; Rinne-Garmston, Katja T.; Ding, Yiyang; Pumpanen, Jukka; Biasi, Christina; Saurer, Matthias; Bäck, Jaana; Kulmala, Liisa (2022)
    In warming climates, soil water content (SWC) may act as an important factor in determining belowground carbon dynamics in boreal forests. Here, we estimated the respiration and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations of tree roots in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand in southern Finland during two growing seasons with contrasting weather conditions. Root respiration was estimated with four different methods: 1) incubating excised roots, 2) partitioning forest floor respirations with root exclusion, or 3) based on temperature response functions and 4) modelling with the whole-tree carbon model 'CASSIA'. In addition, we conducted a drought experiment in a greenhouse to determine the effect of reduced soil-water availability on respiration by incubating soil and roots of Scots pine saplings. We observed that the respiration of incubated roots of Scots pine saplings and soil decreased with drying after excluding the effect of temperature on respiration (RRES), soil being more sensitive to drought than roots. Similarly, RRES of incubated roots in the field was significantly decreased by lowered SWC, whereas respiration of the entire root system estimated with other methods was clearly higher in dryer and warmer than moister and cooler year. Nevertheless, incubated roots excavated from the topsoil are most affected by drying soil, which might not reflect the response of the entire root system. RRES of incubated roots was negatively associated with root fructose and glucose concentrations. At the same time, root fructose, glucose and sucrose concentrations were negatively associated with SWC due to their role in osmoregulation. Thereby it seems that RRES does not directly follow the changes in NSCs despite the apparent correlation. Our study highlights the responsive nature of root carbon dynamics in varying weather events that should be taken into account in estimating and modelling the impacts of warming climate.
  • Linnakoski, Riikka; Sugano, Junko; Junttila, Samuli; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Asiegbu, Fred O.; Forbes, Kristian M. (2017)
    Norway spruce is one of the most important commercial forestry species in Europe, and is commonly infected by the bark beetle-vectored necrotrophic fungus, Endoconidiophora polonica. Spruce trees display a restricted capacity to respond to environmental perturbations, and we hypothesized that water limitation will increase disease severity in this pathosystem. To test this prediction, 737 seedlings were randomized to high (W+) or low (W-) water availability treatment groups, and experimentally inoculated with one of three E. polonica strains or mock-inoculated. Seedling mortality was monitored throughout an annual growing season, and total seedling growth and lesion length indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Seedling growth was greater in the W+ than W- treatment group, demonstrating limitation due to water availability. For seedlings infected with two of the fungal strains, no differences in disease severity occurred in response to water availability. For the third fungal strain, however, greater disease severity (mortality and lesion lengths) occurred in W- than W+ seedlings. While the co-circulation in nature of multiple E. polonica strains of varying virulence is known, this is the first experimental evidence that water availability can alter strain-specific disease severity.
  • Chen, Juan; Liu, Quan; Yu, Lei; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2021)
    It remains unclear how global climate change affects dioecious plants that may be especially vulnerable to climate drivers, because they often exhibit skewed sex ratios and eco-physiological specialization in certain microhabitats. In this study, female and male saplings of Populus cathayana were employed to explore sex-specific responses and the effects of sexual competition under elevated temperature (ET), elevated CO2 (EC) and combination of elevated temperature and CO2 (ETC). The results demonstrated that elevated temperature and CO2 interactively modulated sexual competition and responses of P. cathayana. Moreover, competition patterns affected the eco-physiological responses of P. cathayana to climate change treatments. Under both intra- and inter-sexual competition, biomass components, photosynthetic parameters and carbon-related metabolites of females were most strongly affected by ET, while males exhibited a higher photosynthesis and resource use efficiency, and a better biomass accumulation and carbon balance mechanism when compared to females when experiencing intra-sexual competition under EC. The competitive pressure of females on males in inter-sexual competition was intensified by ET, while it was alleviated by ETC. We conclude that climate change drivers and competition patterns differently regulate the sex-specific responses and competitive intensity of males and females, which may have a crucial effect on sex ratios, spatial sexual segregation, biomass production and carbon sequestration in dioecious species in the future.
  • Huang, Bin; Huang, Zhinuo; Ma, Ruifang; Chen, Jialu; Zhang, Zhijun; Yrjälä, Kim (2021)
    Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are central elements in the regulatory network that controls plant heat stress response. They are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in heat stress signaling and responses to a variety of other stresses. We identified 41 members of the HSF gene family in moso bamboo, which were distributed non-uniformly across its 19 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo HSF genes could be divided into three major subfamilies; HSFs from the same subfamily shared relatively conserved gene structures and sequences and encoded similar amino acids. All HSF genes contained HSF signature domains. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that about 80% of the HSF proteins were located in the nucleus, consistent with the results of GO enrichment analysis. A large number of stress response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the HSF upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that the HSFs in the moso bamboo genome had greater collinearity with those of rice and maize than with those of Arabidopsis and pepper. Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo HSF gene family. Transcriptome data indicated that the expression of a number of PeHsfs differed in response to exogenous gibberellin (GA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). A number of HSF genes were highly expressed in the panicles and in young shoots, suggesting that they may have functions in reproductive growth and the early development of rapidly-growing shoots. This study provides fundamental information on members of the bamboo HSF gene family and lays a foundation for further study of their biological functions in the regulation of plant responses to adversity.
  • Kulmala, Liisa; Read, Jesse; Nöjd, Pekka; Rathgeber, Cyrille B.K.; Cuny, Henri E.; Hollmén, Jaakko; Mäkinen, Harri (2017)
    Even though studies monitoring the phenology and seasonal dynamics of the wood formation have accumulated for several conifer species across the Northern Hemisphere, the environmental control of tracheid production and differentiation is still fragmentary. With microcore and environmental data from six stands in Finland and France, we built auto-calibrated data-driven black box models for analyzing the most important factors controlling the tracheid production and maturation in Scots pine stem. In the best models, estimation was accurate to within a fraction of a tracheid per week. We compared the relative results of models built using different predictors, and found that the rate of tracheid production was partly regular but current and previous air temperature had influence on the sites in the middle of the temperature range and photosynthetic production in the coldest ones. The rate of mature cell production was more difficult to relate to the predictors but recent photosynthetic production was included in all successful models.
  • Abera, Temesgen; Heiskanen, Janne; Pellikka, Petri; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Precipitation extremes have a strong influence on the exchange of energy and water between the land surface and the atmosphere. Although the Horn of Africa has faced recurrent drought and flood events in recent decades, it is still unclear how these events impact energy exchange and surface temperature across different ecosystems. Here, we analyzed the impact of precipitation extremes on spectral albedo (total shortwave, visible, and near-infrared (NIR) broadband albedos), energy balance, and surface temperature in four natural vegetation types: forest, savanna, grassland, and shrubland. We used remotely sensed observations of surface biophysical properties and climate from 2001 to 2016. Our results showed that, in forests and savannas, precipitation extremes led to divergent spectral changes in visible and NIR albedos, which cancelled each other limiting shortwave albedo changes. An exception to this pattern was observed in shrublands and grasslands, where both visible and NIR albedo increased during drought events. Given that shrublands and grasslands occupy a large fraction of the Horn of Africa (52%), our results unveil the importance of these ecosystems in driving the magnitude of shortwave radiative forcing in the region. The average regional shortwave radiative forcing during drought events (-0.64 W m(-2), SD 0.11) was around twice that of the extreme wet events (0.33 W m(-2), SD 0.09). Such shortwave forcing, however, was too small to influence the surface-atmosphere coupling. In contrast, the surface feedback through turbulent flux changes was strong across vegetation types and had a significant (P <0.05) impact on the surface temperature and net radiation anomalies, except in forests. The strongest energy exchange and surface temperature anomalies were observed over grassland and the smallest over forest, which was shown to be resilient to precipitation extremes. These results suggest that land management activities that support forest preservation, afforestation, and reforestation can help to mitigate the impact of drought through their role in modulating energy fluxes and surface temperature anomalies in the region.
  • Rosa, Elena; Minard, Guillaume; Lindholm, Johanna; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2019)
    While host plant drought is generally viewed as a negative phenomenon, its impact on insect herbivores can vary largely depending on the species involved and on the intensity of the drought. Extreme drought killing host plants can clearly reduce herbivore fitness, but the impact of moderate host plant water stress on insect herbivores can vary, and may even be beneficial. The populations of the Finnish Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) have faced reduced precipitation in recent years, with impacts even on population dynamics. Whether the negative effects of low precipitation are solely due to extreme desiccation killing the host plant or whether moderate drought reduces plant quality for the larvae remains unknown. We assessed the performance of larvae fed on moderately water-stressed Plantago lanceolata in terms of growth, survival, and immune response, and additionally were interested to assess whether the gut microbial composition of the larvae changed due to modification of the host plant. We found that larvae fed on water-stressed plants had increased growth, with no impact on survival, up-regulated the expression of one candidate immune gene (pelle), and had a more heterogeneous bacterial community and a shifted fungal community in the gut. Most of the measured traits showed considerable variation due to family structure. Our data suggest that in temperate regions moderate host plant water stress can positively shape resource acquisition of this specialized insect herbivore, potentially by increasing nutrient accessibility or concentration. Potentially, the better larval performance may be mediated by a shift of the microbiota on water-stressed plants, calling for further research especially on the understudied gut fungal community.
  • Yu, Fei; Yi, Lita; Mao, Xiaoyu; Song, Qi; Korpelainen, Helena; Liu, Meihua (2022)
    Cadmium (Cd) toxicity and nitrogen (N) deposition are two major environmental stresses which can affect plant growth. It's less clear that how the combined Cd accumulation and N deposition affect the male and female plants of dioecious species. The aim of the present study was to detect sex-specific responses to Cd stress and simulated N deposition in one-year-old male, female and hermaphrodite seedlings of Morus alba. Changes in morphology, physiology, root architecture and biomass of the three sex types of mulberry seedlings were determined. The results showed that Cd toxicity caused limited growth, impaired photosynthetic apparatus and decreased gas exchange rates with significant sex-specific differences. Mulberry was found to deploy detoxification mechanisms to avoid or tolerate toxic Cd effects through the activation of the antioxidant system, increasing proline and non-protein thiol contents, translocating Cd into different plant parts and decreasing biomass. Females displayed a low tolerance to high Cd and were more sensitive to Cd stress. Simulated N deposition alleviated the negative effects of Cd on leaves and decreased sex-specific differences in the three kinds of mulberry seedlings, but N fertilizer did not affect the total biomass. The N-stimulated increasing in proline and non-protein thiol contents might play a crucial role in resisting the damage caused by Cd stress, and the three kinds of mulberry seedlings had slightly different ways of improving Cd tolerance by N deposition. Sexual differences in Cd accumulation are correlated with root architecture. This study provides evidence for the utilization of mulberry to treat Cd-contaminated soils under N deposition.
  • Wasonga, Daniel O.; Kleemola, Jouko; Alakukku, Laura; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A. (2020)
    Water deficit limits cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) productivity in drought-prone areas and alters the nutritive quality of the crop. Potassium (K) may mitigate the effects of water deficit and improve the nutritional content of cassava, which would alleviate malnutrition among the human population in the tropics who depend on cassava as a staple food. Pot experiments were conducted under controlled glasshouse conditions to investigate the influence of deficit irrigation and K fertigation on the nutritive and anti-nutritive quality of biofortified cassava during the early growth phase. Treatments initiated at 30 days after planting were three irrigation doses (30, 60, 100% pot capacity) that were split to five K (0.01, 1, 4, 16, and 32 mM) concentrations. Plants were harvested at 90 days after planting, and the starch, energy, carotenoid, crude protein, fiber, minerals, and cyanide concentration of the leaves and roots were determined. Irrigation and K treatments showed significant (P <0.05) interactions for starch, carotenoid, energy, and cyanide concentration. An irrigation dose of 30% together with 0.01 mM K resulted in the lowest starch, carotenoid, energy, and fiber content, but highest cyanide concentration, relative to full-irrigated (100%) plants together with 16 mM K. When the K application rate was 16 mM the best nutritional quality was obtained, with the lowest cyanide concentration, regardless of irrigation dose. Moreover, nutritional traits showed strong positive associations, whereas cyanide concentration correlated negatively with all the nutritional traits. Notably, an irrigation dose of 60% together with 16 mM K reduced the nutritional content the least and showed minimal increase in cyanide concentration. The results indicate that K fertigation with adjusted irrigation may improve the dietary quality of young cassava and reduce antinutrients, which could enhance the nutrient bioavailability of cassava grown in drought-prone areas.
  • Aalto, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Gao, Yao; Härkönen, Sanna; Härmä, Pekka; Kilkki, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Laurila, Tuomas; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Manninen, Terhikki; Markkanen, Tiina; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Metsamaki, Sari; Muukkonen, Petteri; Mäkelä, Annikki; Pulliainen, Jouni; Susiluoto, Jouni; Takala, Matias; Thum, Tea; Tupek, Boris; Törmä, Markus; Arslan, Ali Nadir (2015)
  • Abera, Temesgen Alemayehu; Heiskanen, Janne Hermanni; Pellikka, Petri Kauko Emil; Maeda, Eduardo Eiji (2018)
    Climate–vegetation interaction can be perturbed by human activities through deforestation and natural extreme climatic events. These perturbations can affect the energy and water balance, exacerbating heat stress associated with droughts. Such phenomena are particularly relevant in the Horn of Africa, given its economic and social vulnerability to environmental changes. In this paper, we used 16-year time series (2001–2016) of remotely sensed environmental data with the objective of 1) clarifying how rainfall–vegetation interaction affects land surface temperature (LST) seasonality across the Horn of Africa, and 2) evaluating how this interaction affects LST anomalies during forest loss and drought events. Our results showed that vegetation seasonality follows rainfall modality patterns in 81% of the region. On the other hand, seasonality of daytime LST was negatively related to vegetation greenness patterns across ecoregions, and rainfall modality. LST varied more strongly in grasslands and shrublands than over other vegetation classes. Comparison of LST before and after forest loss in three selected areas (two in Ethiopia and one in Kenya) revealed an annual average increase in LST of 0.7 °C, 1.8 °C, and 0.2 °C after climate variability correction, respectively. The average increase in LST was relatively high and consistent during dry months (1.5 °C, 3 °C, and 0.6 °C). As expected, the rainfall anomalies during droughts (2010/2011, 2015, and 2016) were positively correlated with vegetation greenness anomalies. Nonetheless, the degree with which vegetation cover is affected by extreme rainfall events has a strong influence in regulating the impact of droughts on temperature anomalies. This highlights the importance of vegetation resilience and land cover management in regulating the impact of extreme events.