Browsing by Subject "Dachshund"

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  • Boström, Anna; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna; Chang, Yu-Mei; Weller, Renate; Davies, Emma (2014)
  • Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Mäki, Katariina; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2015)
    Background: Intervertebral disc disease (IDD) is a hereditary condition particularly common in Dachshunds. The breed is predisposed to early intervertebral disc degeneration and intervertebral disc calcification (IDC). When calcified, these severely degenerated discs are visible in spinal radiographs. Since the number of calcified discs (NCD) is associated with IDD, spinal radiography can be utilized in screening programmes in attempts to diminish the incidence of IDD in Dachshunds. Our aims were to estimate the heritability and genetic trend of NCD in Dachshunds in Finland and to explore the effect of age at the time of radiographic screening. Since the NCD has a highly skewed distribution, a log-transformed NCD (lnNCD) was also used as an analysed trait. The variance components for both traits were estimated, using the restricted maximum likelihood method. The fixed effects of breed variant, sex, as well as year of screening and the random effects of litter and animal were included in the model. The genetic trends in the NCD and lnNCD were assessed from the estimated breeding values (EBVs) of individual dogs by comparing the mean EBV of dogs born in different years. The breeding values were estimated, using the best linear unbiased prediction animal model. The pedigree in the genetic analyses included a total of 9027 dogs, of which 1567 showed results for NCDs. Results: The heritability estimates of the NCD and lnNCD in Dachshunds were high (0.53 and 0.45, respectively). Small genetic improvements were seen as the mean EBVs increased from 100 to 104 and 105 over a 15-year period. The gain in the entire Dachshund population in Finland may differ from that observed, since less than 10 % of the Dachshunds registered have a screening result for NCD. Age at the time of the screening did not significantly affect the NCD or lnNCD. Conclusions: We recommend systematic radiographic screening for IDC in Dachshunds and adopting EBVs as a tool for selecting breeding dogs. Age at the time of the radiographic screening may not be as important as previously suggested.
  • Rosenblatt, Alana Jayne; Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; James, Nina Alice; Webster, Natalie Siu Ling; Caraguel, Charles Gregoire Benedict (2018)
    BackgroundThe Dachshund is a chondrodystrophic breed of dog predisposed to premature degeneration and calcification, and subsequent herniation, of intervertebral discs (IVDs). This condition is heritable in Dachshunds and breeding candidates are screened for radiographically detectable intervertebral disc calcification (RDIDC), a feature of advanced disc degeneration and a prognostic factor for clinical disease. RDIDC scoring has been previously shown to be consistent within scorers; however, strong scorer effect (subjectivity) was also reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the within- and between-scorer agreement (repeatability and reproducibility, respectively) of computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoring IVD calcification, and to compare these modalities with radiographic scoring.ResultsTwenty-one Dachshund dogs were screened for IVD calcification using the three imaging modalities. Three scorers scored each case twice, independently. Repeatability was highest for radiography (95.4%), and significantly higher than for CT (90.4%) but not MRI (93.8%). Reproducibility was also highest for radiography (92.9%), but not significantly higher than for CT or MRI (89.4% and 86.4%, respectively). Overall, CT scored IVDs differently than radiography and MRI (64.8% and 62.7% agreement, respectively), while radiography and MRI scored more similarly (85.7% agreement).ConclusionsDespite high precision for radiography, previous evidence of scorer subjectivity was confirmed, which was not generally observed with CT and MRI. The increased consistency of radiography may be related to prior scorer experience with the modality and RDIDC scoring. This study does not support replacing radiography with CT or MRI to screen for heritable IVD calcification in breeding Dachshunds; however, evaluation of dog-level precision and the accuracy of each modality is recommended.
  • Rosenblatt, Alana J; Lappalainen, Anu K; James, Nina A; Webster, Natalie S L; Caraguel, Charles G B (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background The Dachshund is a chondrodystrophic breed of dog predisposed to premature degeneration and calcification, and subsequent herniation, of intervertebral discs (IVDs). This condition is heritable in Dachshunds and breeding candidates are screened for radiographically detectable intervertebral disc calcification (RDIDC), a feature of advanced disc degeneration and a prognostic factor for clinical disease. RDIDC scoring has been previously shown to be consistent within scorers; however, strong scorer effect (subjectivity) was also reported. The aim of this study was to estimate the within- and between-scorer agreement (repeatability and reproducibility, respectively) of computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for scoring IVD calcification, and to compare these modalities with radiographic scoring. Results Twenty-one Dachshund dogs were screened for IVD calcification using the three imaging modalities. Three scorers scored each case twice, independently. Repeatability was highest for radiography (95.4%), and significantly higher than for CT (90.4%) but not MRI (93.8%). Reproducibility was also highest for radiography (92.9%), but not significantly higher than for CT or MRI (89.4% and 86.4%, respectively). Overall, CT scored IVDs differently than radiography and MRI (64.8% and 62.7% agreement, respectively), while radiography and MRI scored more similarly (85.7% agreement). Conclusions Despite high precision for radiography, previous evidence of scorer subjectivity was confirmed, which was not generally observed with CT and MRI. The increased consistency of radiography may be related to prior scorer experience with the modality and RDIDC scoring. This study does not support replacing radiography with CT or MRI to screen for heritable IVD calcification in breeding Dachshunds; however, evaluation of dog-level precision and the accuracy of each modality is recommended.
  • Bostrom, Anna; Channon, Sarah; Jokinen, Tarja; Junnila, Jouni; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2019)
    Epaxial muscle atrophy is related to spinal diseases in dogs. However, the influence of intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) on the functional capacity of epaxial muscles has not been investigated. We aimed to estimate force and power-generating capacity of epaxial muscles in chondrodystrophic Dachshunds and non-chondrodystrophic Border terriers bred for similar purposes. Further we aimed to compare these features in Dachshunds with and without IVDH. Cadavers of Dachshunds (n = 16) and Border terriers (n = 7) were investigated with MRI. In the absence of clinical information, MRI findings were used to categorize the Dachshunds into affected (n = 8) and non-affected (n = 8). Epaxial muscle mass, muscle belly length, fascicle length, architectural index and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) were obtained through dissections, pain and exercise history through questionnaires. Difference between groups and effect of covariates were assessed with ANCOVA models. Dachshunds had greater muscle mass in M. splenius, M. longissimus capitis and M. iliocostalis thoracis (all P