Browsing by Subject "DRY DEPOSITION"

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  • Raivonen, Maarit; Joensuu, Johanna; Keronen, Petri; Altimir, Nuria; Kolari, Pasi (2014)
  • Flechard, Chris R.; Ibrom, Andreas; Skiba, Ute M.; de Vries, Wim; van Oijen, Marcel; Cameron, David R.; Dise, Nancy B.; Korhonen, Janne F. J.; Buchmann, Nina; Legout, Arnaud; Simpson, David; Sanz, Maria J.; Aubinet, Marc; Loustau, Denis; Montagnani, Leonardo; Neirynck, Johan; Janssens, Ivan A.; Pihlatie, Mari; Kiese, Ralf; Siemens, Jan; Francez, Andre-Jean; Augustin, Juergen; Varlagin, Andrej; Olejnik, Janusz; Juszczak, Radoslaw; Aurela, Mika; Berveiller, Daniel; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Dammgen, Ulrich; Delpierre, Nicolas; Djuricic, Vesna; Drewer, Julia; Dufrene, Eric; Eugster, Werner; Fauvel, Yannick; Fowler, David; Frumau, Arnoud; Granier, Andre; Gross, Patrick; Hamon, Yannick; Helfter, Carole; Hensen, Arjan; Horvath, Laszlo; Kitzler, Barbara; Kruijt, Bart; Kutsch, Werner L.; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Lohila, Annalea; Longdoz, Bernard; Marek, Michal; Matteucci, Giorgio; Mitosinkova, Marta; Moreaux, Virginie; Neftel, Albrecht; Ourcival, Jean-Marc; Pilegaard, Kim; Pita, Gabriel; Sanz, Francisco; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Sebastia, Maria-Teresa; Tang, Y. Sim; Uggerud, Hilde; Urbaniak, Marek; van Dijk, Netty; Vesala, Timo; Vidic, Sonja; Vincke, Caroline; Weidinger, Tamas; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Butterbach-Bah, Klaus; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A. (2020)
    The impact of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N-r) deposition on carbon (C) sequestration in soils and biomass of unfertilized, natural, semi-natural and forest ecosystems has been much debated. Many previous results of this dC/dN response were based on changes in carbon stocks from periodical soil and ecosystem inventories, associated with estimates of N-r deposition obtained from large-scale chemical transport models. This study and a companion paper (Flechard et al., 2020) strive to reduce uncertainties of N effects on C sequestration by linking multi-annual gross and net ecosystem productivity estimates from 40 eddy covariance flux towers across Europe to local measurement-based estimates of dry and wet N-r deposition from a dedicated collocated monitoring network. To identify possible ecological drivers and processes affecting the interplay between C and N-r inputs and losses, these data were also combined with in situ flux measurements of NO, N2O and CH4 fluxes; soil NO3- leaching sampling; and results of soil incubation experiments for N and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, as well as surveys of available data from online databases and from the literature, together with forest ecosystem (BAS-FOR) modelling. Multi-year averages of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) in forests ranged from -70 to 826 gCm(-2) yr(-1) at total wet + dry inorganic N-r deposition rates (N-dep) of 0.3 to 4.3 gNm(-2) yr(-1) and from -4 to 361 g Cm-2 yr(-1) at N-dep rates of 0.1 to 3.1 gNm(-2) yr(-1) in short semi-natural vegetation (moorlands, wetlands and unfertilized extensively managed grasslands). The GHG budgets of the forests were strongly dominated by CO2 exchange, while CH4 and N2O exchange comprised a larger proportion of the GHG balance in short semi-natural vegetation. Uncertainties in elemental budgets were much larger for nitrogen than carbon, especially at sites with elevated N-dep where N-r leaching losses were also very large, and compounded by the lack of reliable data on organic nitrogen and N-2 losses by denitrification. Nitrogen losses in the form of NO, N2O and especially NO3- were on average 27%(range 6 %-54 %) of N-dep at sites with N-dep <1 gNm(-2) yr(-1) versus 65% (range 35 %-85 %) for N-dep > 3 gNm(-2) yr(-1). Such large levels of N-r loss likely indicate that different stages of N saturation occurred at a number of sites. The joint analysis of the C and N budgets provided further hints that N saturation could be detected in altered patterns of forest growth. Net ecosystem productivity increased with N-r deposition up to 2-2.5 gNm(-2) yr(-1), with large scatter associated with a wide range in carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE, defined as the NEP/GPP ratio). At elevated N-dep levels (> 2.5 gNm(-2) yr(-1)), where inorganic N-r losses were also increasingly large, NEP levelled off and then decreased. The apparent increase in NEP at low to intermediate N-dep levels was partly the result of geographical cross-correlations between N-dep and climate, indicating that the actual mean dC/dN response at individual sites was significantly lower than would be suggested by a simple, straightforward regression of NEP vs. N-dep.
  • Flechard, Chris R.; van Oijen, Marcel; Cameron, David R.; de Vries, Wim; Ibrom, Andreas; Buchmann, Nina; Dise, Nancy B.; Janssens, Ivan A.; Neirynck, Johan; Montagnani, Leonardo; Varlagin, Andrej; Loustau, Denis; Legout, Arnaud; Ziemblinska, Klaudia; Aubinet, Marc; Aurela, Mika; Chojnicki, Bogdan H.; Drewer, Julia; Eugster, Werner; Francez, Andre-Jean; Juszczak, Radoslaw; Kitzler, Barbara; Kutsch, Werner L.; Lohila, Annalea; Longdoz, Bernard; Matteucci, Giorgio; Moreaux, Virginie; Nefte, Albrecht; Olejnik, Janusz; Sanz, Maria J.; Siemens, Jan; Vesala, Timo; Vincke, Caroline; Nemitz, Eiko; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Skiba, Ute M.; Sutton, Mark A. (2020)
    The effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition (N-dep) on carbon (C) sequestration in forests have often been assessed by relating differences in productivity to spatial variations of N-dep across a large geographic domain. These correlations generally suffer from covariation of other confounding variables related to climate and other growth-limiting factors, as well as large uncertainties in total (dry + wet) reactive nitrogen (N-r) deposition. We propose a methodology for untangling the effects of N-dep from those of meteorological variables, soil water retention capacity and stand age, using a mechanistic forest growth model in combination with eddy covariance CO2 exchange fluxes from a Europe-wide network of 22 forest flux towers. Total N-r deposition rates were estimated from local measurements as far as possible. The forest data were compared with data from natural or semi-natural, non-woody vegetation sites. The response of forest net ecosystem productivity to nitrogen deposition (dNEP/dN(dep)) was estimated after accounting for the effects on gross primary productivity (GPP) of the co-correlates by means of a meta-modelling standardization procedure, which resulted in a reduction by a factor of about 2 of the uncorrected, apparent dGPP/dN(dep) value. This model-enhanced analysis of the C and N-dep flux observations at the scale of the European network suggests a mean overall dNEP/dN(dep) response of forest lifetime C sequestration to N-dep of the order of 40-50 g C per g N, which is slightly larger but not significantly different from the range of estimates published in the most recent reviews. Importantly, patterns of gross primary and net ecosystem productivity versus N-dep were non-linear, with no further growth responses at high N-dep levels (N-dep > 2.5-3 gNm(-2) yr(-1)) but accompanied by increasingly large ecosystem N losses by leaching and gaseous emissions. The reduced increase in productivity per unit N deposited at high N-dep levels implies that the forecast increased N-r emissions and increased N-dep levels in large areas of Asia may not positively impact the continent's forest CO2 sink. The large level of unexplained variability in observed carbon sequestration efficiency (CSE) across sites further adds to the uncertainty in the dC/dN response.
  • Al Bawab, Abeer; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Abu Mallouh, Saida; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Zurayk, Rund; Hussein, Tareq (2020)
    Some cultural heritage sites in Jordan are in urban areas being exposed to anthropogenic pollution. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the contamination at these sites to protect them. Here, we considered a Roman archeological site (Nymphaeum) situated in Amman. The contamination in soil, plants, and building stones did not show spatial distribution within the site. The contamination was the highest in soil (heavy metals 10(4) -10(7) ppb and sulfur similar to 3.5x10(6) ppb) whereas in plants was the least for Cr (similar to 400 ppb) and in building stones it was the least for Cu (similar to 860 ppb). The highest contamination in plants and building stones was found for Al (similar to 5x10(4) and similar to 6.2x10(5) ppb respectively). The sulfur content in plants (similar to 7.6x10(5) ppb) was higher than that in the building stones (similar to 2.3x10(5) ppb). The heavy metals and sulfur contamination in the building stones were lower than what was reported elsewhere outside Jordan.
  • Manninen, Sirkku (2018)
    The deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) compounds currently predominates over sulphur (S) deposition in most of the cities in Europe and North America. Acidophytic lichens growing on tree trunks are known to be sensitive to both N and S deposition. Given that tree species and climatic factors affect the composition of epiphytic lichen communities and modify lichen responses to air pollution, this study focused on the impact of urban air pollution on acidophytes growing on boreal conifer trunks. The study was performed in the Helsinki metropolitan area, southern Finland, where annual mean nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations range from 4-5 mu g m(-3) to > 50 mu g m(-3). In addition, background forest sites in southern and northern Finland were included. The results demonstrated elevated N contents (>= 0.7%) in Hypogymnia physodes and Platismatia glauca at all the sites where the species occurred. In the Helsinki metropolitan area, a higher frequency of green algae + Scoliociosporum chlorococcum and reduced numerical frequencies of other indicator lichen species (e.g. Pseudevernia furfuracea, Bryoria spp., Usnea spp.) were associated with elevated atmospheric concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter containing N, as well as elevated concentrations of inorganic N in bark. The N isotope values (delta N-15) of lichens supported the uptake of oxidized N mainly originating from road traffic. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) also negatively affected the most sensitive species, despite the current low levels (1-4 mu g m(-3) yr(-1)). Critical levels of 5 mu g NO2 m(-3) yr(-1) and 0.5 mu g NH3 m(-3) yr(-1), and a critical load of 2-3 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) are proposed for protecting the diversity of boreal acidophytes. This study calls for measurements of the throughfall of various N fractions in urban forest ecosystems along precipitation and temperature gradients to verify the proposed critical levels and loads. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Joensuu, Johanna; Raivonen, M.; Kieloaho, A. -J.; Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Sarjala, T.; Back, J. (2015)
  • Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Tuovinen, J. -P.; Vesala, T.; Bäck, Jaana; Suni, T.; Kulmala, M.; Hari, P. (2006)
  • Crowley, John N.; Pouvesle, Nicolas; Phillips, Gavin J.; Axinte, Raoul; Fischer, Horst; Petäjä, Tuukka; Noelscher, Anke; Williams, Jonathan; Hens, Korbinian; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez-Harder, Monica; Novelli, Anna; Kubistin, Dagmar; Bohn, Birger; Lelieveld, Jos (2018)
    Unlike many oxidised atmospheric trace gases, which have numerous production pathways, peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and PAN are formed almost exclusively in gasphase reactions involving the hydroperoxy radical (HO2), the acetyl peroxy radical (CH3C(O)O-2) and NO2 and are not believed to be directly emitted in significant amounts by vegetation. As the self-reaction of HO2 is the main photochemical route to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), simultaneous observation of PAA, PAN and H2O2 can provide insight into the HO2 budget. We present an analysis of observations taken during a summertime campaign in a boreal forest that, in addition to natural conditions, was temporarily impacted by two biomass-burning plumes. The observations were analysed using an expression based on a steady-state assumption using relative PAA-to-PAN mixing ratios to derive HO2 concentrations. The steady-state approach generated HO2 concentrations that were generally in reasonable agreement with measurements but sometimes overestimated those observed by factors of 2 or more. We also used a chemically simple, constrained box model to analyse the formation and reaction of radicals that define the observed mixing ratios of PAA and H2O2. After nudging the simulation towards observations by adding extra, photochemical sources of HO2 and CH3C(O)O-2, the box model replicated the observations of PAA, H2O2, ROOH and OH throughout the campaign, including the biomass-burning-influenced episodes during which significantly higher levels of many oxidized trace gases were observed. A dominant fraction of CH3O2 radical generation was found to arise via reactions of the CH3C(O)O-2 radical. The model indicates that organic peroxy radicals were present at night in high concentrations that sometimes exceeded those predicted for daytime, and initially divergent measured and modelled HO2 concentrations and daily concentration profiles are reconciled when organic peroxy radicals are detected (as HO2) at an efficiency of 35 %. Organic peroxy radicals are found to play an important role in the recycling of OH radicals subsequent to their loss via reactions with volatile organic compounds.
  • Zieger, P.; Aalto, P. P.; Aaltonen, V.; Aijala, M.; Backman, John; Hong, J.; Komppula, M.; Krejci, R.; Laborde, M.; Lampilahti, J.; de Leeuw, G.; Pfuller, A.; Rosati, B.; Tesche, M.; Tunved, P.; Väänänen, R.; Petaja, T. (2015)
    Ambient aerosol particles can take up water and thus change their optical properties depending on the hygroscopicity and the relative humidity (RH) of the surrounding air. Knowledge of the hygroscopicity effect is of crucial importance for radiative forcing calculations and is also needed for the comparison or validation of remote sensing or model results with in situ measurements. Specifically, particle light scattering depends on RH and can be described by the scattering enhancement factor f(RH), which is defined as the particle light scattering coefficient at defined RH divided by its dry value (RH <30-40 %). Here, we present results of an intensive field campaign carried out in summer 2013 at the SMEAR II station at Hyytiala, Finland. Ground-based and airborne measurements of aerosol optical, chemical and microphysical properties were conducted. The f(RH) measured at ground level by a humidified nephelometer is found to be generally lower (e.g. 1.63 +/- 0.22 at RH = 85% and lambda = 525 nm) than observed at other European sites. One reason is the high organic mass fraction of the aerosol encountered at Hyytiala to which f(RH) is clearly anti-correlated (R-2 approximate to 0.8). A simplified parametrization of f(RH) based on the measured chemical mass fraction can therefore be derived for this aerosol type. A trajectory analysis revealed that elevated values of f(RH) and the corresponding elevated inorganic mass fraction are partially caused by transported hygroscopic sea spray particles. An optical closure study shows the consistency of the ground-based in situ measurements. Our measurements allow to determine the ambient particle light extinction coefficient using the measured f(RH). By combining the ground-based measurements with intensive aircraft measurements of the particle number size distribution and ambient RH, columnar values of the particle extinction coefficient are determined and compared to columnar measurements of a co-located AERONET sun photometer. The water uptake is found to be of minor importance for the column-averaged properties due to the low particle hygroscopicity and the low RH during the daytime of the summer months. The in situ derived aerosol optical depths (AOD) clearly correlate with directly measured values of the sun photometer but are substantially lower compared to the directly measured values (factor of similar to 2-3). The comparison degrades for longer wavelengths. The disagreement between in situ derived and directly measured AOD is hypothesized to originate from losses of coarse and fine mode particles through dry deposition within the canopy and losses in the in situ sampling lines. In addition, elevated aerosol layers (above 3 km) from long-range transport were observed using an aerosol lidar at Kuopio, Finland, about 200 km east-northeast of Hyytiala. These elevated layers further explain parts of the disagreement.
  • Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Keuken, Menno P.; Lutzenkirchen, Susanne; Pirjola, Liisa; Hussein, Tareq (2016)
    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1aEuro-h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from -76 to +64aEuro-%. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of condensation and evaporation of organic vapors emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. Under inefficient dispersion conditions, the model predicts that condensational growth contributes to the evolution of PN from roadside to the neighborhood scale. The simplified parameterization of aerosol processes predicts the change in particle number concentrations between roadside and urban background within 10aEuro-% of that predicted by the fully size-resolved MAFOR model.
  • Zoell, Undine; Bruemmer, Christian; Schrader, Frederik; Ammann, Christof; Ibrom, Andreas; Flechard, Christophe R.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark; Kutsch, Werner L. (2016)
    Recent advances in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure ammonia concentrations at high time resolution and thus to quantify the net exchange between a seminatural peatland ecosystem and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. Changing diurnal patterns of both ammonia concentration and fluxes were found during different periods of the campaign. We observed a clear tipping point in early spring with decreasing ammonia deposition velocities and increasingly bidirectional fluxes that occurred after the switch from dormant vegetation to CO2 uptake but was triggered by a significant weather change. While several biophysical parameters such as temperature, radiation, and surface wetness were identified to partially regulate ammonia exchange at the site, the seasonal concentration pattern was clearly dominated by agricultural practices in the surrounding area. Comparing the results of a compensation point model with our measurement-based flux estimates showed considerable differences in some periods of the campaign due to overestimation of non-stomatal resistances caused by low acid ratios. The total cumulative campaign exchange of ammonia after 9 weeks, however, differed only in a 6% deviation with 911 and 857 gNH(3)-N ha(-1) deposition being found by measurements and modeling, respectively. Extrapolating our findings to an entire year, ammonia deposition was lower than reported by Hurkuck et al. (2014) for the same site in previous years using denuder systems. This was likely due to a better representation of the emission component in the net signal of eddy-covariance fluxes as well as better adapted site-specific parameters in the model. Our study not only stresses the importance of high-quality measurements for studying and assessing land surface-atmosphere interactions but also demonstrates the potential of QCL spectrometers for continuous observation of reactive nitrogen species as important additional instruments within long-term monitoring research infrastructures such as ICOS or NEON at sites with strong nearby ammonia sources leading to relatively high mean background concentrations and fluxes.
  • Viippola, Juho Viljami; Whitlow, Thomas; Zhao, Wenlin; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Mikola, Juha Tapio; Pouyat, Richard; Setälä, Heikki Martti (2018)
    It is often stated that plants remove air pollutants from the urban atmosphere with their large leaf area, thus providing benefits − i.e. ecosystem services − for citizens. However, empirical evidence showing that local-scale air quality is uniformly improved by urban forests is scarce. We studied the influence of conifer-dominated peri-urban forests on the springtime levels of NO2 and particle pollution at different distances from roads, using passive samplers and high time resolution particle counters in a northern climate in Finland. Passive samplers provided average values over a one month period, while active particle counters provided real time measurements of air pollution to mimic human inhalation frequency. NO2 concentrations were slightly higher in forests than in adjacent open areas, while passive particle measurements showed the opposite trend. Active particle monitoring campaigns showed no systematic forest effect for PM2.5, but larger particles were reduced in the forest, corroborating the passive sampling result. Attenuation rates of the mean values of the studied pollutants did not differ between the forest and open habitats. However, high time resolution particle data revealed a distance effect that was apparent only in the forest transect: peak events at the forest edge were higher, while peaks furthest from the road were lower compared to the open transect. Furthermore, the magnitude of PM2.5 peak events was distinctly higher at forest edge than equivalent distance in the open area. Vegetation characteristics, such as canopy cover and tree density, did not explain differences in pollutant levels in majority of cases. Our results imply that evergreen-dominated forests near roads can slightly worsen local air quality regarding NO2 and PM2.5 in northern climates, but that coarser particle pollution can be reduced by such forest vegetation. It seems that the potential of roadside vegetation to mitigate air pollution is largely determined by the vegetation effects on airflow.