Browsing by Subject "Deep venous thrombosis"

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  • Qian, C.; Huhtakangas, J.; Juvela, S.; Bode, M. K.; Tatlisumak, T.; Savolainen, M.; Numminen, H.; Ollikainen, J.; Luostarinen, L.; Kupila, L.; Tetri, S. (2021)
    Backround: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) worsens patient prognosis. Administering low-molecular weight heparins (LMWH) to prevent VTE early (24 h) may increase the risk of hematoma enlargement, whereas administering late (72 h) after onset may decrease its effect on VTE prevention. The authors investigated when it is safe and effective to start LMWH in ICH patients. Methods: In the setting of double blinded, placebo controlled randomization, patients >18 years of age with paretic lower extremity, and admitted to the emergency room within 12 h of the onset of ICH, were randomized into two groups. Patients in the enoxaparin group received 20 mg twice a day 24 h (early) after the onset of ICH and in the placebo group 72 h (late) after onset respectively. Both groups immediately received intermittent pneumatic compression stockings at the ER. Patients were prospectively and routinely screened for VTE and hemorrhagic complications 1 day after entering the study and again before discharge. Results: 139 patients were included for randomization in this study. Only 3 patients developed VTE, 2 in the early enoxaparin group and one in the late enoxaparin group. No patients developed PE. Thromboembolic events (p = 0.901), risk of hematoma enlargement (p = 0.927) and overall outcome (P = 0.904) did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusion: Administering 40 mg/d LMWH for prevention of VTE to a spontaneous ICH patient is safe regardless of whether it is started 24 h (early) or 72 h (late) after the hemorrhage. Risk of hemorrhage enlargement is not associated with early LMWH treatment. Administering LMWH late did not increase VTEs.
  • Skrifvars, Markus; Bailey, Michael; Presneill, Jeffrey; French, Craig; Nichol, Alistair; Little, Lorraine; Duranteau, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Haddad, Samir; Arabi, Yaseen; McArthur, Colin; Cooper, D. James; Bellomo, Rinaldo (2017)
    To estimate the prevalence, risk factors, prophylactic treatment and impact on mortality for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) treated in the intensive care unit. A post hoc analysis of the erythropoietin in traumatic brain injury (EPO-TBI) trial that included twice-weekly lower limb ultrasound screening. Venous thrombotic events were defined as ultrasound-proven proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or clinically detected pulmonary embolism (PE). Results are reported as events, percentages or medians and interquartile range (IQR). Cox regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for time to VTE and death. Of 603 patients, 119 (19.7%) developed VTE, mostly comprising DVT (102 patients, 16.9%) with a smaller number of PE events (24 patients, 4.0%). Median time to DVT diagnosis was 6 days (IQR 2-11) and to PE diagnosis 6.5 days (IQR 2-16.5). Mechanical prophylaxis (MP) was used in 91% of patients on day 1, 97% of patients on day 3 and 98% of patients on day 7. Pharmacological prophylaxis was given in 5% of patients on day 1, 30% of patients on day 3 and 57% of patients on day 7. Factors associated with time to VTE were age (HR per year 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), patient weight (HR per kg 1.01, 95% CI 1-1.02) and TBI severity according to the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials risk of poor outcome (HR per 10% increase 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25). The development of VTE was not associated with mortality (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.51-1.65). Despite mechanical and pharmacological prophylaxis, VTE occurs in one out of every five patients with TBI treated in the ICU. Higher age, greater weight and greater severity of TBI increase the risk. The development of VTE was not associated with excess mortality.