Browsing by Subject "Deep Neural Networks"

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  • Mustonen, Aleksi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Electrical impedance tomography is a differential tomography method where current is injected into a domain and its interior distribution of electrical properties are inferred from measurements of electric potential around the boundary of the domain. Within the context of this imaging method the forward problem describes a situation where we are trying to deduce voltage measurements on a boundary of a domain given the conductivity distribution of the interior and current injected into the domain through the boundary. Traditionally the problem has been solved either analytically or by using numerical methods like the finite element method. Analytical solutions have the benefit that they are efficient, but at the same time have limited practical use as solutions exist only for a small number of idealized geometries. In contrast, while numerical methods provide a way to represent arbitrary geometries, they are computationally more demanding. Many proposed applications for electrical impedance tomography rely on the method's ability to construct images quickly which in turn requires efficient reconstruction algorithms. While existing methods can achieve near real time speeds, exploring and expanding ways of solving the problem even more efficiently, possibly overcoming weaknesses of previous methods, can allow for more practical uses for the method. Graph neural networks provide a computationally efficient way of approximating partial differential equations that is accurate, mesh invariant and can be applied to arbitrary geometries. Due to these properties neural network solutions show promise as alternative methods of solving problems related to electrical impedance tomography. In this thesis we discuss the mathematical foundation of graph neural network approximations of solutions to the electrical impedance tomography forward problem and demonstrate through experiments that these networks are indeed capable of such approximations. We also highlight some beneficial properties of graph neural network solutions as our network is able to converge to an arguably general solution with only a relatively small training data set. Using only 200 samples with constant conductivity distributions, the network is able to approximate voltage distributions of meshes with spherical inclusions.
  • Hätönen, Vili (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Recently it has been shown that sparse neural networks perform better than dense networks with similar number of parameters. In addition, large overparameterized networks have been shown to contain sparse networks which, while trained in isolation, reach or exceed the performance of the large model. However, the methods to explain the success of sparse networks are still lacking. In this work I study the performance of sparse networks using network’s activation regions and patterns, concepts from the neural network expressivity literature. I define network specialization, a novel concept that considers how distinctly a feed forward neural network (FFNN) has learned to processes high level features in the data. I propose Minimal Blanket Hypervolume (MBH) algorithm to measure the specialization of a FFNN. It finds parts of the input space that the network associates with some user-defined high level feature, and compares their hypervolume to the hypervolume of the input space. My hypothesis is that sparse networks specialize more to high level features than dense networks with the same number of hidden network parameters. Network specialization and MBH also contribute to the interpretability of deep neural networks (DNNs). The capability to learn representations on several levels of abstraction is at the core of deep learning, and MBH enables numerical evaluation of how specialized a FFNN is w.r.t. any abstract concept (a high level feature) that can be embodied in an input. MBH can be applied to FFNNs in any problem domain, e.g. visual object recognition, natural language processing, or speech recognition. It also enables comparison between FFNNs with different architectures, since the metric is calculated in the common input space. I test different pruning and initialization scenarios on the MNIST Digits and Fashion datasets. I find that sparse networks approximate more complex functions, exploit redundancy in the data, and specialize to high level features better than dense, fully parameterized networks with the same number of hidden network parameters.