Browsing by Subject "DRUG-DRUG INTERACTION"

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  • Itkonen, Matti K.; Tornio, Aleksi; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T. (2019)
    A recent in vitro study suggested that CYP2C8 is essential in the metabolism of desloratadine, an H1 receptor antagonist. If the proposed biotransformation mechanism takes place in vivo in humans, desloratadine could serve as a selective CYP2C8 probe substrate in drug-drug interaction studies. Glucuronide metabo-lites of clopidogrel and gemfibrozil act as time-dependent inhibitors of CYP2C8, but they have not been compared clinically. We conducted a randomized crossover study in 11 healthy subjects to characterize the involvement of CYP2C8 in desloratadine metabolism and to compare the CYP2C8 inhibitory strength of clopidogrel (300 and 75 mg on two following days) with that of gemfibrozil (600 mg BID for 5 days). Compared with placebo (control), clopidogrel increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) and peak plasma concentration (C-max) of desloratadine to 280% (P = 3 x 10(-7)) and 165% (P = 0.0006), respectively. The corresponding increases by gemfibrozil were to 462% (P = 4 x 10(-7)) and 174% (P = 0.0006). Compared with placebo, clopidogrel and gemfibrozil decreased 3-hydroxyloratadine AUC(0-71h) to 52% (P = 5 x 10(-5)) and 6%(P = 2 X 10(-8)), respectively. Moreover, the 3-hydroxydesloratadine: desloratadine AUC(0-71h) ratios were 21% (P = 7 x 10(-10)) and 1.7% (P = 8 x 10(-11)) of control during the clopidogrel and gemfibrozil phases. Our results confirm that CYP2C8 plays a critical role in the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine in humans, making desloratadine a potential CYP2C8 probe substrate. Furthermore, the findings corroborate the previous estimates that clinically relevant doses of clopidogrel cause strong CYP2C8 inhibition, whereas those of gemfibrozil almost completely inactivate the enzyme in humans.
  • Itkonen, Matti K.; Tornio, Aleksi; Lapatto-Reiniluoto, Outi; Neuvonen, Mikko; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Niemi, Mikko; Backman, Janne T. (2019)
    Dasabuvir is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8 and is predominantly used in a regimen containing ritonavir. Ritonavir and clopidogrel are inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C8, respectively. In a randomized, crossover study in 12 healthy subjects, we examined the impact of clinical doses of ritonavir (for 5 days), clopidogrel (for 3 days), and their combination on dasabuvir pharmacokinetics, and the effect of ritonavir on clopidogrel. Clopidogrel, but not ritonavir, increased the geometric mean AUC(0-infinity) of dasabuvir 4.7-fold; range 2.0-10.1-fold (P = 8 center dot 10(-7)), compared with placebo. Clopidogrel and ritonavir combination increased dasabuvir AUC(0-infinity) 3.9-fold; range 2.1-7.9-fold (P = 2 center dot 10(-6)), compared with ritonavir alone. Ritonavir decreased the AUC(0-4h) of clopidogrel active metabolite by 51% (P = 0.0001), and average platelet inhibition from 51% without ritonavir to 31% with ritonavir (P = 0.0007). In conclusion, clopidogrel markedly elevates dasabuvir concentrations, and patients receiving ritonavir are at risk for diminished clopidogrel response.
  • Deng, Feng; Tuomi, Suvi-Kukka; Neuvonen, Mikko; Hirvensalo, Päivi; Kulju, Sami; Wenzel, Christoph; Oswald, Stefan; Filppula, Anne M.; Niemi, Mikko (2021)
    Previous studies have shown that lipid-lowering statins are transported by various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. However, because of varying methods, it is difficult to compare the transport profiles of statins. Therefore, we investigated the transport of 10 statins or statin metabolites by six ABC transporters using human embryonic kidney cell-derived membrane vesicles. The transporter protein expression levels in the vesicles were quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and used to scale the measured clearances to tissue levels. In our study, apically expressed breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transported atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) transported atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, and, to a smaller extent, pravastatin. MRP4 transported fluvastatin and rosuvastatin. The scaled clearances suggest that BCRP contributes to 87%-91% and 84% of the total active efflux of rosuvastatin in the small intestine and the liver, respectively. For atorvastatin, the corresponding values for P-gp-mediated efflux were 43%-79% and 66%, respectively. MRP3, on the other hand, may contribute to 23%-26% and 25%-37% of total active efflux of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, and pitavastatin in jejunal enterocytes and liver hepatocytes, respectively. These data indicate that BCRP may play an important role in limiting the intestinal absorption and facilitating the biliary excretion of rosuvastatin and that P-gp may restrict the intestinal absorption and mediate the biliary excretion of atorvastatin. Moreover, the basolateral MRP3 may enhance the intestinal absorption and sinusoidal hepatic efflux of several statins. Taken together, the data show that statins differ considerably in their efflux transport profiles. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study characterized and compared the transport of atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin acid and four atorvastatin metabolites by six ABC transporters (BCRP, MRP2, MRP3, MRP4, MRP8, P-gp). Based on in vitro findings and protein abundance data, the study concludes that BCRP, MRP3, and P-gp have a major impact in the efflux of various statins. Together with in vitro metabolism, uptake transport, and clinical data, our findings are applicable for use in comparative systems pharmacology modeling of statins.
  • Lehtisalo, Minna; Keskitalo, Jenni E.; Tornio, Aleksi; Lapatto-Reiniluoto, Outi; Deng, Feng; Jaatinen, Taina; Viinamäki, Jenni; Neuvonen, Mikko; Backman, Janne T.; Niemi, Mikko (2020)
    Xanthine oxidase inhibitors febuxostat and allopurinol are commonly used in the treatment of gout. Febuxostat inhibits the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in vitro. Rosuvastatin is a BCRP substrate and genetic variability in BCRP markedly affects rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In this study, we investigated possible effects of febuxostat and allopurinol on rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In a randomized crossover study with 3 phases, 10 healthy volunteers ingested once daily placebo for 7 days, 300 mg allopurinol for 7 days, or placebo for 3 days, followed by 120 mg febuxostat for 4 days, and a single 10 mg dose of rosuvastatin on day 6. Febuxostat increased the peak plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of rosuvastatin 2.1-fold (90% confidence interval 1.8-2.6; P = 5 x 10(-5)) and 1.9-fold (1.5-2.5; P = 0.001), but had no effect on rosuvastatin half-life or renal clearance. Allopurinol, on the other hand, did not affect rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics. In vitro, febuxostat inhibited the ATP-dependent uptake of rosuvastatin into BCRP-overexpressing membrane vesicles with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 0.35 mu M, whereas allopurinol showed no inhibition with concentrations up to 200 mu M. Taken together, the results suggest that febuxostat increases rosuvastatin exposure by inhibiting its BCRP-mediated efflux in the small intestine. Febuxostat may, therefore, serve as a useful index inhibitor of BCRP in drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Moreover, concomitant use of febuxostat may increase the exposure to BCRP substrate drugs and, thus, the risk of dose-dependent adverse effects.
  • Järvinen, Erkka; Deng, Feng; Kiander, Wilma; Sinokki, Alli; Kidron, Heidi; Sjöstedt, Noora (2022)
    Glucuronidation and sulfation are the most typical phase II metabolic reactions of drugs. The resulting glucuronide and sulfate conjugates are generally considered inactive and safe. They may, however, be the most prominent drug-related material in the circulation and excreta of humans. The glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of drugs typically have limited cell membrane permeability and subsequently, their distribution and excretion from the human body requires transport proteins. Uptake transporters, such as organic anion transporters (OATs and OATPs), mediate the uptake of conjugates into the liver and kidney, while efflux transporters, such as multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), mediate expulsion of conjugates into bile, urine and the intestinal lumen. Understanding the active transport of conjugated drug metabolites is important for predicting the fate of a drug in the body and its safety and efficacy. The aim of this review is to compile the understanding of transporter-mediated disposition of phase II conjugates. We review the literature on hepatic, intestinal and renal uptake transporters participating in the transport of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of drugs, other xenobiotics and endobiotics. In addition, we provide an update on the involvement of efflux transporters in the disposition of glucuronide and sulfate metabolites. Finally, we discuss the interplay between uptake and efflux transport in the intestine, liver and kidneys as well as the role of transporters in glucuronide and sulfate conjugate toxicity, drug interactions, pharmacogenetics and species differences.